English 103 November 7, 2012 Works Cited Bailey, William Everett. The Invisible Drug. Houston: Mosaic Publications, 1996. Print. William Bailey wrote this book on cigarettes with many views from doctors and other professional advisors to show the effects and complications from smoking cigarettes. This book had a lot of information from previous books the was further reviewed and more recent. However, because this book is from 1996 I used it for a place to start and find more information about the subject. Das , B. C. et al. Smoking And Cardiovascular Health: A Review Of The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Prevention And Control Of Tobacco. " Indian Journal Of Medical Sciences 63. 11 (2009): 520-533. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. From this journal I learned more about the direct risks from smoking cigarettes and how it increases the chances of getting some sort of cardiovascular disease. Also how smoking has been claimed to cause eleven percent of cardiovascular deaths. Haustein, K. O. Tobacco or Health? : Physiological and Social Damages Caused by Tobacco Smoking.

Berlin: Springer, 2003. Print. This book gave me a lot of information about smoking and many statistics as well. It is an older book so it was a base and gave me a lot of information to further research for the rest of the project. It told me of all the organs and systems affected by smoking cigarettes so it was a good place to start. "Heart Disease Facts. " Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 23 Mar. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. From this website I learned that nearly 20% of all deaths from heart disease in the U. S. re directly related to cigarette smoking. Coronary heart disease is the reason of death for over 616,000 people died of heart disease. I know this is a credible source because it is a government based site. Lemonick, Michael D. , Dan Cray, and Harlene Ellin. "The Other Lung Disease. " Time 163. 16 (2004): 62-63. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. This article gave a lot of information about emphysema and lung cancer both. Lung cancer is deadlier, it killed 150,000 Americans in 2000, while COPD killed 120,000, but COPD is more common in smokers and even non smokers by a long shot.

Lung cancer is the number one killer because is it so hard to detect, by the time it is detected it is often too advanced to reverse. Emphysema is not reversible. "Lung Cancer. " Pub Med Health. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 24 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. From this website I gained information on lung cancer and how cigarettes cause more than half of the diagnoses. Cigarettes contain chemicals that are known to cause cancer, including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, arsenic, and ammonia. When inhaled, instantaneously your chances of getting lung cancer become higher. "National Cancer Institute.  Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting. NCI, 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. From this website I learned that within the past year, roughly 226,160 cases of lung cancer have been diagnosed. Also in the past year lung cancer has caused 160,340 deaths. In doing the math, that’s over 50% of those who were diagnosed with lung cancer passed away. "NATIONAL EMPHYSEMA TREATMENT TRIAL. " NATIONAL EMPHYSEMA TREATMENT TRIAL. NETT, 20 May 2003. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. This website gave me most of my information on emphysema. I learned more about what it is and how smoking causes it.

Emphysema is a condition in which the small bags in the lungs become filled with too much air, causing breathing difficulties and can lead to death. I know this is a reliable source because it is a government based site. RAMZI ZEMNI, et al. "Role Of CYP1A1 (T6235C) Polymorphism And Cigarette Smoking In The Development Of Coronary Heart Disease In Tunisian Population. " Journal Of Genetics 90. 2 (2011): 303-307. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. From this academic journal I learned that while other things may cause coronary heart disease the main reason is from smoking cigarettes.

I also got to view graphs and how certain people, depending on their lifestyle and how much they smoke, develop it fast or have more severe cases. Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute, and Norbert F. Voelkel. "Molecular Pathogenesis Of Emphysema. " Journal Of Clinical Investigation 118. 2 (2008): 394-402. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. As a cigarette is inhaled the toxins in a cigarette leave behind deposits of chemicals from the tobacco. These chemicals remain in the lung cavity and start the damaging lungs almost immediately, breaking the smaller bags and creating a fewer amount of larger bags in the lungs.

While only fifteen to twenty percent of smokers develop emphysema smoking causes your chances of getting it to go up more than 85%. Tuder, Rubin M. , and Jeong H. Yun. "It Takes Two To Tango: Cigarette Smoke Partners With Viruses To Promote Emphysema. "Journal Of Clinical Investigation 118. 8 (2008): 2689-2693. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. Emphysema is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the fourth leading death in the world and still rising. Emphysema causes at least 100,000 deaths per year. "What Is Coronary Heart Disease?  NHLBI. N. p. , 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. Facts from this heart disease website show me that one in every four deaths is caused from a cardiovascular disease. Also that nearly half of cardiovascular diseases are caused by smoking cigarettes. I also read that Carbon monoxide and nicotine in the cigarettes cause the blood to clump together, making the blood more “sticky”, which makes blood more prone to clotting. The clumping platelets in your blood can block your coronary arteries that cause heart attacks, a trigger of Coronary heart disease.