People depend on detectives and police officers to protect their properties and lives. Law enforcement officers perform their duties in various ways and the duty depends on the type and size of their organization.
Detectives and uniform police officers are expected to perform their duties within their jurisdiction even when they are off on duty (Ericson, 1982). Uniform police and detectives pursue their duties and apprehend persons who break the law and then give warnings or citation.Most of the time, they spend on writing and keeping records of the incidents they encountered. Uniform police officer patrol within their area of jurisdiction and make investigations of any activity they notice to be suspicious (Ericson, 1982). On the other hand detectives and investigators also called special agents or agents are often involved in collecting evidence and gathering facts (Ericson, 1982). Depending on the occupation specialization their duties differs such as game warden, police officer, or detective and depending on whom they are working for.
However regardless of the location, duties or job, detectives and uniform police officer at all levels should write reports and keep meticulous records that are required if they testify in a court (Grant-Adamson, 1996). Subculture and duties of detectives and investigators Investigators and private detectives assist business, individuals and attorneys by looking for information and analyzing that information. Private detectives and investigators connect small clues in order to uncover faults or solve mysteries about financial, legal or personal matters (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007).They offer many services which include corporate, executive, celebrity protection, individual background profiles and pre-employment verifications.
Some of detectives and investigators investigate computer crimes such as harassing e-mail; identify theft and illegal down loads of a copyrighted material. Detectives and investigators also provide assistance in civil and criminal liability cases, fraud and insurance claims, protection and child custody cases, missing cases of individuals and premarital screening (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007).Sometimes investigators and detectives are hired to investigate the individuals to disprove or prove infidelity. When determining facts in a case, private detective and investigators have various methods to choose from i.
e. they may use computer to perform much of their work for example recovering deleted documents and e- mails (Ward, 2001). Detectives and investigators may perform computer data base or they may work with somebody who performs this work.The use of computers enables them to obtain much information quickly such as the person prior arrests, civil judgments and conviction, telephones numbers, associations and club membership, motor vehicles registration and photographs.
Investigators and detectives perform various types of searches or surveillance (Ward, 2001). They may visit subjects’ work place or may make a phone call in order to verify facts such as place of employment or individuals’ income.Detectives and investigators also interview people to obtain much information as possible about a particular case for example in case where a person is missing and they want to carry out background checks. Detectives and investigators may go under cover and pretend they are someone else in order to observe the subject inconspicuously.
Physical surveillance may be highly technical or low technical (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007). Detectives and investigators may observe a site from inconspicuous location or from a vehicle.Such site may be the home of the subject. Using video or photographic cameras, cell phones and binoculars, they use surveillance to obtain information about a subject and this duty may be time consuming (Pilot, 1999).
The duties of investigators and detectives depends on the clients’ needs for example in the case involving fraudulent compensation claims for the workers they may correct a long term covert observation of an individual who is suspected of fraud.In case the detectives or investigators observes the individual perform an activity that causes injury that are stated in the compensation claims of the worker them they may take still photograph or video to document the activities and report it to the client (Pilot, 1999). Investigators and detectives must consider the law while performing their duties. Local and state legislations such as legal issues and privacy laws affect the work of investigators and detectives and therefore they must keep up with them.Certain methods sometimes are unclear about their legality and therefore detectives and investigators have to make judgment calls when making decisions on how to pursue a certain case.
In order not to compromise the admissibly of evidence in court, they must know how to collect the evidence (Pilot, 1999). Private investigators and detectives often specialize in their duties. For example there are those who deal with intellectual theft of property, also surveillance and searches and documents acts of privacy.They may also help their clients to stop illegal activities and provide intelligence for civil action and prosecutions (Pilot, 1999).
There are other investigators and detectives who deal with financial profiles and assets surveillance and searches. The report that is provided by these kinds of investigators reflects information that is obtained through interviews, surveillance, research and investigations, including public document reviews (Ward, 2001). Legal detectives and investigators normally deal with cases involving the courts and are employed by lawyers and firms.Legal investigators and detectives assist in the preparation of criminal defense, serving legal documents and reviewing evidence.
They may also gather the information on parties to the litigation; testing in courts, take photographs, assemble reports and evidence for trials (Pilot, 1999). Corporate investigators on the other hand conduct external and internal investigation that involve investigations of drug use in a work place, determine whether the workers are stealing information or merchandise and ensure that the expenses are not abused.External investigations involve prevention of crimes that originates from outside the corporation for example theft of assets of the corporation through fraudulent billing (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007). Financial investigators develop confidential profiles of finances of companies or individuals who are parties to prospective large financial transactions (Ward, 2001). They are certified public accountants and perform their duties with investment accountants and bankers. They do surveillance and searches for assets to recover damages that are awarded by a court in theft or fraud cases (Pilot, 1999).
Investigators who work for hotels or rental stores are responsible for the safeguard retail store assets by apprehending individuals attempting to destroy the properties or steal merchandise. They prevent theft by delivery personnel, vendor representations, store employees and shop lifters (Pilot, 1999). Store detective undertake periodic inspections of dressing rooms, stock areas, rest room and they also assist in opening and closing stores. They also prepare security reports and loss prevention reports for the management and testify in the court against the persons they apprehend.
