Chapter 1

1.0 Introduction

HRM (Human resource management) is a calculated and logical approach to the organization of an organization’s mainly appreciated resources the people working in that organization who independently and cooperatively contribute to the attainment of the objectives of the company. One of the most important key for the achievement of any business is the performance that is why many organizations are concentrating to improve their employee’s performance. Davenport (1999) suggested that human capital is the currency that people bring to invest in their job it includes ability, behaviour, personal energy, and time. All the investment to improve performance can turn up as an expense as well if that investment is not evaluated time to time.

1.1 Aim of this project

The main purpose and importance of this project is to discuss some important issues related with the human resource management of Primark plc UK and to give best possible solutions for it. The main topic area covers the general human resource management of the Primark management.

1.2 Rationale of the project

In this project I’m going to research the human resource audit of the Primark stores ltd. So the general HRM practices and the each and every individual company’s principles will differ and hence it may rise to some issues with their own performance. Employee’s performance will be determined by the two ways first is the companies principles and practices then the next one is the self (employees) motivation on whatever work they do. Primark stores is one of the successful organization in UK even in rescission a widespread decline in the GDP and employment in UK goes down but still Primark is the one of the noticeable organization in UK opening new stores and making better profitable business. But still even in this time period then can perform well develop and adopt the new human resource practices which would be suitable for their company. And hence in this project I’m going to take interviews and surveys from Primark employees and to identify the problem they are facing in their day to day work. And hence after realizing the problem and issues faced by the Primark employee then I can suggest best possible solution for the companies HR management so that the company can expect an error free work from their employees.

Chapter 2 2.0 Back ground study of human resource management

2.1 emergence of human resource management

The olden times of HRM is believed to have started in England in the early 1800s for the period of the craftsmen and apprenticeship period and additionally developed with the influx of the industrial revolution in the late 1800s. In the 19th century, Frederick W. Taylor recommended that a mixture of scientific management and industrial psychology of employees should be introduced. In this case, it was planned that employees should be managed not only from the work and its efficiencies but the psychology and maximum comfort of the employees. Furthermore with the radical changes in technology the expansion of organizations the increase of unions and government concern and intervention resulted in the improvement of personnel departments in the 1920s. At this point, personnel administrators were called ‘welfare secretaries’ (Ivancevich, 2007). And later the HRM is become an important department in all the organizations. And hence the HRM become the back bone of the all organizations in the world “HRM is a key principle the intentions of the corporation both explicit and covert, toward the management of its employees, expressed through philosophies, policies and practices “(Tyson 1995). Then later the organizations have followed some important objectives like staffing, performance, change management, administration objectives. There is long term discussion going on through scholars about the personal management and the human resource management. David guest (1987) emphasises the two differences approaches in his model illustrating ‘stereotypes of personnel management and human resource management.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANANGEMENTPERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Time and planning perspectiveLong term, proactive, strategic, integrated.Short term, reactive. marginal RolesHighly integrated into line managementProfessionals and experts and specialists Employee relation perspectiveUnitarist, individual, high in trustPluralist, collective, low trust Control systemSelf control systemExternal system Psychological contractcommitmentCompliance Preferred structures/systemsOrganic, devolved, flexible roles.Bureaucratic / mechanistic, centralised, formal defined roles. Evaluation criteriaMaximum utilization.Cost minimization

Source: david guest (1987).

2.2 General HRM and Primark’s HRM practices

The HR management functions of Primark is pretty much common with the general HRM practices like following the generic terms as follows, Strategic aspects of the organization like planning (jobs and people), organizational design, communication and information, interactive skills. Resourcing like identifying the employees analysing the employees needs and trends, contracts for employment, determining the vacancy and the method of recruiting and further selection methods. Staffs retention: Payment for employees, managing expectation, induction for new staffs, training and development process, ending the contract. All the above said procedures were performed in Primark’s management in their own style so in this project we are going to see the problems occurred during processing these function. We are going to discuss these above said key HR principles in literature review and later in the research findings we are going to see the problems faced by the Primark employees in their day to day work environment. And finally I’m going to give conclusion for the issues. Further suggestions and the practices will be help full for the company to become more profitable than the usual result.

Chapter 3

In this chapter I’m going to present some of the literature findings and saying on the Human Resource Management, the overall project main criteria is to Identifying and understanding that how human resource management plays an important role in Primark plc employee excellence and finally I’m going to explain the conclusion.

3.0 Literature review

3.1 Introduction

Studies demonstrate that Human Resource Management acts as a significant role in formulating and implementing organisational approach. – Myloni et al. (2004) found that also HRM can be seen as part of the overall strategy of the firm. Most research suggests that HRM is very important in direct for an organisation to attain organisational achievement – Barney, (1991), Jackson & Schuler, (2000), Pfeffer, (1994). Characteristically, HRM is considered to be fundamental in command for an administration to attain its achievement by enabling the administration to maintain reasonable improvement. Literatures on strategic HRM even point out that HRM practices and systems contribute to the making of a continuous competitive benefit for the company (Arthur, 1994; Gerhart & Milkovich, 1992; Huselid, 1995; Macduffie, 1995; Terpstra & Rozall, 1993).

As a result, it is significant that a company implement HRM practices that make use of their employees. Many researchers have established an optimistic impact of HRM on organisational performance. For example, Becker and Gerhart (1996), Becker and Huselid (1998), and Dyer & Reeves (1995) observed study establish that companies which make straight their HRM practices with their business strategy will attain better outcome. MacDuffie (1995) study worldwide auto get-together plants found that some HRM practices are related to effectively and quality of the organization. Aswathappa (2005) explains that the human resource management is a useful thing which is useful for the managers in selection of staffs, staffs recruitment, training and development, etc.., to their employees in their organization. Despite even that the human resource management is a very popular term; there is still no fixed definition about its concept. Human resource management is a kind of relationship in between the employees in the company – Boxall et al (2003).

3.2 Organization

Alfred chandler (1962) stated an idea called ‘structure follow strategy’, in that he explained that the strategy for success the company pursued, the structure of the business followed and reflected the demands of the strategy. Mission statement is the always in the top spot, a broad goal based on the organizations planning premises, basic assumption about the organization’s purpose, its values, its distinctive competency, and its place in the world. A mission statement is a relatively permanent part so an organization’s identity and can do much to unify and motivate its members – (stoner and freeman 1992, page number- 188) paradbles. ed schein (1985, page no. 239) stated that ‘ stories and legends as one of the key mechanism for articulating and reinforcing the organization’s culture.

3.2.1 Planning

An article in the Hayward business review by Henry mintzberg (February 1994, page no. 108) distinguishes between the strategic thinking, which is about involving synthesis, intuitions, creativity to produce a not-too-precisely articulated vision of direction and strategic planning, which is about collecting the related data to stimulate the visioning process and also programming the vision into what needs to be done to get there. It is helpful to look at human resource planning in the same way, which is demonstrated in the below shown in tabulation.

Strategic planningStrategic visioningStrategic planning Providing HR data, ideas asking difficult questionsDefining a vision of the future(organizational and HR)Programme the vision – HR objectives targets action plans

Source: mintzberg (1994)

Lam and schaubroeck (1998) finds three specific ways in which human resource planning is critical to strategy, as it can be used to identify as the gaps in capabilities which would prevent the strategy being implemented successfully, in other words lack of sufficient skills, people, and knowledge and so on in the organization.

Surpluses in capabilities that may provide opportunities for the efficiencies and responsiveness, in other words the organization could consider new opportunities and ventures that would capitalise on these human resources.

Poor utilization of the people in the organization that is suggesting inappropriate human resource practices which could be reviewed and altered.

Hussy (1982, 1999) stated that the planning for a human resource is more complicated than the financial planning. And he also stated the problems of moving the people around the organization and the cost of overstaffing and the importance of treating the people as a people and not as an inanimate resource.

