Financial Management and Control Kingspan Assignment 6th December 2012 Contents Introduction4 1. Profitability Ratios4 1. 1Gross Profit Ratio4 1. 2Net Profit Ratio4 1. 3Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)4 2. Liquidity Ratios5 2. 1Current Ratio5 2. 2Quick Ratio/Acid Test Ratio5 3. Efficiency Ratios6 3. 1Debtors Days6 3. 2Creditors Days6 3. 3Inventory Turnover Days6 4. Gearing Ratios7 4. 1Gearing Ratio7 4. 2Debt to Equity Ratio7 4. 3Interest Cover7 5. Investment Ratios8 5. 1Earnings per Share8 5. 2Price Earnings Ratio8 5. 3Dividend Cover8 6. Sources of Finance9 6. 1Debt capital:9 6. 2Lease and Hire Purchase9 . 3Share Capital9 6. 4Creditor & Debtors10 6. 5Reducing stock levels10 7. Conclusion10 7. Appendices11 7. 1Appendix 111 7. 2Appendix 212 Introduction Below are the ratio findings based on Kingspan PLC’s annual report year ended 31st December 2010. The ratios are calculated for both 2010 and 2009. The ratios are as follows: 1. Profitability Ratios 1. 1Gross Profit Ratio 20102009 Gross Profit333,694x100%=27. 96%308,913x100%=27. 45% Sales Revenue1,193,2151,125,523 There is a slightly higher Gross Profit in 2010. Kingspan are now holding onto . 51% more of each euro of sales then they were in 2009.

This is due to the increase in sales. 1. 2Net Profit Ratio 20102009 Net Profit (before Int & Tax)67,405x100%=5. 65%62,659x100%=5. 57% Sales Revenue1,193,2151,125,523 There is a slight increase of. 08% in 2010 compared to 2009. If going by the gross profit ratio this should have been higher; this indicates that they need to manage their expenses more efficiently thus increasing their net profit. 1. 3Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) 20102009 Net Profit (before Int & Tax)67,405x100%=7. 65%62,659x100%=7. 97% Capital Employed (W1)880,616786,676 Kingspan has been less efficient in using their capital in 2010; they are down by . 2% from 2009. Although there was an increase in sales in 2010 the decrease in ROCE is due to the higher borrowings in 2010. If in following years they continue this trend investors could start to worry and sell shares. 2. Liquidity Ratios 2. 1Current Ratio 20102009 Current Assets471,193=1. 55:1398,212=1. 31:1 Current Liabilities304,922303,529 The current ratio in 2010 shows that kingspan are managing their short term debt more efficiently than in 2009; this is due to increasing their current assets and managing to keep their currents liabilities relativity steady.

They need to manage their debtors and stock better to further increase the ratio which will entice potential investors. 2. 2Quick Ratio/Acid Test Ratio 20102009 Current Assets less Closing Inventory (W2)342,158=1. 12:1287,391=0. 95:1 Current liabilities304,922 303,529 In 2009 Kingspan may have had difficulty in paying their short term creditors but they have managed to increase it in 2010. Given the ideal ratio of 1:1 they could look at investing the surplus assets for a return. ? 3. Efficiency Ratios 3. 1Debtors Days 20102009 Debtors218,047x365=66. 70Days181,071x365=58. 72Days Credit Sales1,193,2151,125,523

Kingspan were managing their debtors better in 2009. There is an increase of 8 days in 2010; this could potentially lead to bad debt. Collecting their debt earlier will increase the liquidity of the business. They could offer discounts on early payment or offer a cash price. 3. 2Creditors Days 20102009 Creditors93,024x365=38. 68Days85,228x365=40. 42Days Credit Purchases (W3)877,735769,671 Kingspans creditors days have decreased by 2 days meaning they are paying off their debts 2 days earlier than in 2009. This shows that Kingspan are managing their debt more efficiently and may interest potential investors. 3. Inventory Turnover Days 20102009 Average Inventory (W4)119,928x365=50. 93Days134,291x365=60. 02Days Cost of Sales859,521816,610 Kingspan has managed their stock more efficiently in 2010; by doing so they have increased their cash flow and reduced their holding costs. ? 4. Gearing Ratios 4. 1Gearing Ratio 20102009 Long Term Borrowing213,671x100%=24. 26%201,141x100%=25. 57% Total Capital (W1)880,616786,676 By decreasing the level of gearing they have decreased the level of financial risk, although they have increased their borrowing the increase in capital is greater meaning that they are using less debt to make their profit. . 2Debt to Equity Ratio 20102009 Long Term Borrowing213,671x100%=32. 04%201,141x100%=34. 35% Shareholders Funds666,945585,535 Debt to equity has decreased by almost 2% in 2010 showing that there are more shareholders funds to borrowings. This shows that Kingspan can manage to pay their debts which is important for future borrowings and investors. 4. 3Interest Cover Interest Cover 20102009 Profit before Interest & Tax67,405=5. 3562,659=4. 91 Loan Interest12,59412,750 There are higher interest rates associated with short term borrowings than there are with long term borrowings.

