Morality is the chief force which controls the homo 's greed for money and power. Godfrey ( 1996 ) . Ethical motives is the strong point which drives us to believe morally what is right and incorrect. So in other words we can state that ethical thought is the mirror image of what is morally right or incorrect.
Morality and ethical thought of a individual come from different beginnings like faith, instruction, society, civilization, etc. The ability to believe what is right and incorrect by and large comes from seeing and larning from the society, personality of the individual normally reflect on the individuals work. This treatment paper is about Jeremy Hart, Citadel system, Inc. and Northwell Networks. This instance study chiefly discusses about Jeremy Hart and his experiences faced in Citadel and Northwell Networks.
Discussion starts with Jeremy Hart a package applied scientist employed in Citadel to develop a new sophisticated database application was hired by Citadel 's largest rival Northwell Networks. In this subdivision of the paper some of the ethical issues about Jeremy Hart are discussed. In the 2nd subdivision of the paper the issue of Trade secret comes into focal point, some of the ethical issues about Hart supplying the secrets of Citadel to Northwell Networks are discussed.
ETHICAL ISSUESThere are many ethical issues to be considered in this instance survey, chief ethical issues to be considered is about Jeremy Hart at the same clip some the ethical issues about the Northwell Networks should besides be considered.Did Jeremy Hart act ethically in accepting Northwell Networks occupation offer? Jeremy Hart was considered as the brightest and insightful employee working in database application by his colleagues, he worked several old ages in developing the sophisticated database which can be used by 100s of users at the same time.
In this procedure Citadel besides developed a protocol to work out the functional jobs in database application which can non be observed by the clients and the rivals. At this point Hart developed the database after confronting many booby traps and he was besides offered higher salary, leading chances and a benefits which are non available at Citadel by Northwell Networks. Now our point of ethical issue come into focal point, Is Jeremy Hart act ethically in accepting the Northwell Networks offer? Sing the ethical theories like Absolute regulation based moralss and Utilitarian moralss Alistair Godbold ( 1999 ) which states `` An action is right from an ethical point of position if and merely if, the sum sum of the public-service corporations produced by the act is greater than the sum sum of the public-service corporations produced by any other act. '' In this instance Hart had much range of development in Northwell Networks and is ethical to accept Northwell Networks occupation offer.Did Northwell webs act ethically in engaging Jeremy Hart? When Jeremy Hart was offer a occupation by Northwell Networks, while engaging he was non mentioned about the work done in Citadel.
Northwell networks merely recognised his great work in Citadel and offered him a better place in there company. Northwell Networks did non cognize that Hart was holding transcripts of old work at the clip of enlisting, they merely expected him to work on the same undertaking as Citadel. From this statements we can state that Northwell networks acted ethically in engaging Jeremy Hart.Is it ethical to utilize transcripts of old employer in current occupation? Trade secrets are considered as the rational belongings Kurt M.
Saunders ( 2006 ) . Intellectual belongings is which consists of information about the work done in a company which may be considered as utile to the other company. If a company A loses its rational belongings to a company B so there may be a great benefits and net incomes to company B which uses the rational belongings of company A. In this treatment Jeremy Hart kept the transcripts of work done in Citadel which he was made to utilize them forcefully at Northwell Networks. Jeremy Hart was told in Citadel that their work should non be used or should non be discussed anyplace but was non forced to subscribe the nondisclosure understanding for the work done in Citadel.
Hart faced the same proficient issues sing the development of the database system which he worked with antecedently, Hart applied the methods which were utile for the development of the database system in Nortwell. As a portion of his occupation he forced his squad to work for the solutions he already cognize which indicates that Hart had no connotation to utilize the same methods which are used to work out the job in Citadel but he forced his squad to accomplish the solution by themselves. Hart was forced to utilize the copied by his supervisor who offered him upper direction place and fillip, Hart said no to his supervisor foremost but he was forced to utilize it. This is the point where Hart disclosed his old work to rush up the development procedure in Northwell Networks. Harmonizing to USTA Kurt M. Saunders ( 2006 ) .
It is unethical to unwrap the old work to the benefit of others. This leads to the embezzlement in which means to utilize the information of one individual to another individual without the mandate of the proprietor of that information.Did the supervisor behave ethically by inquiring Jeremy Hart to portion the transcripts from Citadel? Jeremy Hart was non merely asked to bring forth the transcripts of the old work he was besides threatened about his employment hereafter in Northwell by the supervisor this is a state of affairs in which Hart thought about his hereafter and made a determination to do usage of the transcripts of the old work in bettering the database system in Northwell. Hart was believing ethically at this point by rejecting the statement at first but it turned out to be a job for him when his supervisor talked about his hereafter in Northwell, in this state of affairs Hart thought it would be a best option to handover the transcripts to his supervisor and better the database harmonizing to the transcripts. Here the moralss of the supervisor should be questioned, supervisor behaved unethically by inquiring Hart to utilize the transcripts of Citadel.