Hotels detectives on the other hand protect the guests from theft of their belongings and also preserve order in bars, restaurant and hotels. They keep off undesirable individuals from the premises (Pilot, 1999). Private investigators and detectives perform their duties in irregular hours since they need to contact and conduct surveillance to individuals who may be absent in the normal working time (Stuntz, 1999). They also spend most of their time away from their office since they have to conduct interviews or do searches.
However most of their work in the offices involves making phone call and conducting searches through computers.There are those detectives and investigators who have their own agencies and they have employed other detectives and investigators and therefore they may work in the normal working hours (Stuntz, 1999). Private detective and investigators work in any environment that may include seedy bars, but hotel detectives normally work in the firms which they protect. Generally investigators perform their duties alone but in sometimes they may require involving other individuals especially when doing surveillance and want to avoid detection by the subject they are following (Stuntz, 1999).The job of private detectives and investigators maybe dangerous and stressful since sometimes it involves confrontation.
Some detectives and investigators carry handguns since some situations require them to be armed, and therefore they are supposed to be licensed by appropriate authority (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007). However in most cases they don’t require a weapon since their duty is to collect information and not apprehension or law enforcement. Detectives and investigators are usually in plain clothes and do investigations and collect evidence and gather facts for criminal cases.Some detectives are assigned to task forces of intelligence to combat crimes of specific types (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007). Detectives and investigators examine records, conduct interviews, participate in arrests or raid and also observe the activities of the subject.
In the United States for example federal agents, state, inspectors and detectives specializes in the investigation of one particular violation such as fraud or homicide (Sklansky, 2006). Cases are assigned to them on a rotating basis and they work on them till arrest and conviction is done or until cases is dropped (Ward, 2001).In United States the federal government performs its duties through many areas of law enforcement. The principle investigators of the government are the “federal Bureau of investigators (FBI)” agents. The FBI agents are responsible for carrying out investigation of the national security and conduct investigations of violation of various categories of federal law (Sklansky, 2006).
These agents’ monitors, conduct surveillance, investigate crimes, examine business records and sometimes participate in undercover assignments which are often very sensitive.FBI agents carry out investigations for wide range of criminal activities which include, bank robbery, organized crime, terrorism, financial crime, kidnapping, drug trafficking, espionage and cyber crimes (Sklansky, 2006). Other federal agencies in the United States enforce particular kinds of law. For example, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents enforce laws and regulations pertaining to illegal drugs. Drug Enforcement Administration agencies pursue and coordinate United State drug investigations abroad and ensure that the federal drug laws are enforced.
DEA agents sometimes carry out complex criminal investigations; they may also infiltrate illicit drug organizations and perform surveillance of criminals using undercover techniques (Rogers, Lewis & Lewis, 2007). The Unite State marshals and the deputy marshals ensure that the federal courts are protected and there is efficient operation of judicial system. Marshals and deputy marshals ensure that the judicially of the federal states are protected. They also have the responsibilities of protecting federal witnesses, transporting federal prisoners and manage the assets which are seized from the criminal enterprises (Sklansky, 2006).Among the federal agencies of law enforcement, marshals and deputy marshals have the widest jurisdiction and they are involved nearly in all efforts of federal law enforcements. Moreover the United States marshals pursue the duties of arresting federal fugitives.
The bureau of explosive, fire arms, and tobacco and alcohol agents investigates and regulates violation of explosive and firearms laws as well as tobacco an alcohol tax regulations (Sklansky, 2006).The US department of homeland security uses several law enforcement officers under numerous different agencies which include border protection and customs, US secrets service, immigration and custom enforcement an borders patrol agents. Boarders patrol agents have the mission of detecting and preventing smuggling and entry of undocumented foreign nationals into United States. They also apprehend individuals who violate immigration laws and indirect contrabands for example narcotics. Inspectors of immigration examine individuals seeking entrance to states of federal government.
Immigration inspectors have the responsibilities of ensuring that those seeking entrance to the US are eligible to do so (Sklansky, 2006). They also make reports and maintain record and process petitions and applications for temporary residence or immigration in the United States. On the other hand custom inspectors ensures that laws governing exports and imports are enforced by inspecting cargo, articles carried or worn by people, baggage or cargo carried by vehicles, vessels, aircrafts and trains leaving or entering into United States.These inspectors seize smuggled or prohibited articles, apprehend, and intercept contrabands, search, and arrest and contain violators of the laws (Sklansky, 2006). Customs agents pursue the duties of investigating violations such as smuggling of narcotic, child pornography, and money laundering and customs fraud. Customs agents also have the responsibilities of enforcing Arms Export Act.
While undertaking foreign and domestic investigations they conduct physical searches, electronic surveillance and develop and use in formats (Dubber, 2005).They also examine records from exporters, importers, manufactures and bank couriers. These agencies conduct interviews and corroborate with other agencies on joint task forces and execute and get search warrants. Air marshals of federal states pursue the duties of providing air security by fighting attacks which are targeted on US crew, passengers and airports.
Federal air marshals disguise and undercover themselves as ordinary passengers and may board flights of United States air carriers to the locations worldwide (Ward, 2001).The United States secret service agents perform the duties of protecting the president, the vice presidents, their families, former presidents, presidential candidates and foreign dignitaries (Dubber, 2005). Secret service agents investigate frauds in the use of credit cards, forgery of the government bonds or checks and counterfeiting. Other gents of the federal state employ special agents and police with power to arrest and authority to carry firearms. Example of these agencies is national parks service, forest service and postal service (Dubber, 2005).