By reducing their short term and increasing their long term borrowings Kingspan has reduced their finance costs in 2010. They have also increased their sales giving a better interest cover. It shows that in 2010 Kingspan would be able to pay their interest 5. 35 times compared to 4. 91 times in 2009. Bank and investors would look at this ratio to see how they cover their loans. 5. Investment Ratios 5. 1Earnings per Share 20102009 Profit after Interest and Tax48,657,000= € 0. 28 47,658,000= € 0. 28 Number of ordinary shares171,755,762171,503,951

Earnings per share in 2010 have remained almost the same as 2009. It is displayed here rounded but 2010 has a slight increase. It shows the profitability of Kingspan and the consistency of the EPS shows security. Shareholders are receiving a slightly higher return in 2010. 5. 2Price Earnings Ratio 20102009 Price per share7. 49=€ 26. 956. 05 =€ 21. 32 Earnings per Share0. 280. 28 It is more expensive to buy Kingspan shares in 2010 than compared to 2009; this shows confidence in future earning power. 5. 3Dividend Cover 20102009 Profit after Int & tax & Pref Div48,657=7. 0NIL Earnings per Share6,661 Kingspan can pay their shareholders 7. 3 times from their available profits. They did not pay any dividend in 2009; this could have been a strategic move to increase cash flow. ? 6. Sources of Finance Kingspan operate a number of different finance sources, such as: 6. 1Debt capital: Kingspan have both long and short term borrowings. With short term borrowings such as overdrafts and hire purchase kingspan will pay a high interest rate on their 2009 borrowings of €31,863mn but they have managed to reduce that by over half to €14,259mn.

This will reduce the financial costs. The interest rate for long term borrowings is generally a lot lower than that of short term loans; although Kingspan increased there long term borrowings in 2010 by €12,529mn they will be paying a lower interest rate, again saving on finance costs. By reducing their short term borrowings and increasing their long term borrowings in 2010, Kingspan have managed to reduce their overall finance cost to €156mn in 2010. The long term borrowings of €213,671mn have been scheduled for staggered repayments over 5 years, this ill allow kingspan to meet their liabilities when due. Interest rates for loans over €300,000 can be discussed with individual financial institutions. Kingspan’s interest rate for both long and short term loans will depend on their credit rating. They will have to be able to produce cash flow forecasts or provide security for the loan. 6. 2Lease and Hire Purchase This form of finance allows Kingspan to obtain the use of an asset without a large initial cost. It is beneficial as the risk remains with the owner and as technology changes they can upgrade the equipment with minimal cost.

Kingspan have increased their lease/hire purchase costs by €7mn in 2010. 6. 3Share Capital The core funding in Kingspan is provided by shareholders; this increased by €81,410mn in 2010. Although there is risk involved and there may be a high return expected by using this form of financing there is no requirement to pay dividends even if profits exist. As Kingspan do not have preferred shareholders they did not pay out dividends in 2009 and allowed them to retain their profit and improve sales. 6. 4Creditor & Debtors

Kingspan's creditors days decreased by 2 days in 2010; depending on the agreement they may have been able to receive a discount for early payment. However agreeing longer credit terms with their suppliers would allow them more flexibility with cash flow. In 2009 Kingspan were also managing their debtors days more efficiently than that of 2010. This may be due to the down turn in the economy and to make sales they could have offered longer repayment options. If needed Kingspan could renegotiate the terms or offer discounts for early payment. 6. 5Reducing stock levels

By reducing the number of days stock is held will save on holding costs such as security, light, heat, warehousing and staff it will also reduce the risk of spoiling or obsolete goods. Kingspan have managed to reduce their stock turnover days to 51 days compared to 60 days the previous year. 7. Conclusion Overall Kingspan is performing better in 2010 than compared to 2009. The sources of finance are working well for the company, they have a low gearing ratio and have moved funds between long and short term borrowing taking advantage of a lower interest rate.

They are managing their creditor, debtor and stock turnover days more efficiently than in 2009. They are leasing or using hire purchase to obtain assets this giving Kingspan the use of equipment without a large initial cost. Given the industry and the economic climate in 2010 Kingspan shows to be a liquid company and shows confidence in future earnings. ? 7. Appendices 7. 1Appendix 1 Workings (W1)Capital Employed20102009 Share Capital & Reserves666,945585,535 Long Term Debt213,671201,141 882,626786,676 (W2)20102009

Current Assets471,193398,212 Closing Inventory-129,035-110,821 342,158287,391 (W3) Credit Purchases20102009 Closing Stock129,035816,610 Cost of Sales859,521110,821 Opening Stock-110,821-157,760 Purchases877,735769,671 (W4)Average Inventory20102009 Opening Stock110,821157,760 Closing Stock129,035110,821 Total Stock239,856268,581 ? 2119,928134,291 ? 7. 2Appendix 2 Share prices for Kingspan Fig 1. 2009 share price as of 31/12/2009 Fig2. 2010 share price as of 31/12/2010 http://www. kingspan. com/kingspangroup/investors/share_info/share_chart/