Walker (1992b) stated that the human resource plans becoming more flexible and shorter terms, which has a clear focus on the human resource issues, similar data analysis and emphasis on action planning and implementation. The human resource planning needs to be user friendly and it should be owned by the line managers rather than the personnel ones (Greer et al. 1989). Ulrich (1989) points to the need of human resource plans to be seen as the means to an end on achieving the vision, rather than an end in them.

There are particular important difference in terms of process and purpose. In the human resource planning managers are considered in motivating the people – a process in which cost, numbers, controls and systems interact to play a part. In manpower planning the manager is considered with numerical elements of forecasting, supply demand matching and control, in which people are a part. Therefore important areas of overlap and interconnection but there is a fundamental difference in underlining approach – (bramham 1989).

HR planning activities are all independent, methods range from sophisticated statistical technique to simple diagnostic tools to analyse the judgemental data. It generally deals with people; planners need to plan for what is acceptable as well as what is feasible. It is a continues process rather than a one-off activity. Importantly covers the people planning, communication, training and development, appraisal, and pay. – (Derek Torrington 2008)

3.2.2 Organizational design:

It is a useful thing for an organization to begin their entire organization from initial starting point and still most of the companies consider it as a modifying tool. The determining the task and obtaining the job structure are its fundamentals. The organizational design is a substitute for the entrepreneurial, bureaucratic, matrix and independence – Torrington Derek (2008)

The world is of different countries, people, and culture. So the organization in each end every country are different from each other with different people with particular believes and values and different cultures. And the cultures are affected by the technology of the type of work and also the organizations aim and the people working with them. – (Handy 1983, page no.180)

The modern organizational designs are listed out by reduced head count, growth by diversification, mergers, takeovers and alliances. The employees spiritual believes are called as the culture of the organization. Organization does not have single unified culture. A person who follows in the interest of the organization objectives is all from the corporate culture. – . – Lauren hall (2008).

3.2.3 Communication and information:

The main importance of the communication in the organization is to help the managers to understand the employee’s potential and to problems, and it is helpful for the manager to keep in touch with them. Employees can contribute and participate within the organization and it is an important part of employee motivation. – Cully at al. (2000).

The communication is a vital thing to be obtained in every organization to achieve and improve the organizations, managements, and employee’s performance. And it is also used to develop greater trust and increase the job satisfaction among the employees.

– ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service) (2000).

The organizational communication is used to communicate the public people or customers, and also the employee. For example a social web site company needs to inform their employees and also to publish news to the viewers or customers. – Lauren hall (2008)

Modern technology has provided many useful things to run an organization for example in information handling as well as communication. – kossek et al. 1994)

Information which are used for operational and strategic purpose by Human resource management are of three types they are individual employee information, aggregate employee’s information, HR systems and information. – kossek et al. (1994).

3.3 Resourcing

The important work in the Human resource management is to identify and bring the people into their organization the people who will key for their success. Not only the people who work for their organization but also some special people like business consultants, contractors, project developers, project management experts etc.., and these people may be appointed for a permanent or fixed term or temporary contracts. –Torrington Derek (1931)

Resourcing in an organization is depends upon the changes taking place in the government and the labour market. – culley et al. (1999)

In UK there is a lack of people in highly qualified people for example there is a lack of highly qualified IT, science, and engineers and many people have lack of numeracy skills and literacy skills. The British government estimates that seven billion adults in UK are innumerate and behind the basic levels (office of national statistics 1997)

Every organization has a different choice of recruiting external and internal people in their organization which may vary to labour market. – cann, T. (1993).

3.3.1 Contracts

Every organization set a contract for their staff’s employment, the below shown points clearly explains the checklist for preparing a contract for an employee.

1)Name of the employee.

2)Work or employment starting date.

3)Job title and description.

4)Rate of pay.

5)Working contracts and related information’s like breaks.

6)Holiday pay time period of holiday

7)Employee sickness

8)Employee’s pension.

9)Disciplinary rules and procedures.

10) Arrangement for handling employee grievances

11) Maternity pay and holiday period

12) Paternity pay and holiday period

– Source: (Torrington, Derek/Taylor, Stephen/Hall, Laura, 2008)

The work patters changes considerably. There are new work shifts arrives and the breaks the traditional weekdays Monday to Friday 9 am to 5 pm into weekends contracts and work from home options. The latest technologies and innovation allow people to work from home and it benefits both company and people in many ways this results in new challenge to the human resource management – (D.P and MacKay, 1986).

3.3.2 Recruitment

The recruiting is a process of short listing the people required for the role set by the organization and interviewing them for finding their quantitative level and finally the offer is maid and accepted. – Barder (1998).

Pros and cons of different methods of recruitment,

AdvantagesDisadvantages Job centres.The applicant can be selected through the wide range of available computer data base throughout the country. It is a secure process. Applicants can be quickly appearing to the interviews. Free service of employers.This process is mainly on the unemployed people rather than the qualified people for that desired roles. Employment agencies and employment consultancies.It is a well know process of filling the particular vacancies.Easy process for the job seekers and needy people.Cost effective for the people looking for the labour jobs.Widely distrusted by the employers’. Management recruiting consultants.It will be a great offer for the expert applicants anonymously.Mainly for the employers who is seeking for a change.The employers inside the organization won’t get these offers.Cost more for certain employers. Executive search consultantsWell known people will be recruited easily.It is very convenient for the employers who don’t have any previous experience in that field.The applicants will stay on their data base and can be called again for different offers.Cost constraints.Some potential applicants outside the list won’t be considered. Recruiting graduates from universities/ campus interviews.Fresh graduates will good required skills will be shortlisted and recruited.It is the most common thing among the students.Cost more for the companies to travel to many universities for the process of selection.And give them training and development is again a cost more for the organization. School leavers.More beneficial for the organization. For example the rate of pay is very less for the teen agers the minimum wage in UK for below eighteen year old person is ?4.53.Potential applicants are limited only.

Source: Torrington Derek (2008), Lauren hall & Stephan Taylor (2000) and knolls (1983).

On recruitment advertising (Plumbley 1985, page no.55) say that the company needs to send their requirement in the text format no matters how many publications going to use it. Then the publisher will allocate a space to paste the companies’ layout. The company going to verify the displayed advert and a payment to the publishing agency’s bank account.

Advertising agencies and news publishers will always tends to publish a wealth of information’s in it to make it sure that their company attains the maximum and regular readers. – Barder (1983).

Some advertisements are making the applicants to ask a question during their interview ‘how much I will get paid’ .The most important and most resent famous process is the e – recruitment. This provides great advantage for the employee’s to search for a job but not so effective in the present. – Barder (1983).

The various methods of job advertising adopted by the companies and their pros and cons are listed below in the tabular column as follows,

AdvantagesDisadvantages Advertising for job vacancies within the company.The news will reach all the employees within the organization. The process of recruitment will be doing among the employees.There will be a great offer for the seniors and the talents people within the organization to look for a promotion over their current position.HR work will be reduced because no need to give induction for the appointed applicants.

Time and cost will be reduced for the organization.Limit to the number of applicants.The company might get better talents from outside. Advertising for job vacancies outside the company.Cost less for the company for advertising. For example if the premises is in the popular high street.Displayed vacancies can’t be viewed by all the people.The full job details and description won’t be displayed. Advertising for job vacancies in the national press and media.The job advertisement reaches more number of people throughout the nation.Many people will be regular readers of the national news papers and publishers.This process of advertising cost more.Company will receive inappropriate CV. Advertising for job vacancies in the local press and media.It will reach only the people in the local area.It will reach only few people and the company will receive only few applicants.The highly skilled people and professionals wont prefer local news papers. Advertising for job vacancies in the technical press.The specific people will get it and the company won’t have to much cost.Choice of publication.Even small technical error in the publication leads to inappropriate applicants. Advertising for job vacancies in the internet.It reaches many people than any other method.It cost very less for example a company can publish its job vacancies in their own company web site’s career column.The process is very quick.

