Psy 110, portions chap 5, 6 & 7M. Dwyer Fall 2009/ Exam #3 Chapter 5 1. What are the four kinds of reinforcers mentioned in your book? Define them and be prepared to give an example of each. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IS INFORCE A STIMULI NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS TO REMOVE A STIMULI POSITIVE PUNISHMENT IS WHEN A TARGITED BEHAVIOUR IS REMOVED BY PRESENTING A STIMULAS shouting at the dog NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT IS WHEN TARGET BEHAVIOUR BY REMOVING A STIMULAS toy removal 2. What are the four schedules of partial reinforcement we discussed? Which produces the highest rate of responding and the most resistance to extinction and why?
FIXED INTERVAL reward every 5 mins FIXED RATIO reward every 5 responses VARIABLE INTERVAL an avg. every 3 mins and varied VARIABLE RATIO an avg. every 5 behaviours 3. What is the significance of latent learning and observational learning? How did discovery of these two important types of learning change our definition of psychology? OBERVATIONAL LEARNING learning by looking at others by observing LETENT LEARNING learning that is not directly observable 4. Define conditioned taste aversion, instinctual drift, subliminal learning, discovery learning, direct instruction, learning styles.
TASTE AVERSION it is when we recognize a taste and in the future we try to avoid it due to its effect to us INSTINCTUAL DRIFT is the tendency of an organism to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with the conditioned response SUBLIMINAL LEARNING sub means below and luminal light it is the theory that states that a person can learn even with little information which if is continuously repeated DISCOVERY LEARNING is when we learn after experiencing something for our self DIRECT INSTRUCTION learning through given instruction e. g. ectures not experiments LERNING STYLE it the type of style that best fits a individual Chapter 6 5. When we have a memory of an event it is a reconstruction of the event. Explain what that means. What information goes into our reconstructions of the past? Previous info Trace memories of the event Past experiences Context of the person asking the question 6. What are the functions, span(capacity), and duration of each of the three types of memory processes? Sensory memory Short term memory Long term memory 7. What happens in sensory store? What does it mean when we say that these processes are preattentive?
PREATTENTIVE –SO FAST WE DON’T KNOW WE ARE DOING IT IMAGE IS CREATEDLD WE SCAN IMAGE AND PICK UP INFORMATION THAT WE WANT FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS 8. The three types of processes that go on in short term memory (working memory) are.. I listed them .. beginning with the match-mismatch identification of incoming information, maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal—be able to give a number of examples of the latter… GATHER INFO REHERCE INFO REHERCE IT TILL IT IS STORED IN LONG TERM MEMORY 9. What are proactive and retroactive interference? Be able to give examples.
RETRO ACTIVE ability to recall something that you have learned in the past after lerning something new PROACTIVE ability to learn second lesson after learning the both lessons 10. Be able to name and give examples of all the different types of long term memory. SEMANTIC OUR KNOWLOGE ABOUT FACTS FO THE WORLD EPISODIC RECOLLECTION OF EVENTS OF OUR LIVES EXPLICIT MEMORIES WE RECALL INTENTIONALLY AND WHICH WE HAVE CONSTANT AWARENESS IMPLICIT MEMORIES FOR HOW WE DO THINGS PROCEDURAL ABILITY TO IDENTIFY A STIMULAS MORE EASILY OR QUICKLY AFTER WE ENCOUNTER SIMILAR STIMULI 11.
Define encoding, storage and retrieval. ENCODING IS THE PROCESS OF GETTING INFORMATION INTO OUR MEMORY BANKS STORING IS THE PROCES OF KEEPING INFORMATION IN OUR MEMORY REVIVAL IS THE REACTIVATION OR RECONSTRUCTION OF EVENTS FROM OUR MEMORY STORAGE 12. What are the different forms of retrieval? Be able to identify one of each in the items on your test.. RECALL – IF U TRULY LEARN IT RECOGNITION- MULTI CHOICE SKETCHY INDERSTANDING 13. What are the three ways in which the concept of “specificity of cues” apply to memory retrieval. RELEARN -REAQUIRING KNOWLOGE THAT WE PRVIOUSLY
LEARNED BUT FORGOTTEN OVER TIME RECALL-GENERATING PREVIOUSLY GENERATED INFORMATION RECOGNISATION- SELECTIONG INFO FROM ARRY OF INFO THAT WE HAVE PREVIOUSLY LEARNED 14. What do we mean by levels of processing? MARE DEEP REPETITION PROCESS MARE BRAIN MARE 15. What are semantic networks, lexicons, and schemas? (define them). 16. Name five study tips that would improve student test performance. 20 MIN BREAK LONG TERM NO CRAMMING SAME STATE SIT IN SAM SEAT 17. How do we distinguish between false memories or true memories? MORE REHERSAL CONSIDER THE PROBE DISTINCT BW BIAS Chapter 7: 18. What is language?
Define it and be able to discuss its basic components. PATTERN OF SIGNALS GENERATIVE AND IS COMPLECATED SYMBOLS WORDS GESTURES RULE BOUND ENCODING AND DECODING IT IS ARBITUARY 19. What are the early stages of language development? The early stages comprise of babbling in children where they utter parts of words which they cannot pronounce but as the early stages pass gradually the child starts to utter words in a more meaning full pattern and the later on in life they interpret words give them meanings this type of behavior is coved in behaviorism where learning is done by observing. 0. Define phonemes, morphemes, babbling, syntax (Of surface and prescriptive grammar, which of these two is taught to us by our elementary and high school teachers? ) Phonemes is the smallest unit of sound Morphemes are composed of phonemes and a number of them to create meaning Babbling is the experimentation of noise making by the child trying to speak making vovel sound 21. Familiarize yourself with and be able to critiques the four theories of language development covered in your book.