Types of file sharing Peer-to-peer file sharing Users can use software that connects in to a peer-to-peer network to search for shared files on the computers of other users (i.
e. peers) connected to the network. Files of interest can then be downloaded directly from other users on the network. Typically, large files are broken down into smaller chunks, which may be obtained from multiple peers and then reassembled by the downloader.
This is done while the peer is simultaneously uploading the chunks it already has to other peers. File hosting services File hosting services are a simple alternative to peer-to-peer software.These are sometimes used together with Internet collaboration tools such as email, forums, blogs, or any other medium in which links to direct downloads from file hosting services can be embedded. These sites typically host files so that others can download them. Downloading Without Paying: Why is it illegal? When a movie or song is produced and marketed, everyone involved in the process has monetary gains from the sale of that product. Therefore, that product is protected by copyright law so that it cannot be copied, reproduced or resold without their permission.
If you did not pay for a song, movie or other media file that has a copyright, then downloading that file is a crime. Likewise, distributing a copyrighted media file, whether via electronic or non-electronic methods, without the express permission of the copyright holder is also illegal. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Who’s Watching? The two primary groups that police the downloading of music and movies are the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).These two groups constantly monitor downloads and websites for copyright violation. They tend to pay close attention to colleges and universities. When they see that a song or movie has been downloaded illegally, they notify the school who then takes steps to internally identify the person who downloaded the file.
There can be serious legal and financial ramifications to illegal downloading. At Webster, Information Technology (IT) receives infringement notifications from the RIAA or MPAA. IT immediately makes a copy of the logs which enables activity to be traced back to a specific Internet port.Each port is associated with a person. Once the person has been identified, the information is turned over to the governing body for that individual (such as the Dean or Associate Dean of Students if the person lives on campus) for disciplinary actions. Consequences of Illegal Downloading Legal & Monetary Most of us don't have over half a million dollars lying around the house.
But, if you download files which you have not paid for or share files without the permission of the copyright holder, you just might have to pay that much. Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, distribution of copyright materials is punishable by law.Those found guilty of copyright infringement may face the following penalties: Up to five years in jail Fines and charges of up to $150,000 per file In addition to any other charges that might be brought against you, the copyright holder can file suit, which can result in legal fees and damages that must be paid. Recent cases have resulted in judgments against the person distributing the files for up to $80,000 per file.
Here are some examples: "A federal jury on Friday concluded that a 25-year-old college student must pay $675,000 — or $22,500 for each of the 30 songs he was found liable of infringing" (Wired. com).In Minnesota, Jammie Thomas-Rasset, a single mother, was fined $80,000 for each of 24 songs, resulting in a total of $1,920,000, almost 2 million dollars. Effects of file sharing In an article released by Management Science in September 2007, it was found that file sharing decreased the chance of survival for low ranked albums on music charts and increased exposure to albums that were ranked high on the music charts, allowing popular and well known artists to remain on the music charts more often. This had a negative impact for new and not well known artists while promoting the work of already popular artists and celebrities. 7] A common argument on the effects of file sharing is that it discourages creativity from authors and artists.
A study released by Chicago Journals in 2010 showed that while file sharing does take away profit from publishing and label companies, it does not discourage authors and artists from releasing new works. From 2002-2007, it was found that the publications of new books rose by 66% and the number of new music albums more than doubled. Film production also went up by more than 30% since 2003. In 2000, Napster, a file sharing site opened and that same year, sales of albums began to decline.
There seemed to be no other explanation other than file sharing to support the change in sales. It is still widely debated how much harm file sharing brings to copyright owners although most research papers conclude that file sharing does bring about some degree of harm Steps to Prevent Illegal Downloading & Sharing Most Peer-to-Peer (P2P) software (see examples below) has file-sharing features that are turned on by default making any song or movie files on your computer available to others for download. In effect, you are distributing copyright materials without even knowing it.Know what software you have on your computer and how it works. Turn off any file-sharing options.
If you have a wireless router setup in your dorm room or apartment, be sure to setup security, including a good password. Only give that password to people you trust. If someone connects to your wireless router and downloads or shares files illegally, that activity will be traced back to you and you will be held liable. If you are a student living on the Webster Groves campus, you can take your computer, for free, to the ResTech office, and they will help you remove or disable any file sharing software that might be on your computer.
Whichever way you look at it, downloading music, software, or movies illegally is STEALING. It doesn't matter that everybody is doing it. It doesn't matter that you can't afford to buy a certain CD or computer game. It doesn't even matter that some of the music and movie industry's successful can afford to buy houses faster than I can type.
However, if I am to convince you of my position in this issue, we need to have a basic, similar, definition of stealing. Quite simply, stealing is taking something from someone without permission, and that is exactly what people are doing downloading things from the internet.One of the greatest consequences of the Internet is that it doesn't force people to face responsibility. In the Internet, we can do whatever we want, and there's little chance of getting caught. And when we do get caught, there are ways of covering our tracks to make ourselves look innocent. We've sunk so low to twist the idea of stealing, and we can't imagine a i?? a'¬A"clicki?? a'¬i?? of a mouse could constitute stealing.
We find downloading things so easily accessible and tempting, so we try to justify ourselves, not wanting to face responsibility.Do you own the rights to the things you download? No? Then, according to the law, you are a THIEF. Argument: Everybody is doing it. This has to be the most juvenile excuse. People, wake up! Just because everybody is doing it DOESN'T MAKE IT RIGHT.
Get your morals in line, even though you aren't hurting anyone, it's still against the law. Argument: The law is WRONG, so I'm breaking it so change can occur. I heard someone say this before. My argument against this logic is, how do you choose what you download?You just choose random stuff to download, and you download as much as you can, hoping record companies notice you and sue you? Then you have an opportunity to share your two cents? Not effective, my friend. Argument: I download stuff, but if I like it enough, I'll go out and buy it. Let's be real, are the majority of people doing that? Of course not.
Argument: I can't afford to buy that song, movie, software. Since when did anyone have the right to take something just because they couldn't afford it? This type of logic allows the homeless to take your food and justify it by saying, i?? '¬A"I can't afford it. You still have more food at home, you can obviously afford to go out and get more, and you aren't going to die if you don't eat one meal. i?? a'¬i?? And since when did someone NEED a movie or a song? Or even any software? You don't need any of that stuff.
Argument: Rock stars and movie stars have enough money. If I download their new song/movie, it's not like it's hurting them too much. That's true, and it's not like I enjoy seeing how rich people are these days, but it's still stealing, no matter how rich the person is you're stealing from.Is there a line that defines who you can and can't steal from? Once an artist makes it big then you can steal from them? Once again, it doesn't matter that you're stealing from a rich person, it's STILL STEALING. I have read so many articles and opinion papers on the issue of downloading music, movies, and software, and I have NEVER heard a good argument supporting downloading music, movies, and software.
If anyone out there thinks they have one, let me know. Until then, I hope reading this has somehow changed your mind about the issue of downloading.