It is very beneficial for both company and the job seekers.

Even the company can shortlist the people through the online interviews.Company can receive many unwanted applicants who don’t suits for the required role.Human resource management will receive more work.

3.3.3 Selection method and design

The selection of employees differs in two ways selecting a potential employee and a potential employer both decisions on selection. The selection process can be made upon the job, management ease, time, cost, accuracy and the ability of the selection of staff. – Allan, J. (1990).

The testing will be very useful to find the accuracy, but correlations with job performance are not particularly high and test results are therefore not necessarily effective identifiers but however it’s increasing in the current selection method. – Barclay, J. (1999).

The more valid method of selection is the assessment centres. They can give a full range of selection method. – Barclay, J. (1999).

3.3.4 Staff retention

Employee turnover tends to increase and decrease depends upon the situation in recession it decreases and if the country faces an economical success then it will rice. In UK the average tenure has not reduced in past thirty years. – Torrington Derek (2008).

Employers who offers more attractive salary package will attain a lower attrition rates than those who pay less.( Gomez-Mejia and Balkin 1992, page no. 294 – 4) and hence this leads to many organizations use pay raise as a tools to retain their staffs.- ( Cappelli 2000 page no. 105 – 6).(IRS 2000A and IRS 2000B) internal revenue service.

Among the graduate employment the challenge work will compensate the pay, pay will never compensate for having to do boring, unstimulating work. – (Struges and guest 1999, page no.19)

3.4 performances

The traditional human resource management approach is to enhance the individual performance has displayed on the employee assessment and the allocating the reward.

– (walker 1992).

‘Try your best’ becomes ‘go for it’ – (Guest 1999).

Guest (1992) suggested that the performance of the employee is measured by the commitment level of the employee and the commitment related with personal characteristics of the employee, the work experience in or she got in the job role, structural factors, and professional practices and policies. And the overall rationale of adapting the human resource management is to ensure the commitment level can reach to next level and that can ensure the positive result for the organization. Pfeffer (1998) and Wood and Albanese (1995) declare that the employee commitment is the core variable in all the organization. Employee Commitment in the work will leads to better quality, lower turnover, greater innovation, more flexible employees which leads to the achieve the goals and objectives of the organization.– Walton (1985).

In UK many organizations have influenced over many American and Japanese companies on adaptation to HRM strategy on the performance improvement. – Huselid (1995).

Source: guest (2000) ‘human resource management, employee well-being and organizational performance’.

3.4.1 Organizational development

Organization development is a process for bringing about and implementing changes in the organization. The effectiveness of the organization and developing improvement plans. Systems, structures, process, resources, problem solving, effective decision making, effective work practices and cultural change will have impact in the organizational development. – Purves (1989).

The two main important variables used in organizations performance and development is the Total quality management and learning organization, both are need to have long term practices, TQM has two types of people handling issues one is the hard stand and the people centred soft stand. – Honeycutt (1993).

3.4.2 Managing individual performance

Performance is being seen as a institutionalised through the specific systems and procedures in some organizations but it shouldn’t. It should come out from the individual ability and motivation. – Walker (1992).

The three aspects of the effective performance are the planning the performance, supporting the performance and reviewing the performance – Armstrong, M and baron, A. (1998).

The performance management was introduced by training a series of nominated department managers in a organization. The managers would get review from other members of the team as well to train the staffs, appraisal is most often thing carried out by the department mangers. Performance management has generally been adopted in a piecemeal way with a lack of integrations between performance activities. Behavioural changes and other individual performance activities will be carried out by the manager’s 360-degree feedback method. – Barlow, G. (1989), ‘Journal of management studies’.

3.4.3 Team performance

If some people work together for a common purpose with agreed norms and values in a company is called a team work, members of the team will have different and they will contribute it together to achieve their goals. – Moxon (1993).

The team based work has been increasing due to the belief that this empowers staffs and encourages them to use their full potential and to get better work for them. Although these are not achieved in practice or it will take some time to achieve it. – Torrington Derek (1931).

Katzenbach and smith (1993) they tell the difference in the teams and work groups, and identify teams as comprising individuals with complementary skills, shared leadership roles, mutual accountability and a specific team purpose, amongst other attributes. All these things will be happen in organization if the team members are fully committed to work.

Salem, Lazarus, Cullen (1992) stated that the higher level management should encourage and reinforce both the individual and team members as a whole. Management tools are stimulating questions designed to motivate the individual to examine himself or herself in relation to the attainment of the group’s or teams objectives.

3.4.4 Leadership and motivation

Leadership is a role occupied by the higher level management people in the organization in which an individual influences other group members towards the attainment of group or team’s targets. – Shackleton, (1995).

Directing.Low relationship behaviour, high task behaviour, followers are unable and unwilling or insecure.Coaching.High relationship behaviour, high task behaviour, followers are unable, but willing or confident. Supportive.High relationship behaviour, low task behaviour, followers are able, but unwilling or insecure.Delegation.Low relationship behaviour, low task behaviour, followers are both able and willing or confident

Source: Hersey and K.H. Blanchard (1980).

Goleman (2000) stated that the leadership is cannot be attained by following only one style and he derived six different style of leadership they are, coercive style in which leaders demands on the immediate compliance, authoritative style: people in this style will work towards a vision, affiliative style: this style deals with the bonds and harmony, democratic style: the people in this group use participation to build consensus, pacesetting style: in this leaders except excellence and self- direction from followers. Coaching style: people who follow this style will give training to staffs for the future.

3.5 developments

The human resource development does not own HR development alone it must be owned by the organization as a whole, HR development strategy should focus on the organizations strategy and it should be used to identify the skills and competencies required. – Handy (1988).

3.5.1 Competencies, competence

Competencies refer to behaviour – Whiddett and Hollyfore (1999).The competence in an employee means the special or specific characteristic of an employee who with effective or excellent performance in the job he does. – Boyatzis (1982)

Behavioural competencies are appreciated as important method in the HR process but issues with it are backward and not forward looking, and are limiting and misleading some time if it is used alone. – Hayes (2000).

3.5.2 Learning and development

While doing his work employee will learn things from the experienced managers and he understands how to deal with things in his work – Kolb et al. (1984).

Honey and Mumford (1989) described four stages in the learning they are activity, reflectors, theory building, and pragmatists.

The people who are trying something out without a preparation, they are eager to do role play tasks and easy to take risk on their work in other words people having a go are called as Activists.

Reflectors are the people who have keen eye on analysing on what happened and why and they are good in listening and observing.

Theorists are those whose strength is in building a concept or theory on their analysis. Their learning will start by reading a referred topic.

Pragmatists are those who are very keen to use whatever they learn and how it will work out when they apply it in real situation. They will plan everything before they get into act.

3.5.3 Career development

Career development is first concern for all the employees who are in whatever position they are, and they will update them self in both skills and general knowledge to overcome career setbacks. Most of the organization in this modern world will advice there , support, and encourage in individual career planning and management by giving them he career grids, feedbacks, opportunities for employee career exploration. But some companies use this as a image for their organization – Arthur, M (1994).

Greenhaus and Callanan (1994) describes the career development in five different stages first the occupational stage, organizational entry, early career, mid-career, and late career.

– Occupational stage is the early stage of the employee’s career and also who is preparing for work. In this stage they measure their strength and weakness for developing an occupational self image.

– Organizational entry it’s the second stage in which the employee seek for information and following the observed information from the company. In this stage they will develop technical skills, ignoring other skills such as communication skills, influencing skills, and internal politics handling skills which will occur in the organization.

–Early career is a stage in which the employee will get into the organization and identifies how the things are done in their company. In this stage they attain the achievement in showing experienced behaviour and authority and responsibility.

– Mid career is the stage where the employee will work on the further development and advancement on the company on which they work. In this stage they become a mentor of others on by giving training fresher’s.

– Late career is a stage in which the organization will give task to the employee to encourage people to continue performing well. And in this stage the employee will plan for retirement.

