Theories in deviant behavior tend to be unclear at times and lacking in justifiable broadness. The lack of clarity can sometimes end up in apparent inconsistencies, although more attention to the structure of a scientific theory and its requirements might reveal more agreement among theorists than now recognized. In fact, rarely do available theories offer guidance that does not require heroic leaps of conjecture. Practicality is not a requirement of a valid theory since theories might be void but still of use.
In the theoretical framework of self-control theory, the primary concept merges in the theoretical fields of control theory with rational decision, routine activities, and biological and psychological explanations. Integral to their explanation is that deviancy and deviant behavior are different concepts. People who engage in defying acts are seen as having low self-control. They engage in many conventional behaviors, but due to low self-control, they are predisposed to committing deviancy if opportunities arise.This explanation explains all types of deviant behavior (Hunter & Dantzker, 2005 p.
53). In the self-control theoretical concept, the low-self control is viewed to originate primarily in the side of the parental and home upbringing and puts lesser attention and focus on the economic and social environment influence. The occurrence of deviant behavior is a contribution of varying factors both external and internal, such as external socio-environment or psychological perspectives. In the theory proposed in this research, the trigger-etiology of deviancy mainly centers in the aspect of inner homes.
Scope & Limitations The main argument of the course research involves the theoretical content of whether low-self control is really caused by the decreased parental responsibility and interventions. The study shall employ the methodology of theoretical analysis and interpretation in order to provide unbiased justification of the argument proposed. As the theory denotes further origination of low-self control due to parental control, the study shall evaluate the theoretical model presented if such claims and the appropriateness of minimal race and economic influences are valid to create equal opportunities and avenues for all children.The following shall be the primary objectives utilized in the study: a. To be able to evaluate the theoretical framework, self-control theory, in terms of the appropriateness and applicability of its proposed argument, particularly the linking of deviancy to parental control and reduced focus in economic and racial aspect b. To be able to provide analysis and interpretation that validates and supports the proposed evaluation of the subject.
Discussion According to Gotfredson and Hirschi, the causes of deviancy are impulsive personalities, low self-control, weakened social bonds, and criminal opportunities.An impulsive personality is developed by certain biological and psychological factors. Low self-control is a product of impulsive personality combined with social factors such as deviant parents and poor supervision. Weakened social bonds are the product of low self-control and the subsequent development of alternative attachments, involvements, commitments, and beliefs. If opportunities to conduct deviant behaviors should come about, the combination of low self-control and weakened social bonds will very likely result to deviancy (Hunter & Dantzker, 2005 p.
53).Defining first the theoretical definition of self-control is a mutually exclusive form of volitional action control. Such condition is deemed impossible for a person to be at once self-controlling behavior. If a person emphasizes self-control, the individual runs the risk of becoming overly analytical and inhibited, and may suffer from uncontrollable negative ruminations and periods of alienation due to chronic activation of object recognition.
The over manifestation of self-control induces suppression of the self and other parts of extension memory; hence, the identity and autonomy of the individual is greatly inflicted (Greenberg etal, 2004 p. 420). However, if low self-control progresses, the suppression transforms to projection, which is the actual inadequacy of self-regulation. The theoretical framework of self-control ignores individual traits that should account for a significant, if not the major, proportion of variation in individual deviations.
The theoretical concept combines elements of opportunity and control theories wherein the environmental conditions influence deviant opportunities, and one example involves the home parental management of their siblings. If the situations in the family are inclined primarily on deviant behaviors, chances are the development of low self-control is increased, which greatly encourage the occurrence of such behaviors. According to the theory, individuals with diminished self-control are more likely to steal what is just lying around than those with high self-control (Peelo & Soothill, 2005 p. 2).The theory follows that one’s level of self-control is acquired in childhood (or earlier) and that differences in self-control between individuals are unaffected by subsequent experience.
Self-control theory also implies probable connection of age factors in the aspect of delinquency development. Moreover, it connotes that the theoretical framework of childhood development mainly originates to the branching of age factors, home management, familial applications, and more importantly, social-environment (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004 p. 41).The theory involves the attachments and social bonds formed during the entire course influence of the child, which relates to the attachment formed, modeling and familial label as well. Theoretical Arguments The theoretical arguments implicated in the theory of self-control involves less attention on racial and economic influence, as well as the sole focus in parental aspect rather than the consideration and incorporation of other socio-cultural and socio-psychological influences.
As implicated above the theoretical description, age and childhood development is viewed to be the primary cause of delinquent behavior, which theoretically initiated in homes and through parental management. As the argument section progress, the determinants proposed are rather incomplete and at risk of inconsistencies, especially considering that behavioral and attitude development occurs in varying factors. Economic factors are one of the major influential factors that should have been considered ion theoretical foundation.Low financial status in life triggers an environment conducive to deviant acts and risk of progressing to criminal acts. Such situation is very much observed in the case of those living in slum areas of United States wherein 75%, as of 2001, of crimes mainly originates from slum areas and fields high poverty rates (Vito, Maahs & Holmes, 2007 p.
14). Drug addiction, prostitution, and other illegal deviancies are most of the time present in these societal groups.Moreover, it has been deemed as well that financially well-off individuals are likely to cause deviancies as well due to their tendencies to be abusive and neglector of moral stands of every individual. Probably cause for the action involves the psychological thought that their status provides the best protection; hence, low self-control is initiated (Sutherland etal, 1992 p. 99). The contribution of racial factors is also essential in the formulation of low self-control.
Racial characteristics influence primarily the cultural practices, family management, and most especially child development.Some presenting cases with radical or liberal household upbringing is tolerated by other families, while others promote a consistent implementation of self-regulating interventions, such as house rules and disciplinary actions. In the United States, most of the whites, especially those in poverty lines, impose the cultural upbringing of liberalization, which most of the time promotes lesser child control development. The inhibition of physical childhood disciplinary action imposed in the United States is one contributing factor that induces low self-control as viewed by the critiques (Sutherland etal, 1992 p. 07).
Conclusion In conclusion of the studies made, self-control theory states that deviant behaviors are results of age-factors and childhood development with respect to the parental up-bringing and social interaction. The theory considers mainly the faulty household and parent-child management as the primary trigger that contributes to deviant behavior. However, economic and racial aspects are also essential considerations that influence the induction of low-self control, such as due to financial constraints or cultural practices; hence, the theory needs to be considered.