But here we can besides see Hart pick was unethical, he disclosed the information of the old employee. Harmonizing to Irish ( 2005 ) it is considered as a condemnable act in some states to unwrap the information of the old employee. Although Hart did non subscribe the nondisclosure understanding in Citadel while go forthing the occupation but was told it 's non ethical to utilize one company secrets in other company.Did Citadel act ethically by go forthing the employ without subscribing the nondisclosure understanding? While working in Citadel Hart made some transcripts of his work which are confidential information about the development of the database system. He was frequently told by his director that the work done in Citadel should non be discussed or used outside the Citadel but in Hart instance it went incorrectly, if Hart was made to subscribe the nondisclosure understanding so they would hold protected there valuable trade secret from the abuse.
Business of the company depends on how good the company can protect its trade secrets, about 70 % value of the company comes from the trade secrets Kurt M. Saunders ( 2006 ) . If a trade secret is known to other company by any agencies it brings a great loss to the company which invested in that trade secret.
Ethical THEORIESEthical theories are the one which thrust to the decision of an issue in a moral manner.
Herman T Tavani ( 2007 ) . They help to cover with an issue and come to a decision and sometimes they help to see a quandary in a ethical manner. An idle ethical theory is one which can be applicable to a big pick of jobs and issues.
LABOUR THEORY OF PROPERTYLabour theory of belongings was developed by John Locke it states that the natural right of belongings is owned by the individual who delivers labour towards that belongings.
In other words it can be said that if a individual sees a tree which is non owned by anyone and wanted to hold a fruit from it and he plucked the fruit from that tree, so that fruit he plucked from the tree becomes his ain belongings because he applied his labour work ( tweaking ) to have the fruit. If the tree is owned by anyone else so the fruit plucked by the individual will non be his ain any longer. LYSANDER SPOONER ( 1855 ) . In Jeremy Hart 's treatment it is told that he and his co-workers have kept their attempts to develop the new database application, in this instance it 's non merely Jeremy Hart who worked on the development but besides his co-workers. In the similar mode Citadel have developed a unique protocol which was used in work outing the proficient jobs in the package development. If these instances are considered and applied to The Labour Theory of Property, Citadel has opportunities to do a ethical instance against Northwell Networks stating that they own the belongings because they are the inventors and they are the 1 who applied labor to the database system they developed.
It was Citadel who developed the protocols for the database which can non be recognised by the clients or the rivals of Citadel. It can be said that there may be same sort of protocols developed by Citadel in the database direction merchandise developed by Northwell Networks.
THE UTILITARIAN THEORY OF PROPERTYUtilitarian theory argues that an action which gives maximal figure of public-service corporations to maximal figure of people is considered as ethical action. Godbold ( 1999 ) . This theory is considered to be the best ensuing ethical theory but in some instances its ethical end product is non right.
Sing instance in which a civil applied scientist wanted to construct a span which can salvage a batch of money for the people in that metropolis, but he knows that constructing this span kills some workers compressing span. If this instance is considered harmonizing to the Utilitarian theory, compressing that span is right but engineer knows that it will kill some workers. It is non ethical to construct that span knowingly it will kill some workers. In Jeremy Hart treatment he was the lone individual who was benefited more by acquiring higher wage, leading chances and better benefits at nothwell webs and he was besides told to acquire gratitude to upper direction and immense fillip.
This is all what Hart got to utilize the old notes of Citadel at Northwell Networks. Sing the Utilitarian theory of belongings which tells an action is ethical merely if it brings maximal benefits to the maximal figure of people but in this instance Hart is the lone 1 who is benefited by his work. Jeremy Hart and Citadel employees worked difficult to work out the security issue jobs in the database application which can be used by 100s of users. Now harmonizing to Utilitarian theory what Hart has done is non ethical because the maximal figure of people who would be benefited if Hart did non utilize his transcripts, maximal figure of people here would be the amount of the employs in Citadel Inc and the figure of users who would be benefited by the use of databases to salvage multiple degree of information consecutively.
But at the same clip if Citadel had made the nondisclosure understanding mandatary so there would be a possibility of salvaging the trade secrets. Hart would hold ne'er given the secrets of Citadel to Northwell Networks, he would hold thought of the nondisclosure understanding and told his supervisor that Citadel may travel legal if they come to cognize about their secret got disposed in its rival company. Its 1 's ain company duty to salvage the trade secrets Kurt M. Saunders ( 2006 ) . If the public-service corporation of subscribing the nondisclosure understanding in this instance of Citadel would hold proved the felicity of employees, clients and the direction of the Citadel i.e.
the maximal figure of people would be happy in this instance. This province 's if utilitarianism theory of belongings is applied so the positive options on Citadel come into image and the negative options about Northwell comes into image.
THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF PROPERTYIn position of Hegel a individual 's inventive work shows the personality of his in it. In other words image of one 's personality can be seen in one 's originative work. In instance of Hart we can see that whatever he has done is image of his personality harmonizing to this theory.
The database application developed in Northwell webs may dwell the protocols of Citadel Inc because the work done by mentioning the notes of Citadel will automatically take Northwell Networks to include the protocols in it. The members of staff in Northwell Networks may non detect the protocols in database system because they were designed in such a manner that they are non noticeable by clients or the rivals of Citadel Inc. If this Citadel applies the contrary technology procedure on the database system developed by the Northwell Networks which Citadel thinks have hints of their database application, so if they find the Citadel protocols in Northwell 's database application it proves that Citadels trade secrets are disclosed in Northwell Network. In this manner the personality of the Citadel 's database application can be seen in Northwell 's database application.Harmonizing to the treatment we can see that there was no attempt made by the Northwell Networks to develop their ain database direction system, attempts here are like doing a protocol to work out the database job.
When Hart told about the advancement and efficiency of the database direction system of Citadel was more superior so that of what Northwell Networks have developed so the supervisor merely asked Hart to handover the notes of Citadel which is non ethical to make alternatively of inquiring him to develop some package that would fix the database direction system and increase the efficiency of the database direction system. If the supervisor in Northwell Networks had suggested making something like developing package to increase the efficiency of the database direction system so it would non take to be a ethical job in any instance, it would merely be considered as a just agencies of competition. But alternatively of making that the supervisor had merely asked Hart to manus over the notes, when Hart rejected he forced him to handover the transcripts or else it would be difficult for Hart to acquire through in Northwell Networks. Here the point of professional moralss of Jeremy Hart comes into image, professional moralss involve most about the moral values in a position of a professional manner which means a professional is considered to be a individual who attained cognition, critical thought and job work outing abilities by his/her instruction or the personal background and how he/she uses that abilities to execute a undertaking.
Ronald E. Anderson, Deborah G. Johnson, Donald Gotterbarn, Judith Perrolle ( 1993 ) .
CRITICAL Thinking AND LOGICAL ARGUMENTSCritical thought is ability of determination devising. Success of a individual depends on how good he can judge the state of affairs and thinks critically, job resolution is besides considered as a portion of critical thought.
Problem work outing and determination devising are the cardinal factors for the growing in any workplace. Critical minds do n't travel with their emotions alternatively they think for the grounds and facts for a job and the solution.Argument is a group of premises which lead to a decision either true or false.
Argument 1Premise 1. Citadel director told Hart non to discourse the work outside Citadel.Premise 2.
Hart kept transcripts of notes made in development of Citadel database directionSystem.Premise 3. Hart handed over the notes to supervisor in Northwell Networks.Decision: Therefore Hart cheated with Citadel Inc.In this statement all the Premise are true harmonizing to the instance survey produced, when Hart was in Citadel his director told him and his other employees that they should non discourse or unwrap the secrets of the database system outside.
But subsequently hart handed over the notes taken in Citadel to Northwell Networks supervisor from this premiss decision adopted is Hart Cheated with Citadel. Morally hart knows that its unethical to unwrap the trade secrets to anyone who is traveling to be benefited either in development or financially, but hart thought there was no option left for him in this state of affairs and handed over the notes to Northwell Networks.
Argument 2Opening statement: Hart was non willing to be unpatriotic to Citadel.Premise 1. Supervisor at Northwell forced Hart to handover the notes.
Premise 2. Hart restricted to handover the notes to Northwell.Decision: hence, Hart was forced to be unethical to his profession.In this statement we can see that Hart was non willing to handover the notes to Citadel but he was made to handover the notes because of the supervisor who threatened Hart by stating `` you wo n't acquire far at Northwell if u feel obligated to Citadel '' . This made Hart to look frontward for his hereafter in Northwell and handed over the notes to supervisor.
DecisionIn this paper we discussed about Jeremy Hart in Citadel and Northwell Netorks, some of the ethical points which involve Hart and the two companies are discussed and judged whether the ethical issues are right or incorrect? In that ethical issues it is been noticed that Hart was non willing to be unethical in some point of clip but he was driven to be unethical by the issues he faced.
Northwell webs was more focussed on the end product of the new database direction system instead than sing the ethical points involved in accomplishing the end. Three different Ethical theories are discussed which province who is ethical and who is unethical in different state of affairss. The Labour theory of belongings, The utilitarianism theory of belongings and The personality theory of belongings are discussed in this paper. All the three theories go in favor of Citadel in ethical point of position harmonizing to the definitions of the three theories. Discussion for the different statements are made and the decisions for the statements are developed which province that Hart cheated on Citadel by supplying the notes to Northwell Networks and he was unethical to his profession in different instances.