3.6 employee relation

Employee Relations is the HR function with a subject of interaction between the all of the employees in the organization. It is normally the initial HR interference on common employee problem occurred on their work and they will be solving it quickly because to prevent escalation or avoiding potential problem for the organization. Employee Relations provides counselling and coaching to supervision and management to support resolution of issues by first line supervision whenever possible. Employee Relations contributes significantly to maintaining rapport between employees and the employer. This lead to better work output for the organization. – Guest .D (2000)

Employee relations refer to the communication that takes place between representatives of workers and employers. To a large extent of the employee relations involve HR management and employers working together. – Bamber, G and Lansbury, R. (1998).

3.6.1 HR roles in Recognition and consultation

There are three type of roles are practised by the human resource management in the recognition and consultation, first is the facilitating in this role HR people do more than what they usually does they will send circular information’s and they arrange meeting for their managers and other team members. Next role is the advisory, which involves with the legal matters and procedures, planning and decision making with their managers. The third role is the executive in which the HR managers will do negotiations, chair consultative matters and are mainly responsible for the decision making concerning matters such as recognition.

– Hart. T (1993).

3.6.2 Health and safety

Health, Safety is another important Human resource management function. In this process they will be aware and keen to reduce the risk and occurrence of injury and they will understand the employee’s physical health problems during work in other words ill-health and they work according to it. HR management will act to the unexpected accidents, near misses and incidents of Violent.

HR department will have some important things for safety reasons things like first aid box, safety equipment, protective clothing, radio for managers, floor cleaners equpment, manual handling, electricity, working at height, hazardous substances, lone working, use of display screen equipment, theft and security alarm, and Fire Alarm. – Eva, D. and Oswald. R (1981).

3.6.3 Grievance and discipline

Grievance is a complaint about a real or imaginary wrong thing that causes resentment and is ground for action but these days’ grievance and discipline are the awkward word in UK, they certainly have no place in the thinking of Britain’s favourite entrepreneur.

– Sir Richard Branson

The business will get expand and become profitable if the company put right people in the rite work and trust them and treat them properly and hence they will produce happy to customer and company. – Handy, C.B. (1999).

The grievance and discipline is a role handled by the human resource management but the other managers can also work on it in other words a ambitious department managers wants to advice his own staff by personnel communication. – Handy, C.B. (1999).

Pigors and Myers (1977, page no. 229) stated three different approaches they are, dissatisfaction, complaint, and grievance.

Dissatisfaction: anything that disturb an employee from work whether or not the unrest is expressed in words.

Complaints: it is an employee’s dissatisfaction in work which is brought to the manager or supervisor through direct communication or letter or e-mail.etc.., the frequently asked complaints from the employee’s which is really hard to operate by the managers are, the machine is out of order, the stocks are damaged, this adhesive won’t work, the work is messy, this job is too tough. And some other most difficult complaints are the supervisor plays favourites, the pay were low, no respect for seniors.

Grievance: a formal complaint presented to the management officials or to government unions.

Discipline procedures are pretty much similar to the grievance. HR managers have this control as well they will have the employee’s track record on the discipline on their work for example time keeping. The lateness, sick calls and inattentive in work, misconduct or misbehaviour in the working area are all the disciplinary things to be monitored by the HR manager. HR managers can do demotion in work, suspension, fines, and warnings actions on undisciplined employee. This may alert the staffs to do their work properly. – Torrington Derek (2008)

3.7 pay

The pay is nothing but the compensation given by the company to the workers for their work in monthly or annual intervals, organizations use this as a strategy to get better and professional employee in the way of offering competitive salary. The Human resource management in all the organizations should be truly fair to this on their employees. – Armstrong, M and Murlis,H. (1994).

Current NMW rates in UK is listed below,

There are four different levels of National Minimum Wages; it is depending on your age or if you are an apprentice. The current rates are listed below,

1) ?5.93 – the main rate for workers aged from 21 and over

2) ?4.92 – for the workers aged from 18-20 rate

3) ?3.64 – the workers aged from 16-17, rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18

4) ?2.50 – the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship.

The age at which one becomes entitled to the main rate was reduced from 22 to 21 on 1st ofOctober 2010. The apprentice rate was introduced on the same date. If you are of compulsory school age you are not entitled to the NMW. Some of your other employment rights are also different.


The main elements of the payment are the basic pay rate, benefits, premia, overtime, incentives and bonus. Procedural equity is essential to the design of successful payment systems. – Armstrong, M and Murlis,H. (1994).

3.7.1 Job evaluation

The job evaluation involves using a standard system to measure the significance and importance of jobs within single employee in an organization. Systems can be technical and no-technical as well. The computer based modern systems uses the technical way. The growth of the job evaluation is because the development of equal value law which uses the principles of job evaluation as the basis for deciding cases. – Hastings, S. (2000).

3.7.2 Overtime

Overtime is a thing utilized by the employees for working for more hours which is outside their contracted hours and they will get more pay for the overtime usually 10 to 50 percent more than the usual pay rate. This process is not fixed but the employee will be keen on attaining it and there will be always an opportunity for the employees to get provision of overtime. – Bloom, M.C (1998).

3.7.3 Incentives

Incentive is a payment schemes which will be payed to the employees in the way of the bonus or reward or the added amount of incentives in their regular pay. This process is used to the appropriate use to the business and in which it can clearly contribute to the organizational objectives. Performance related pay system is also a part of incentive system and it is mostly on the points based and the amount of target achieved. And the skill based incentives are those depends on the employees education and qualification levels. – Thompson, M. (2000) ‘salary progression systems’.

3.7.4 Pension and benefits

The benefit plans are the considerable deals to offer the employees. Around 20 to 50 percent of the employees pay bill is moved to the provision for extra benefits. Occupational pension provides a tax effective means of providing funds for retirement over and above what is provided personal pension plans. – Ginns, J. and arber, S (1996).

Company car allowance and fuel for running it is also a beneficial thing for the employees who work in the higher level in the organizations. But in UK due to environmental issues the car and fuel allowance is reduced considerably. – hopegood, J (1999).

3.8 chapter summery

As I conclude this literature give more information about the function and importance of the Human resource management how it should be and how it shouldn’t. So for my project I’m going to make some research questions on by interviewing the Primark employees and then I’ll give the suggestion for the raised issues and by compare it with the literature findings. Primark stores Human resource management was doing a excellent job followed by their procedures but it there is some issue are caused by or to employee and it may result in negative way to the organization. So the final suggestion will be give to the organization to debug those errors.

4.0 Research methodology:

It is the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a procedure. Research methodology is the one which contains procedures, definitions and explanations of technique method which is used to collect, store, analyze and present information for the project under research. Research methods are considered as an option that helps to resolve a problem and guide a system for arriving at a solution for the intended study – (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005). Research is the thing which is directed towards the solution of the problem. Research is one of the ways to find answers to ones questions. The main goal of the research is to produce the cause and effective relationship between the variables. The research is based on the observed data collection and experience or empirical evidence.

The aim of the research methodology is to produce and analyse the variable methods of researches, by also light on its limitation and available resources, clarifying their supporting and consequences, relating their potentialities to the twilight zone at the frontiers of knowledge. It is done with a view to venture generalisations from the success of particular techniques, by giving new ideas, to unfold the specific bearing of logical and metaphysical principle on concrete problems, and suggesting new formulation. – Y.K. Singh (2006).

According to Kumar (2008) the research will comes under the three main parts application of the research study, objective in understanding the research, and final enquiry method.

4.1 Research process

The research process is mainly used to produce a idea of the research strategy which is adopted by the researcher. The three main parts of the research process are the research approach, strategy or methodology of the research, and the data collection methods. – Mark Saunders et al (2009).

