Question 1: Financial ratios for East Coast Yachts: Current ratio| =| Current Assets| | | Debt-equity ratio| =| Total liabilities| | | Current Liabilities| | | | | Total equity| | =| \$14,651,000 | | | | =| \$19,539,000 + \$33,735,000| | | \$19,539,000 | | | | | \$55,341,000 | | =| 0. 75| | | | =| 0. 96| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Quick ratio| =| Current Assets - Inventory| | | Equity multiplier| =| Total assets| | | Current Liabilities| | | | | Total equity| | =| \$14,651,000 - \$6,136,000| | | | =| \$108,615,000 | | | \$19,539,000 | | | | | \$55,341,000 | | =| 0. 44| | | | =| 1. 96| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Total asset turnover| =| Sales| | | Interest coverage| =| EBIT| | | Total Assets| | | | | Interest| | =| \$167,310,000 | | | | =| \$23,946,000 | | | \$108,615,000 | | | | | \$3,009,000 | | =| 1. 54| | | | =| 7. 96| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Inventory turnover| =| COGS| | | Profit margin| =| Net Income| | | Inventory| | | | | Sales| | =| \$117,910,000 | | | | =| \$12,562,200 | | | \$6,136,000 | | | | | \$167,310,000 | | =| 19. 22| | | | =| 7. 51%| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Receivables turnover| =| Sales| | | Return on assets| =| Net Income| | | Accounts receivable| | | | | Total assets| =| \$167,310,000 | | | | =| \$12,562,200 | | | \$5,473,000 | | | | | \$108,615,000 | | =| 30. 57| | | | =| 11. 57%| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Debt ratio| =| Total assets - Total equity| | | Return on equity| =| Net Income| | | Total assets| | | | | Total equity| | =| \$108,615,000 - \$55,341,000| | | | =| \$12,562,200 | | | \$108,615,000 | | | | | \$55,341,000 | | =| 0. 49| | | | =| 22. 70%| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Question 2: | | East Coast Yachts| | Yacht Industry Ratios| | | | | Lower Quartile| Median| Upper Quartile| Current ratio| | 0. 75| | 0. 50| 1. 43| 1. 9| Quick ratio| | 0. 44| | 0. 21| 0. 38| 0. 62| Total asset turnover| | 1. 54| | 0. 68| 0. 85| 1. 38| Inventory turnover| | 19. 22| | 4. 89| 6. 15| 10. 89| Receivables turnover| | 30. 57| | 6. 27| 9. 82| 14. 11| Debt ratio| | 0. 49| | 0. 44| 0. 52| 0. 61| Debt-equity ratio| | 0. 96| | 0. 79| 1. 08| 1. 56| Equity multiplier| | 1. 96| | 1. 79| 2. 08| 2. 56| Interest coverage| | 7. 96| | 5. 18| 8. 06| 9. 83| Profit margin| | 7. 51%| | 4. 05%| 6. 98%| 9. 87%| Return on assets| | 11. 57%| | 6. 05%| 10. 53%| 13. 21%| Return on equity| | 22. 70%| | 9. 93%| 16. 54%| 26. 15%|

The liquidity ratio shows that the company has less liquidity as compare to the whole industry. East Coast Yachts current ratio is below the median industry ratio and the quick ratio is positioned at the median industry ratio. This indicates that the company may access to short-term borrowing. Referring to the turnover ratio, all the three ratios, I. e. total asset turnover, inventory turnover and receivables turnover are higher than upper quartile industry ratio. This indicates that the company is more efficient among the whole industry in using its assets to generate sales.

The financial leverage ratios, which include the debt ratio, debt-equity ratio, equity multiplier and interest coverage, are all below the median industry ratio, but higher than the lower quartile. This shows that East Coast Yachts is having less debt than the other companies in the industry, but is still within the normal range. The profit margin, return on assets as well as return on equity of the company are higher than the industry median. This shows that the company’s profitability is performing well among the whole industry.

As an overall, East Coast Yachts is performing well in the industry, while more concentration would only be required to be placed on the liquidity ratios. Question 3: Return on equity = 22. 70% Retention ratio (b)| =| Net income - Dividends| | | Net Income| | =| \$12,562,200 - \$7,537,320| | | \$12,562,200 | | =| 40%| Sustainable growth rate (SGR) = Return on equity x Retention ratio = 22. 70% x 0. 4 = 9. 08% Increase in assets| =| Assets| x| ? Sales| | | Sales| | | | =| \$108,615,000 | x| (167,310,000 x 9. 08%)| | | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| \$9,862,242. 00 | | | | | | | |

