Employee training is a significant HARM activity. It involves constructing a set of activities that are aimed to develop the knowledge, attitudes and skills of employees so that they can improve on their current Job performance and contribute to the achievement of organizational goals Jackson and Married, 1994). Human resource managers recognize that training offers a way of enhancing productivity and quality of work, developing skills and building loyalty to the firm, as it helps to retain a competent and efficient workforce.Providing effective training to employees is a key sue that human resource managers need to focus on when it comes to training and development. In a research article by Shindigs and Bourns (2008), one of the key factors addressed, was the importance of an organization recognizing that its employees are not effective and making a change in their knowledge, skills and attitudes.The authors place a great deal of emphasis on the impact of adopting the most suitable training intervention, which will fulfill specific needs, enhance employee willingness to participate and meet their expectations.

When an organization becomes aware of the gap between the desired and the actual performance of their employees, it becomes their responsibility to identify which areas or skills of task performance their employees need to trained in or to improve upon.It is vital that the HRS manager implements suitable training activities, such as active participation, listening, seeing and discussion, which will increase employee knowledge, skills and attitudes. This article strongly argues that whether it is through the adoption of a training program or the employee belief that there is an improvement in their knowledge and skills, there will be an improvement in the person's individual performance.However, it fails to exert how different types of training (formal and informal, on-the-Job and off-the-job) can be used in a variety of ways to reinforce the training content. On the other hand, Jackson and Married (1994), inform their readers that formal training can reinforce an employee's competencies. They contend that employees who learn in planned and structured training sessions are able to execute tasks assigned effectively and efficiently cause they are well prepared and equipped for such situations.

As a result, this will increase the overall performance of the organization and expand the level of skills and competences at all levels across the business. Jackson and Married (1994), stress that if organizations are to survive and compete in both local and global markets, they need to recognize training as both an investment in personal and professional development, and a contributor towards stronger business performance and productivity.However, what they fail to discuss is that in an era of intense employee mobility (Ceramic, Stratum & Walsh, 2007), companies are faced with the dilemma of investing and training employees only to have them use their training to increase their own market value and employment opportunity, at the company's expense. It is thus, undeniably important to take into consideration the negative repercussions to companies investing in training and development and understand why employers are more likely to become hesitant.Furthermore, Bramble (1989) argues that effective training not only makes employees more valuable to the resonantly, It also attracts potential Torture employees AT ten melanges Calder to ten organization, as well as increasing the amount of loyalty employees have towards the business. His argument is highly supported by that of Assayed (1995), who states that organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of loyalty to the organization by their employees, and have started to put into place employee recognition schemes to make sure that employees remain loyal to the business.

These complementary viewpoints highlight the importance of loyalty in an age where employees (particularly the y generation) change Jobs so frequently is crucial, and how it can save organizations the time and resources of having to put employees through several training procedures such as induction and health and safety training repeatedly. Bramble (1989) emphasizes how people instinctively feel the need for self-improvement, and when searching for a new Job, they want to find a career that can improve themselves and has potential advancement opportunities.Many organizations have now become aware of employees' inner drive for self- improvement, and thus, larger organizations have now started building a high caliber training program to attract the best and brightest applicants Jackson and Married, 1994). This showcases how not only does effective training have a strong effect on the current employees of the organization, but also a profound effect on attracting the most skillful applicants.

While effective training has many benefits, the fundamental aim and intention of training is to improve employee skills so that they are better equipped to handle the tasks that they are employed to do.Bramble (1989) also adds that employees will eave better skills as a result of the effective training, and as a consequence they are able to complete their tasks to the highest degree. This will mean that organizations can now produce better quality of products and services for their customers; hence the quality of work has been directly impacted by the effective training. While the positives of training normally outweigh the negatives, it is noted by Alembics (1994) that the cost of training can be quite expensive, especially when conducted on a larger scale such as organizational training.

His analysis of the costs and benefits of raining are effective in helping readers to understand what organizations need to consider before they decided to provide training to their employees. It assures that the benefits of training are significant and outweigh the costs such as wasting valuable resources like time and money. Bramble (1989) adds to the argument of Alembics (1994) that it should be a main concern to managers that employees are not wasting their time, or the organizations' resources, by being taught or trained in something that they will not be able to put into practice in their day to day work activities.Bates and Davis (2010) emphasize that "managers/trainees often leave training sessions feeling that there was "too much theory," (p. 770). This consequently becomes an issue for managers in a way that if trainees feel that there is too much theory in the training process they go through; they will not thoroughly engage and listen.

Bates and Davis (2010), go on to further stress that employees "want training that is directly transferable from the training seminar to the Job without thought or effort on their part. " (p. 771).Not only would it become an issue for the trainees, it could also become a worry to trainers/managers in a way that, they will need to change tenet wangle approach on now teeny wall present training programs to tenet existing or new recruits. In contrast, evidence presented by Botanists, Leonard, Rhea and Wheeler (1996), shows that "an examination of the outcomes of management development programs conducted by many organizations reveals that managers/ trainees going through those programs often are unable to transfer the training to the work environment".

To avoid such dilemmas Harder and Fugitives (2010) provides wariness to managers and trainers by stating "to be successful in the training process the manager/organism should have knowledge of (1) the content or task itself; (2) the learning objectives; (3) the learner's characteristics; and (4) the time and cost requirements," (p. 246 Furthermore, another alternative which Bates and Davis (2010) outline is the Application Bridge. "The "Application Bridge" concept can be used to improve the effectiveness of training in various situations.The underlying purpose is to explain?as fully as possible early in the training seminar?the roles ND responsibilities of both the trainer and trainees (managers), thus avoiding the trainees' expectation of being spoon fed" (p.

772). From this, it can be seen as helpful if the set of mutual responsibilities were explained thoroughly, to both employees and managers, so that there is a clear understanding of responsibility within the organization and everyone can work together towards achieving organizational goals.This will assist in assuring that the organization maintains a competent and efficient workforce, where the employees feel valued due to their share of responsibility and sense of duty in the workplace. Organizations that provide affective training programs are able to increase the knowledge, attitudes and skills of their employees Jackson and Married, 1994). Successful training programs will lead to increasing productivity levels in the workplace, as well as increased quality of work and range of skills amongst employees.