Saunders et al (2009) mentioned that the research process consist of steps necessary to find out the aim of the research. The process is follows below,

Define research problem, Present observation with a reference of past observations findings, Structuring the hypothesis, Design of research, Collection of data, Analysing the data, Final validation of report and result. Collection of information. Availability of the research technique. Problems and reasoning explanation. Time availability of the research. Availability of the research. Based on the research design information the researcher should precede their work. The researcher should choose the right set of research tools to handle their project. They should choose the research pattern in order to cater for constraints.

4.2 Research design

The research design is based on the certain purpose and importance of the research. It is based on the following steps,

4.3 Research approach

Mark Saunders et al (2009) have mentioned some points which all the research should practise before starting their project,

The researcher should decide what type of research he should go for and what he should choose some of the research type mentioned by v.v. khanzode are, Descriptive and analytical, Applied and fundamental, Non empirical and empirical research, and qualitative and quantitative.– v.v. khanzode (2005).

4.3.1 Descriptive and analytical:

The descriptive research process is the collection of data or news which is exist in the present situation and the information’s are collected through the fact findings survey both comparative and correlative method and direct enquires where the research is involved. The analytical research is completely opposite to the descriptive method because the dates and the information collected through this method which exists in the past that is it exists already.

4.3.2 Applied and fundamental:

Applied research method is the process which is used for providing immediate solution for the project which is under action. This applied method gives solution for the social business problems as well, market research and business analysis will comes under the applied method. The fundamental method is the method which involves in getting the fundamental information which is helpful for the research, the fundamental research is also related with the formulation theory’s.

4.3.3 Non empirical and empirical research: the conceptual or non empirical research method is the method involves in the intangible idea or the theory. The conceptual research method is mostly practised by the researches and philosophers and scientist who is looking for new innovation. the empirical research method will produce information from the observations and the experiments which is related to the research which is under action.

4.3.4 Quantitative and Qualitative: quantitative research method is based on the particular phenomenon or it is related with the human behaviour. And the qualitative approach is the method based on the quantity and the amount of data or information. – v.v. khanzode (2005).

4.4 chapter summery

In this chapter (research methodology) i have explained some important research methods which i have followed in this dissertation. Mostly i have carried out the quantitative method. Most of the research findings i have done was from the interviews and the surveys, in the next chapter im going to explain the data collection and interpretation. Most of the information i have collected are from the primary research. The i have did a interview with the Primark’s deputy store manager in Bromley store and i have presented all the information in the following chapters, the reason for conducting the interview is to get the exact information which is required for the project.

4.0 data collection and interpretation

4.1 data collection

Data collection is the method used to find, identify, preparing and collecting data of information which is used for the business project or any other research analyzing from the researcher. The main purpose and importance of the data collection is to gather information’s to keep in the data base, which is used as a solution for certain issues related with the research and also used as a solution for the future researchers. The preliminary data are collected to produce dates for the specific or particular area. – r.paneerselvam (2004)

Data collection is the process which involves in the all part improvement of the research, and the data collection plan mostly involves in the plan of pre collection process which involves targeting of dates, setting goals, and setting methods and definitions to follow. The pre data collection is the main part of data collection. And then presenting of findings which generally involves in the presentation of the dates and analyzing. The interview may carry the incorrect information which may leads to the improper research finding, but by processing a pre data collection method in the data collection the interviews can be carried out in the structured and systematic format which may leads to obtain a proper findings which is required for the research and hence it is used to achieve the research goals. – r.paneerselvam (2004)

A structured and formal data collection method should be carried out to get information in the defined and accident ways, also in ensure that the researcher can get the data which really required for the particular research which is under process. This makes the research to get out of the topic.

The data collection will be mostly carried out by processing through internet or e mail questionnaires, and also by conducting direct interview with the person who involved in the project. Conducting general surveys and the census are the other important data collection methods used. Mostly the surveys are conducted inside a particular environment for example the organization with particular amount of people to gather some information’s which involves the human feeling, census method of data collection is used to collect data from everyone from the company or even in the public, by practicing the census method the researcher can get detailed information and accurate to and in other way its cost effective too. The survey method also like census method which can be accurate and the researcher can get detailed information by conducting surveys as well. – r.paneerselvam (2004)

4.2 primary data research

Primary research is the important method of research which is used to get the exact information about the thing which is under observation of the research. The primary data are the information which are collected and gathered directly and is current information which doesn’t exist. The primary research is process for getting specific answers for specific questions. – Rajender kumar (2008).

In this dissertation i have carried out a primary research for example,

Recently the company started rewarding the staffs like giving them the best employee of the month certificate with 20 pound gift card. What is your view on it We can see some mangers in Primark having no qualification or any management related studies in their history of their education. So defiantly they will lack in knowledge. What’s your view on this– (researcher)

A researcher should undertake direct research to gather primary dates, direct research like

4.2.1 Direct one on one interview: this means gathering of data through direct interviewing the people who are the important person who involved in the research for example if a researcher conducting a interview with the HR manager of a company and the project is about the problems faced by HRM in that particular company. In this research i have carried out a direct one on one interview and it was presented in the following chapters.

4.2.2 Online surveys: it is the process of conducting a survey through online and the survey questions will have a closable option for the viewers and the online surveys are processed to gather feedback from wide range of people.

In this research I have gathers some useful information through the staff’s surveys the main reason for adapting this method is to obtain the information from the staffs, to gather information regarding their knowledge in the HRM policies and the problem faced by following it.

4.2.3 Questionnaires: it is set of questions which is used to get feedback regarding the research from customers and employees and people

4.2.4 Focus on group: conducting a meeting with a set of people or group of people in a organization where the research in involved.

4.2.4 Telephonic interviews: this is another type of interview used for generating primary data through telephone.

The main benefit of conducting the primary research is to get the latest data and information’s, to gather unique information’s for the specific needs of the research, the data can be obtained quickly through the telephonic interviews and online surveys and the primary data will be the current information’s which won’t be available anywhere.

The noticeable disadvantages of primary research are that they are difficult to process; it will be cost, time and energy effective and thus research will take long to finish. Direct one to one interview can miss lead on getting different or irrelevant feedbacks. – Rajender kumar (2008).

4.3 secondary data research

The secondary research data are the information’s which are used to support the primary research data. The secondary data can be gathered easily by the researcher, the data can be obtained from an organization, or from a market, and even the information about the products and materials can be gathered.

The secondary research data are gathered through the internal and the external data’s

The secondary data’s through external data source can be gathered from the following areas,

General business publications Magazine and newspaper articles Companies annual reports Library Computerized bibliographies Syndicated services.

The internal data sources are as follows,

The internal information from the company for example product price Product receipt Customers feedback Marketing or sales person

The main advantage of conducting the secondary research is,

It consumes very less time comparatively with the primary research. It cost effective as well compared to the primary research. The researcher doesn’t need any unique skills to undertake this research. Secondary research charges are incurred by the inventor of the information.

There are some disadvantages on by using secondary data are follows,

The data required for the research is only limited and the insufficient for the researcher to undergo his research The level of data accuracy is less compared to the primary research and less reliability. Information may be in a different format and meaning which is not required for the researcher. Most of the secondary data are many years old and may not match the current or present market conditions.

4.3.1Litrature findings:

This is the method involves on the research on finding the objective of the research through he literature saying and findings. This ensures the researcher to observe the information from the past which would be helpful for his research. It is also helpful for the researcher to update with the past data, data source and previous result. – r.pannerselvam (2004).

4.4 questionnaires

Questionnaires are the commonly used primary research method for collecting the information required and the information which is very useful to work further in the research. The questionnaires are the only source from which the researcher can get the information which he or she can’t get it any secondary sources like books or journals or internet sources. The information from the questionnaires will be fresh and unique. The questionnaires are mainly used to find the people’s opinions on their product or services or the policy. By analysing the questionnaires result one can obtain the accurst result and values of the product or services which is under the observation, the customers view, customers quires on the past and existing product, customers awareness and knowledge on the product or services or the company. Questionnaires are the main basis for market research and the researcher can obtain the better result out of questionnaires by producing a better quality and structure of the questionnaires. By making improper questionnaires the obtained result may be irrelevant to the research or it may be wrong and miss leading one. – Rajender kumar (2008).

