The nursing journal which I have selected is by Showalter Et al (2000), titled “Patients' and their spouses' needs after total joint arthroplasty: a pilot study”, from the journal Orthopedic Nursing.  The aim of the paper was to determine the experiences and the requirements of the patients and their spouses following hospitalization for two specific forms of orthopedic surgeries namely total hip and total knee arthroplasty. The study was performed on a small-scale basis and only 5 subjects (patients) and their spouses were included.  The study was performed by a personal interview that was videotaped for future research.  The design included in the study was descriptive. The study was conducted in one health center In Richmond USA. The findings revealed that the patients and their spouses required greatest help in making transitions. The patients felt the greatest distress when they were unable to get back to their activities within the stipulated period of time.  The spouses of the patient felt insecure when the patient was unable to perform the daily activities within the stipulated period of time. The transition period was marked by disturbances felt when the patient was unable to recover within the stipulated period of time as planned before the surgery.  Some of the issues that were a concern included post-operative pain, problems with rehabilitation, and application of skills at home, which are learned in the hospital. During the transition period, the spouses and the patients have to change their roles, relationships, abilities and behaviors, so that a faster recover process is enabled.  The healthcare professionals have to also ensure that the patients are educated about the various problems that can be encountered and means of solving these problems.  The patients and the spouses have to also be taught that the entire recovery process should be given realistic considerations. Further, certain groups (known as ‘focus groups’) have to be trained to ensure that the healthcare professionals are sufficiently educated about the transition changes that are needed.  However, the author has suggested for the need for further research studies when it comes to determining and fulfilling the needs of patients and their spouses following total joint replacement surgeries.  Focus groups seems to be one effective way of educating the healthcare processionals, who in turn that can meet the needs of the patients and their spouses. References: Showalter, A., Burger, S, & Salyer, J. (2000). “Patients' and their spouses' needs after total joint arthroplasty: a pilot study.” Orthop Nurs, 19(1), 62.;jsessionid=HYTTQ6SxLSksKl8cQjpvksfZ0g1SVBqTfJnZTwwKZXnmQB6QGlJX!1759956393!181195629!8091!-1!1205390899957?an=00006416-200311000-00012&id=P136&data=00006416_2000_19_49_showalter_arthroplasty_%7C00006416-200311000-00012%23xpointer(id(R15-12))%7C1160700%7C%7Covftdb%7C&lu=ovid:/bib/medline/11062624/ui Medline Link Record Unique Identifier 11062624. Authors Showalter A; Burger S; Salyer J. Authors Full Name Showalter, A; Burger, S; Salyer, J. Institution Total Joint Arthroplasty Program, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA. Title Patients' and their spouses' needs after total joint arthroplasty: a pilot study. Source Orthopaedic Nursing. 19(1):49-57, 62, 2000 Jan-Feb. Abbreviated Source Orthop Nurs. 19(1):49-57, 62, 2000 Jan-Feb. NLM Journal Name Orthopaedic nursing / National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses Publishing Model Journal available in: Print Citation processed from: Print Country of Publication UNITED STATES. MeSH Subject Headings Adaptation, Psychological Aged Aged, 80 and over *Arthroplasty, Replacement/ae [Adverse Effects] Arthroplasty, Replacement/nu [Nursing] *Arthroplasty, Replacement/px [Psychology] *Attitude to Health Focus Groups Humans Middle Aged *Needs Assessment/og [Organization & Administration] Nursing Methodology Research Orthopedic Nursing Patient Education as Topic Pilot Projects *Postoperative Care/mt [Methods] Postoperative Care/nu [Nursing] *Postoperative Care/px [Psychology] Social Support *Spouses/px [Psychology] Abstract PURPOSE: To describe the experiences and needs of patients and their spouses during hospitalization and recovery from either total hip or total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Descriptive. SAMPLE: A purposive sample of 5 patients and their spouses in one health sciences center. METHODS: Qualitative study using a videotaped focus group interview. FINDINGS: Content analysis revealed two perspectives of one theme: patients and their spouses need "help making transitions." Situational and role transitions that were problematic for patients reflected distress over not being able to resume activities they enjoyed within an expected time frame. Incongruence between expectations and reality was the source of distress. As a consequence of role reversal, spouses experienced feelings of insecurity and being overwhelmed. Health and illness transitions that patients experienced were also related to incongruence between expectations of the recovery period and the reality that recovery is a slow process. Pain experienced during post discharge recovery and rehabilitation, and problems encountered when applying information and skills learned in the hospital to the home setting were sources of concern. CONCLUSION: The needs and experiences of patients and spouses after total joint arthroplasty reflect transitional change--changes in roles, relationships, abilities, and behaviors. Health care professionals can facilitate transitions by providing education that reflects "best case-worst case scenarios" so that expectations of the recovery process are realistic. By being the link between hospital and home, health care professionals can lend support to patients as they continue the recovery process. As a program evaluation strategy, focus groups provide useful information to health care professionals who are interested in the needs and expectations of health care consumers. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING RESEARCH: Further exploration of the needs of patients and their spouses following joint replacement surgery is warranted. Use of focus group methodology might provide additional insight into the needs of this population and suggest ways in which health care professionals can modify existing programs to help these patients and their spouses make the transitions. ISSN Print 0744-6020. Publication Type Journal Article. Date of Publication 2000 Jan-Feb Year of Publication 2000 Entry Date 20001109 Revision Date 20071115 Update Date 20071203