Increase in spontaneous liabilities| =| Spontaneous liabilities| x| ? Sales| | | Sales| | | | =| \$6,461,000 | x| (167,310,000 x 9. 08%)| | | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| \$ 586,658. 80 | | | | | | | | Retention ratio (b)| =| Addition to RE| | | | | Net income| | | | =| \$5,024,880 | | | | | \$12,562,200 | | | | =| 40%| | | | | | | | Profit margin| =| Net income| | | | | Sales| | | | =| \$12,562,200 | | | | | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| 8%| | | | | | | | Increase in equity| =| PM x Projected sales x retention ratio| | =| 8% x (\$167,310,000 x 1. 0908) x 0. 4| | =| \$5,840,055. 94 | | | | | | | | External Funds Needed (EFN)| =| Increase in assets - Increase in spontaneous liabilities - Increase in equity| | =| \$9,862,242. 00 - \$586,658 - \$5,840,056| | =| \$3,435,527. 26 | | | | | | | | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Pro forma Income Statement| | | Sales| | 182,501,748| | | Cost of goods sold| | 128,616,228| | | Other expenses| | 21,809,455| | | Depreciation| | 5,460,000| (Assume constant)| Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)| 26,616,065| | | Interest| | 3,009,000| (Assume constant)|

Taxable income| | 23,607,065| | | Taxes (40%)| | 9,442,826| | | Net Income| | 14,164,239| | | Dividends| | 8,221,709| | | Addition to RE| | 5,481,139| | | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Pro forma Balance Sheet| | | Assets| | | | | Current assets| | | | | Cash| | 3,318,214| | | Accounts receivable| | 5,969,948| | | Inventory| | 6,693,149| | | Total| | 15,981,311| | | Fixed assets| | | | | Net plant and equipment| | 102,495,931| | | | | | | | | | | | | Total assets| | 118,477,242| | | | | | | | Liabilities| | | | | Current liabilities| | | | | Accounts payable| | 7,047,659| | | Notes payable| | 14,265,482| | |

Total| | 21,313,141| | | | | | | | Long term debt| | 33,735,000| | | | | | | | Shareholders' equity| | | | | Common stock| | 5,200,000| | | Retained earnings| | 54,693,803| | | Total equity| | 59,893,803| | | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| | 114,941,944| | | | | | | | EFN| | 3,535,298| | | Current ratio| =| Current Assets| | Debt-equity ratio| =| Total liabilities| | | Current Liabilities| | | | Total equity| | =| \$15,981,311 | | | =| \$21,313,141 + \$33,735,000| | | \$21,313,141 | | | | 59,893,803 | | =| 0. 75| | | =| 0. 92| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Quick ratio| =| Current Assets - Inventory| | Equity multiplier| =| Total assets| | | Current Liabilities| | | | Total equity| | =| \$15,981,311 - \$6,693,149| | | =| \$118,477,242 | | | \$21,313,141 | | | | \$59,893,803 | | =| 0. 44| | | =| 1. 98| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Total asset turnover| =| Sales| | Interest coverage| =| EBIT| | | Total Assets| | | | Interest| | =| \$182,501,748 | | | =| \$26,616,065 | | | \$118,477,242 | | | | \$3,009,000 | | =| 1. 54| | | =| 8. 85| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Inventory turnover| =| COGS| | Profit margin| =| Net Income| | | Inventory| | | | Sales| =| \$128,616,228 | | | =| \$14,164,239 | | | \$6,693,149 | | | | \$182,501,748 | | =| 19. 22| | | =| 7. 76%| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Receivables turnover| =| Sales| | Return on assets| =| Net Income| | | Accounts receivable| | | | Total assets| | =| \$182,501,748 | | | =| \$14,164,239 | | | \$5,969,948 | | | | \$118,477,242 | | =| 30. 57| | | =| 11. 96%| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Debt ratio| =| Total assets - Total equity| | Return on equity| =| Net Income| | | Total assets| | | | Total equity| | =| \$118,477,242 - \$59,893,803| | | =| \$14,164,239 | | | \$118,477,242 | | | | \$59,893,803 | | =| 0. 49| | | =| 23. 5%| | | East Coast Yachts| | | Original ratios| | Based on pro forma| Current ratio| | 0. 75| | 0. 75| Quick ratio| | 0. 44| | 0. 44| Total asset turnover| | 1. 54| | 1. 54| Inventory turnover| | 19. 22| | 19. 22| Receivables turnover| | 30. 57| | 30. 57| Debt ratio| | 0. 49| | 0. 49| Debt-equity ratio| | 0. 96| | 0. 92| Equity multiplier| | 1. 96| | 1. 98| Interest coverage| | 7. 96| | 8. 85| Profit margin| | 7. 51%| | 7. 76%| Return on assets| | 11. 57%| | 11. 96%| Return on equity| | 22. 70%| | 23. 65%| As noted from above, the liquidity and turnover ratio will remain constant assuming growth precisely at 9. 8%. Debt-equity ratio will decreased slightly while equity multiplier and interest coverage increased, assuming interest remain constant. Slight improvement also noted from profit margin, return on assets and return on equity. Question 4: Growth rate| | 20%| | | | | | | | Increase in assets| =| Assets| x| ? Sales| | | Sales| | | | =| \$108,615,000 | x| (167,310,000 x 20%)| | | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| 21,723,000. 00 | | | | | | | | Increase in spontaneous liabilities| =| Spontaneous liabilities| x| ? Sales| | | Sales| | | | =| \$6,461,000 | x| (167,310,000 x 20%)| | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| \$1,292,200. 00 | | | | | | | | Retention ratio (b)| =| Addition to RE| | | | | Net income| | | | =| \$5,024,880 | | | | | \$12,562,200 | | | | =| 40%| | | | | | | | Profit margin| =| Net income| | | | | Sales| | | | =| \$12,562,200 | | | | | \$167,310,000 | | | | =| 8%| | | | | | | | Increase in equity| =| PM x Projected sales x retention ratio| | =| 8% x (\$167,310,000 x 1. 2) x 0. 4| | | =| \$6,424,704. 00| | | | | | | | External Funds Needed (EFN)| =| Increase in assets - Increase in spontaneous liabilities - Increase in equity| | =| \$21,723,000. 0 - \$1,292,200. 00 - \$6,424,704. 00| | =| \$14,006,096. 00| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Pro forma Income Statement| | | Sales| | 200,772,000| | | Cost of goods sold| | 141,492,000| | | Other expenses| | 23,992,800| | | Depreciation| | 5,460,000| (Assuming constant)| Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)| 29,827,200| | | Interest| | 3,009,000| (Assuming constant)| Taxable income| | 26,818,200| | | Taxes (40%)| | 10,727,280| | | Net Income| | 16,090,920| | | Dividends| | 9,044,784| | | Addition to RE| | 6,029,856| | | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | |

Pro forma Balance Sheet| | | Assets| | | | | Current assets| | | | | Cash| | 3,650,400| | | Accounts receivable| | 6,567,600| | | Inventory| | 7,363,200| | | Total| | 17,581,200| | | Fixed assets| | | | | Net plant and equipment| | 112,756,800| | | | | | | | | | | | | Total assets| | 130,338,000| | | | | | | | Liabilities| | | | | Current liabilities| | | | | Accounts payable| | 7,753,200| | | Notes payable| | 15,693,600| | | Total| | 23,446,800| | | | | | | | Long term debt| | 33,735,000| | | | | | | | Shareholders' equity| | | | | Common stock| | 5,200,000| | |

Retained earnings| | 60,169,200| | | Total equity| | 65,369,200| | | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| | 122,551,000| | | | | | | | EFN| | 7,787,000| | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Original ratios| | Growth @9. 08%| | Growth @20%| Debt-equity ratio| | 0. 96| | 0. 92| | 0. 87| Equity multiplier| | 1. 96| | 1. 98| | 1. 99| Interest coverage| | 7. 96| | 8. 85| | 9. 91| Profit margin| | 7. 51%| | 7. 76%| | 8. 01%| Return on assets| | 11. 57%| | 11. 96%| | 12. 35%| Return on equity| | 22. 70%| | 23. 65%| | 24. 62%| The growth rate of 20% indicates that the EFN is \$7,787,000.

Debt-equity ratio will decrease by 0. 05. The profit margin, return on assets and return on equity shows improvement if the expansion plan was taken up, assuming interest and depreciation remain constant. The further expansion may be taken up as it will bring improvement to the company’s profitability. Also, debt-equity ratio is still below 1 hence there is room for the expansion to be taken up. Question 5: Depreciation rate| =| Depreciation| | | | | PPE| | | | =| \$5,460,000 | | | | | \$93,964,000 | | | | =| 5. 81%| | | | | | | | Cost of new line| | 30,000,000| | |

New depreciation charged| | 1,743,220. 81| | | | | | | | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Pro forma Income Statement| | | Sales| | 200,772,000| (Assuming growth rate 20%)| Cost of goods sold| | 141,492,000| (Assuming growth rate 20%)| Other expenses| | 23,992,800| (Assuming growth rate 20%)| Depreciation| | 1,743,221| | | Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)| | 33,543,979| | | Interest| | 3,009,000| (Assuming constant)| Taxable income| | 30,534,979| | | Taxes (40%)| | 12,213,992| | | Net Income| | 18,320,988| | | Dividends| | 9,044,784| | | Addition to RE| | 6,029,856| | | | | | | East Coast Yachts| | | Pro forma Balance Sheet| | | Assets| | | | | Current assets| | | | | Cash| | 3,650,400| | | Accounts receivable| | 6,567,600| | | Inventory| | 7,363,200| | | Total| | 17,581,200| | | Fixed assets| | | | | Net plant and equipment| | 141,013,579| | | | | | | | Total assets| | 158,594,779| | | | | | | | Liabilities| | | | | Current liabilities| | | | | Accounts payable| | 7,753,200| | | Notes payable| | 15,693,600| | | Total| | 23,446,800| | | | | | | | Long term debt| | 33,735,000| | | | | | | | Shareholders' equity| | | | | Common stock| | 5,200,000| | |

Retained earnings| | 60,169,200| | | Total equity| | 65,369,200| | | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| | 122,551,000| | | | | | | | New EFN| | 36,043,779| | | Existing EFN| | 7,787,000| | | Additional EFN| | 28,256,779| | | Depreciation charged from increase in fixed assets at SGR of 20% was \$1,743,220. 81. The new plant would cost \$30,000,000. The additional EFN would be \$28,256,779. The total EFN would become \$36,043,779. This would imply that the capacity utilization would be lower next year, since the new plant would expand capacity much more than the required under SGR.