In this dissertation the questionnaires are the important research method followed by me to get information about the HRM functions.

4.5 interviews

The interview method is the method used for collecting data which involves in the presentation of the oral or verbal stimuli and reply in terms of same response. This method can be conducted in two types they car personal interview and the telephonic interview. – Dr. C .R Kothari (2008)

4.5.1 Personnel interview:

This is the usual method practiced for the interview by the interviewer and it was practiced still because it is the best possible source to attain the required data properly. It has got some problems like getting appointment with the person to be interviewed. – Dr. C .R Kothari (2008)

4.5.2 Telephonic interview:

This kind of interview is practiced by the researcher when they are really forced to do it or if the occasion occurs. For example if a person from UK wants to conduct a interview with a another person who is in INDIA in this case the telephonic interview will suits much. – Dr.C.R Kothari (2008)

4.6 Validation

The main issue in the qualitative research is the validity. The validity can be done by staff checking, interviewer corroboration, data debriefing, prolonged engagement, negative case analysis, audit ability, conformability. – Dr.C .R Kothari (2008)

4.6 chapter summary

In this chapter the data collection methods have been discussed and in this assignment I have practices most the above mentioned data collection methods especially primary data research and secondary data research which really allows me to get into the topic. the research i have carried out for this assignment are the primary research on by conducting one on one interview with the deputy manager of one of the Primark store(Bromley). And then i have conducted a staff’s survey, which was mainly adapted to get the information from the staffs point of view. Then in the secondary research i have analysed many HRM books the literature findings, and some online resources regarding the HRM functions, policies and problems faced by the HRM team.In the next chapter I’m going to explain the data analysis and the interpretation.

5.0 Analysis and interruption of collected data’s

In this chapter I’m going to present the feedback answers which are replied from the deputy manager of one of the Primark store (Bromley) in UK. And I also made a survey with the staffs of Primark store in Croydon and the main reason for conducting this survey is to obtain the view of staffs on the HRM practices in store. In this interview and survey I have gathered much information which is really useful for my research and this overall the primary research of conducting the interview and survey is the best available option for me to get the rite and required information for my dissertation.

5.1 Interview Questions and Feedbacks

“Interviewer: How do you think HRM is important for Primark’s overall performance?

Manager: HRM is the process which is the one of the important thing behind Primark’s success and future success as well. The HRM is not only the practised by Primark all the organizations in the existing world uses the HRM for the several function like recruitment, staffs pay role, employee retention, employee consoling etc.., these function are often practised by the Primark’s HR management. In Primark the HR management is vital thing for running the store because the staffs recruitment, staffs contract hours planning, staffs discipline check up and several functions like pay roll, overtime allocation are been done by the Primark’s HR management these function will take more time and energy to process on day to day work without the HR team it is impossible to image all these works. There are some burdens for the HR management in Primark something like for example the staff’s recruitment, much number of staffs will be recruited during Christmas season and the HR management also have to do other HR faction during the Christmas season so it will be extra burden for the HR team. In Bromley store we have one HR manage, HR supervisor and the staffs level HR member. So we have almost five hundred staffs in store which includes people who works in the shop floor people who work in the stock room and the cleaners, trainee managers, department managers and senior department managers, asst. Assistant manager, deputy manager, and the store general manager. All the above said employees work from start to finish will be monitored by the HR management. So the HR management is the main important function behind the Primark’s performance.

Interviewer: As an employee of the company how will you consider the HRM policies in the company?

Manager: as an employee of the company I have great respect on the HRM policies and practices. As a deputy manager of the Primark store I know the importance of the HR functions and its toughness. From my day to day work I have analysed that the HRM policies have gradual upgrade like increasing staffs pay every April, from my point of view ill support many HRM policies and I really disagree some few policies done by them. Things ill support is their common HR functions like staffing, performance appraisal, compensation and benefits, training and development for the newly appointed staffs, employee and labour relation, and health and safety as well, all the above said function where really done in the best possible way by the Primark’s each and every stores HR management, they always look forward to provide a solution for the problems faced by the staffs during their work and the problems occurred to a staffs by others etc.., and the another important HR practices to mention is the staffs clock in time monitoring, each and every staffs in the store had got allocated working hours contract and there is a possibility of miss conduct in this process by coming late and coming in earlier to their work, and these problems are monitored properly by the HR management by doing such work the staffs will do their clock in clock out properly and hence it save lots of money for the store and the lots of work can obtained by the staffs. And the HR policy which I don’t agree is the employee relationship with them and I think their relationship with the staffs is not so good. And it should be rectified in order to expect a proper work performance from the staffs because they are also the important key members behind the Primark’s success.

Interviewer: What is job retention principle used in the company and what’s your opinion.

Manager: employee retention is not practised at the best level in the Primark stores, managerial staffs will have some retention polices and the retail operative dint gets much into this retention, because the main Primark’s management really concentrate on giving more benefits to the managers rather than the any other staffs in the store. The Primark’s should look forward to this issue this is a part of employee motivation and this can improve the staffs work performance for sure. The company HR management need to reduce overall staff turnover because recruiting new employee’s costs more for the company. Having a proper and reasonable employee retention policy is an important one for every company without practicing it the company can miss their best employees. So the Primark’s management should introduce a new and attractive retention plans which can improve staffs performance.

Interviewer: Training and development is widely used in all the organization. How we can develop further or any change in it.

Manager: training and development is the also practised by the HR management in the Primark stores, once the staff is recruited then he or she will be give the induction section in that section they will be informed about the companies rules and procedures, then they will be given a detailed explanation by one of the staff member in the store about the day to day work for them. And then they will be given training for about three months from the day they got appointed, then the successful employees during the training or probation period will be given a new contract for the further permanent work, the employees will get a session to attend during their work with the HR management peoples in that classes they will be though about the good customer service tips and strategies and other class like shop merchandising, stock management, working in shop floor and stock rooms will be conducted as well, and hence in these ways the employees training and development process will be done in the store. And for further change i would recommend to introduce new development programs every month for the retail operative level staffs and for the managers the Primark’s management will give special programs in Reading Primark’s head office occasionally i would suggest this should be conducted often. These programs will be useful for developing the stores and the manager’s personnel work carriers as well. And they can introduce new project management class for their managers and hence this will ensure that the Primark’s mangers will have a structured work planning and they can perform well during some project held in Primark for example new store launch.

Interviewer: What is the employee’s performance appraisal systems used in the company.

Manager: as we seen in the employee’s retention process the staff’s performance appraisal is an important factor involved in the improvement of the staff’s performance. By motivating the staff’s in the rite will ensure better work output from them. Recently a new employee’s performance appraisal scheme is practised by the management by giving them the gift card which is worth for twenty pounds cash on it. Twenty pound cash price for the employee of the month may sound not good, it’s all about getting the recognition it’s not about the money they give. This has really encouraged all the staffs in the Primark store, there is a serious competition among the staffs now in the store to prove them self who is the best. This will unlock the employee’s working potential. And by introducing new scheme like this will definitely motivate the staffs and hence finally the company will get benefited by obtaining better, more and aggressive work from the staffs. These are the performance appraisal method practised by the company now; in further I would recommend the company to give more money least fifty pounds for the best employee of the month. And for the managers the pay rise may be a better idea, this can be practised yearly once or in other words the best managers who produce better sale on their department in the belonging year can be give an incentive or bonus or even pay rise. This will definitely produce serious compotation among the staffs and it’s a good strategy for the employee motivation. The important thing to be mentioned now is the store manager and the deputy manager will get a cash bonus yearly once which depends upon the stores performance like sales, stock losses, stock management, wages, and store standards.

Interviewer: Primark is a successful organization in UK and still they are paying less pay rate compared to other retailers like marks and Spencer and ASDA in UK.

Manager: In the companies point of view it’s a best strategy applied, but from the employees point of view it’s not. I have work is retailers like Tesco, Sainsbury, and TK maxx, and I know better that which company pay more and less pays. According to the HM revenue the employees in the adult age that is above 21 years should get 5.93? per hour pay and the teenagers will get 4.53? per hour pay that the government wage rule, but in our store the employees above 21 years old will get 6.080? per hour and that really good pay up to my view, and even further the staffs working during the night shifts will get 15? extra pay and if the week day staffs who work during the bank holidays will get double pay of 12.016? per hour. While comparing with other store the pay given by our store is less. The company i know (don’t wish to mention companies name) will offer 10? per hour for the employees who works during Sundays and during night shift they will pay 11? per hour. In other point of view the Primark store offers more working hours that is the overtime to their staffs compared to the other stores this the point to mention, it will be beneficial for the employees and the staffs as well. And finally I would suggest that the companies pay rate was really reasonable and good, and still if the company decide to give more money, and then they can give extra more pay for the night shift staffs. This would encourage them to work during late nights. The reason for mentioning the night shift staffs is because it’s the difficult part of the work in Primark stores.

Interviewer: Primark having issues on handling rude Customers and how you can avoid them.

Manager: we are facing serious issues on this question; the very important thing advised by all the staffs by the HR management is to welcome the customers with a smile and to greet them in the proper way. The customers are of different type most of the customers are good and regular ones with these customers we won’t have any problem just better sales and some other customers will cause problem for unnecessary reason in these situation we will just handover them to the security people straight away. The things what we can look after is the problem for the customers which is occurred by the staffs can be retied. Staffs miss conduct like responding in the rude way or not responding them in the rite way will make the customers to behave bad and to get out of the shop without shopping, recently we faced a issue with a customer who was shouting at a staff and later we come to know that the problem is with the staff not the customer, then we solved the issue immediately. So the too rude customers can be handled by the security team rather than us and we are doing our best to avoid the customers getting rude or making them unhappy etc.., and finally is would suggest to the management that the company should inform their staffs to behave in the respectable way to their customer to avoid such bad circumstances.

Interviewer: Staffs dissatisfaction in work environment with misunderstanding or misbehaviour from their team mates or even with manager. What is the solution for this issue?

Manager: staffs dissatisfaction in work may because of many reasons it may be because they don’t like the work or maybe they don’t like to do such work or even they won’t wish to work in such environment etc.., for the above mentioned issues we can’t give proper solution for it. Staff dissatisfaction due to other staffs miss behaviour can be solved by the respective department managers or their supervisors, staffs may be discouraged or can be treated in the bad way will leads to the staff’s dissatisfaction in their work environment, these issues will leads to improper work from the particular staff. The only solution for this problem is to alert the managers to have clear monitoring on the staffs during the work, as per the Primark management rules the employees are not permitted to talk or chat during their working hours, so the managers or the supervisors should look after to this, and they should watch their staffs properly. And the staffs who feel dissatisfied on their work should have personnel counselling with the HR management or the respective department managers, this can permanently get a solution for this issue and this is the only way to get an employee’s view on his or her work dissatisfaction. And also the staff’s employees are not willing to work in this retail shop environment should be given a warning because they can’t work properly and it not beneficial for the staff and company as well.

Interviewer: Primark is recruiting many school leavers from 15 to 17 year old people. Is it a strategy of Primark by paying them less (pay rate of 4.53 per hour) or is it making carrier for the school leavers.

Manager: yes I agree with this question, Primark recruit few not many school leavers, this was started in the late 90’s and it is not for paying very less money to their staffs it’s for the teenagers who can work during their school holidays, they can make money during their holiday leaves instead for going to picnic spots. And I would like to mention it’s definitely not a strategy it’s an offer for the school leavers to start with their carriers It’s all about how they work it not about what they know. The 4.53? is the minimum wage for teen agers who work in UK, but in others hand we can see some school leaver who continued their carrier in Primark itself from the time they left their school and hence it is a reason for less number of students willing to go to university these days in UK. I can show some employees who are all work as a department managers who started as a school leavers. If an employee who are quick learner, active, energetic, flexible for working in different hours in a day, team player, cooperative, these are the required things for a successful manager in the Primark store.

Interviewer: If two or more staffs comes together for a holiday or a sick call it’s going to affect the work in the stores how you can handle this.

Manager: all the staffs are allowed to take three weeks holiday continuously in a year and he or she can take another week holiday separately in a year so totally the store allows a staffs to take four weeks of paid holiday in a year. If two or more staffs request for the holiday at same time then the HR management can recruit an employee temporary to cover the hours of the staffs who are in holiday period and even they can give overtime to other staffs for covering the hours and hence in these way the holiday hours can be solved. And the sick call by the staffs will be the more difficult one to handle, in this situation the managers or the supervisors can call the other staffs to cover these hours and this need to done as soon as possible if not then it will be a big pressure on the manager’s shoulders and hence in these way these issues can be rectified.

Interviewer: Recently the company started rewarding the staffs like giving them the best employee of the month certificate with 20 pound gift card. What is your view on it?

Manager: we have already discussed about this question in the employees appraisal, this are the thing should be practised for sure by all the companies this will motivate the employees to perform well than their usual work. This will motivate the employees to try and innovate new things on their work. As I mentioned the company can give more cash to the best employee reward rather than giving just 20? they can make it to 50? that will be reasonably good and this will make more competition among the staffs in their work and hence the company can get benefit by obtaining more and better work performance from the staffs and the staffs can get benefit on better work satisfaction, good recognition in the working environment, and getting better work experience in the work, learning new things and in many ways the staffs can be beneficial as well. And finally I would conclude this is a best performance appraisal practice ever done by the Primark’s management and its really good thing to see that it would set examples for other retailers in UK.

Interviewer: We can see some mangers in Primark having no qualification or any management related studies in their history of their education. So defiantly they will lack in knowledge. What’s your view on this?

Manager: I think this work in the Primark store doesn’t requires much knowledge. We don’t require a java programmer or an investment banker to work in the store we require a people who can work in the retail store shop floor and stock room, each and every managers in the Primark store have waste of in store experience they are really qualified for that the role what they do. We have a many highly educated staffs who works as a managers in the store for example Kimberly is a HR manager in Bromley Primark store she did her master in the business and accounting and I hope she is more qualified for this role and I can spot many managers who don’t have good education history but they have excellent work experience, they can perform really well in stores management especially during stock take which happens every three months, so as I say the managerial role doesn’t require a high level education qualification.

Interviewer: There are no offers in the Primark stores for their staffs purchase. What’s your view on this?

Manager: yes there are no offers for the staffs it up to the Primark’s higher level management, it may be because it is a cost-effective retailer, and the staffs are not allowed to buy the S&D (soiled and damaged) goods from the store. But I can see that the employee can buy the stocks which are the sale and they are the first one to buy it rather than the customers, so as I conclude the reduction in the staff purchase is not required much.

Interviewer: Nearly 500 staffs are working in the each grade ‘B’ Primark stores is it more or less?

Manager: honestly to say it is less, as a staff you know about it very well, the grade B store one million per week and thus do you think is five hundred staffs would be enough for it definitely not, and the company is facing these issue for very long time, the HR management should look after to this issue by appointing experienced staffs for the required roles and if they recruit too many staff then it will cost more for the company, there are different working shifts are allocated they are morning shift 10:00am to 12:00pm, 12:00pm to 4:00pm, evening 6:00 pm to 10:00pm and full day shift 10:30am to 8:00pm and night shift from 8:00 to morning 7:30am. These shifts fit for the permanent employees in it. And there are weekday and week end staffs. So according to this the staffs should be allocated and the HR management should make it sure that they should not exceed budget allocated to the particular store.

The above presented interview was conducted by me,

Date of interview conducted: 16/3/2011

Interviewee name: MR. Neil k (deputy manager in Primark store in Bromley)

Interviewee mobile no: 07515821336

5.2 survey questionnaires and feedbacks

These survey where conducted on the retail operative of the Croydon Primark store, the main reason for conducting this survey is to get the opinion from the staffs who work in the shop floor and stock room about the HR policies. And I hope this survey will show how the staffs in the Primark stores agree and disagree with the stores HR management policies and procedures.


Out of my survey I have managed to get the feedback from fifty staffs of Primark store in Croydon, about 32 staffs are male and rest are female.

Age group

There are about 50% of people age from 21 to 30 and 20 % of people below 20 years and 30 % of people in and above 30 years of age.


About 40% of staffs are belonging to Britain, and 15% from India and 20% from Pakistan and 25% in other countries.

How long you are working in Primark store?

­­On asking this question I have found about 40% of employees where working for more than 4 years, and 20% of employees working from 2 to 3 years, and 30% of people working for more or less 1 year.

Are you satisfied with the Primark’s store HR management policies

About 85% of people say yes and only 15% of employees say no for this question.

Are you facing any problem with the HR policies in Primark store?

It’s same as the previous question 85% of employees say no to this question and 15% says yes.

Do you think the wages your paid is rite for the job?

65% of employees say no to this question and the 35% of employees say no.

Chapter summary:

So from this chapter I have gathered all the required information from the Primark stores employees like managers and operative staffs. This interview and survey have given me so useful information which is good for me to conclude this dissertation. So in the next chapter I’m going to give detailed brief on conclusion and further recommended strategies for the Primark HR management.

6.0 Conclusion

In this research I have started with the identifying the problems faced by the employees of Primark stores ltd, in particular problem through HR policies. This research topic is “identifying and understanding that how the human resource policies play an important role in Primark plc staff performance”. I have planned and did two kinds of researches first is the primary research and the second is the secondary research. In the primary research I have managed to conduct a interview with the Primark store deputy manager and I have obtained the required answers from him and from his view and experience I come to know that the HR practices were very important function behind the structured work, and reportedly mention that the HR management is also behind the Primark success. Through the interview I have gathered some internal HR policies information of the Primark management. Primark HR policies were uniquely designed for the store and it was differed from other retail stores in UK behind each and every move maid by them will have strong reason behind it. For example the staff performance appraisal, in which they give only 20? as a Primark gift card, that gift card can be used only inside the Primark store and other most important thing is the staff recognition among other staffs. Then later i have decided to conduct a survey among the Primark staffs and i have gathered some useful information from the survey as well. In that survey first thing to mention is most of the staffs (85%) agreed with the Primark HRM policies and rest doesn’t. And i also come to know that all the staff has same knowledge on HRM. Almost every one mentioned that it gives better work format and procedure for them. The next kind of the research i have taken is the secondary one, in which I have gathered much information through the literature findings, and some internet researches like online Google books in which I have loads of information.

So finally i can present the problems faced by the employees by following the Primark’s HRM policies and they are listed below,

Identified main problem is the pay wages most of the employees have agreed that Primark is paying less compared with other retailers in UK, rite now Primark is paying ?6.08 per hour for the employees who are aged above 21 years and for the teen agers they are paying 4.53? per hour. They have some attractive incentives for the week day staffs who work in the bank holidays in other words the week day staffs will get double pay if they work on bank holidays. Then for the night shifts they give 15? extra for one night shift. But even still the staffs are not convinced on this they expect more or equal pay which was paid by other similar retailers, during my research i have found that the supervisor (both week day and week end staffs) in Primark get 7.53? only which was the normal operatives pay in the another successful food retailer in UK. This is because Primark is a store which sells cheap goods that what the reply i get while asking a manager this question, but up to my research Primark is a very successful organization which shows financial profit in the last consecutive years, AB foods are the main owners of the Primark, the AB foods ltd have many business under, but Primark is the most successful one out of it. And hence after having such financial success they can increase the pay, they can increase the wage by 50 pence will make much difference, and hence it will motivate their employees to do the best out of them, by increasing the pay the employees work performance will definitely improved.

And the next identified problem is in training and development, the process carried out now by the HR management for the training their staffs is really good but still from my view then can improve it by giving special training sections for the newly recruited staffs for example if a newly appointed staffs for week end work won’t have enough time to interact with their managers or supervisors during the busy weekends so i would suggest to give them proper training before they start their work in the shop floor or in stock room. Especially for the stock room staffs the a advance training should be given before they are getting proper knowledge on handling the stock room instruments like baring machine etc.., and the employees who work in the shop floor should have proper understanding before they start their work especially the staffs who works in the customer services desk. Because without having proper training how can teenagers can handle a customer’s query. So the HR management in Primark should consider this training process to make it more precise they should make change in it. And in the development functions the Primark is giving special training to their managers which are purely based on the HRM. But the higher level managers like the HR managers, store assistant manager, deputy, and store general manger have given opportunity to attend this class, but the trainee managers, department managers, and senior department managers haven’t given this opportunity, so my suggestion is to give training for the all managers in the store. And hence it will be beneficial for the entry level managers to gain such knowledge in HRM functions like performance development, grievance, health and safety, project planning, work development etc.., and it would be better for the entry level manager’s carrier. And hence in this way the development for employees can be carried out.

Other important problem like staff relationship with the HR management, employee retention, working hours allocation, change of working contract are the other few issue faced by the staffs of Primark. The employee relation should be good but should not be too friendly; the employee should have proper communication with the HR management. while working on my research i have found several issues can be solved by have proper staffs and HR relationship in other words, an employees working hours will be monitored on the HR system and the staffs can check it regularly hence by checking their clock in clock out timing they can avoid doing extra hours, by doing more extra hours the company needs to pay more money and the overseas student who work in UK is restricted to do only twenty hours in a week and they can avoid doing over extra hours by checking their clock in and out timing sheet and hence it is beneficial for both staffs and the company as well. Employee relations refer to the communication that takes place between representatives of workers and employers. To a large extent of the employee relations involve HR management and employers working together. – Bamber, G and Lansbury, R. (1998).

The employee retention should handle from the start the staff should be informed about the all benefits and allowances during their induction itself. And another important issue faced by the staffs are the change of contract; most of them have reported that the HR is not ready to give new contract for them and I agree with the Primark’s HR policy on it, because the HR policy is if a employees (who have sick leave, lateness for more than five days and improper time keeping) are not allowed to change their contract. And the staffs should maintain a proper record for twenty four weeks to have change in contract or store etc..,

7.0 further recommendation and limitations of the research

The below shown strategies are recommended for the Primark HR management to get better performance from their staffs,

1)The staffs of Primark have given a hand book which explains all the HR policies about their work and i would recommend they should have practical section on it before they start their work.

2)To obtain a better job retention i would suggest the HR people to explain during the interview or publish in their website which explains about the job retention schemes.

3)To obtain a highly talented staffs the company should invest more on the salary package for the managers and they should provide better compensation package as well.

4)I would suggest the HR management can organize a staff seminar regarding the HRM policies and procedures.

5)Staffs pay can be increased to 50pence to one pound if possible. Because most of the staffs are not satisfied on their pay rather than any other thing in their work. So the company should think after this, but increasing the pay they can expect a satisfied work from their staffs for sure.

6)Staffs should get flexible working hours and it should be allocated in the best possible way by the HR managers.

7)Team work should be practised and hence it will useful to get better understanding among the staffs.

7.1 limitation of the research

While working on this dissertation I have faced several problems which stopped me to produce more information and some of the problems are shown below,

During this project I have faced some problem on conducting primary research, the interview and survey was not done as i planned, because the managers were busy and they are not ready to spent time for my interview, Lesser time is given for this dissertation i have managed to give much information on this research topic but still I can produce more information i have more time and other sources like money. Bibliography

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In your research methodology

Brief introduction which should outline the methods u used and details in the research process Interview : why have you chosen it advantages of the interview, justification of each and every questions, Surveys same Limitations Conclusion which should contain further reason for why u chosen interview