(Leader): first identify the group members (attention getter): Egypt the country that invented the precision engineered pyramids has not yet adopted traffic lights. today we are going to discuss the problem of traffic acciedients especially in Egypt searching in its causes and suggesting an applicable solutions based on real experiences. (Leader): we have a summary of many statistics which prove the existence of the problem strongly in Egypt which will be discussed by (tony ) Tony: (summary proof of problem) Road traffic accidents pose a global health, economic and social crisis. Each year, road traffic accidents kill more than a million men, women and children around the world.Tens of millions more are injured, some of whom become permanently disabled.

In Egypt, road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death for persons aged 5 to 25 years. Each year; more than 5000 citizens are killed in traffic collisions as reported by the Information and Decision Support Center (IDSC). Traffic accidents also have a significant effect on the economy of the country.A recent study issued by the IDSC concluded that there are great losses in the Egyptian economy each year due to high rates of road accidents which increased during 2006 by 200%. Leader: a study by global road safety organization will be discussed by (maged) (Maged):According to the global road safety organization, the following information about road traffic accidents were reported . 50% of road traffic fatalities worldwide involve young adults aged .

15-44 years corresponding to the most economically productive segment of population. .Over 70% - nearly 850,000 persons - killed in road traffic injuries in 1998 were under 45 years of age.For every death there are approximately 25 serious injuries. Permanent disabilities are 4 times fatalities, hospitalization 10 times, and emergency room care 30 times.

.Economic costs of road accidents in the USA are 5% of GDP. Traffic injuries are expected to have moved from 9th to 3rd place on the list of the fifteen disorders causing the most death and disability worldwide by 2020. (Leader): another statistics that prove that Egypt suffer from traffic jam provided by (mido) (Mido) "Death on the road" is nowadays the slogan of traffic accidents in Egypt.For the last 5 years, Egypt has been reported to be one of the countries having an extreme number of traffic accidents, that it became a risk to drive on a highway or to cross the road in Egypt. According to the statistical report published by the Therapeutic Care sector in the Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt, road accidents represent the first reason of death between the ages of 5 to 25, stressing that by 2020, traffic accidents will be the third most leading cause of death after heart diseases.

The statistics also assured that the ratio of road traffic crashes has redoubled 25 times the global ratio which made Egypt on the top list since 1992. It also attributed the increasing of traffic accidents to the unpaved or poor road infrastructure with a percentage of 54%, and the traffic congestion with a percentage of 46%. At the end, it called for urgent solutions to stop this tragedy that causes annual losses with more than one billion pound a year. (Leader):after the proof of problem existence in Egypt we shall discuss the causes in details . beshoy would like to tell us about the causes of the problem.

(Beshoy): Generally crashes could be attributed to driver factors, roadway factors, or vehicle factors, or due to variable combinations of two or more of these factors Some of the reasons of causing traffic accidents in Egypt are that drivers don’t use the seat belt, fatigue and sleeping, driving under the influence of drugs, lack of road ambushes, the poor condition of the welds roads and bridges, the frequent use of mobile phones while driving and technical problems in the car like the explosion and separation of tires or the inefficiency of brakes.(Leader):these serious causes can be supported by (mark) (mark):Human error was blamed for the majority 60 per cent of road accidents, although the proportion pointing to this factor fell 8 percent compared to 2009 figures. Speeding was named as a factor in 19 per cent of incidents, while poorly maintained roads, chaotic traffic and lax law enforcement were significant causes too. Trucks were involved in 40 per cent of vehicle accidents in 2010, making them the primary cause of car accidents on highways.The most dangerous stretch of road was the Qatameya-Ain El-Sokhna highway, which saw 4.

0 deaths or injuries per accident in 2010. Leader:another serious cause which is related to population growth can be explained by (hassan) (hassan):traffic jam the World Health Organization also mentioned that the percentage of road accidents in Egypt increased by about 10% due to the heavy motorization and increase in the number of cars to about 6 million, and consequently the number of traffic accidents reached 130,000 road accidents in 2009 causing the deaths of 195,000 and the injury of 260,000.Leader: hassan also will tell us about the possible future effects of the problem. (hassan) "AL Masry Al Yom" newspaper reported another statistical study issued by the Ministry of Transportation about traffic accidents and number of deaths, indicating that more than 30000 road accidents occurred in Egypt which claimed the life of 9,000 people and more than 30,000 injuries in 2005, with a 20% increase in the number of deaths than that in 2004 which had the record of 7,000 deaths and 30,000 accidents and around 29,000 injured.

Official statistical studies published in Middle East newspaper issue number 10975 revealed that the total number of traffic accident victims during the years 2006 and 2007 have reached 12 thousand individuals . According to these studies there are 6000 citizens who die in traffic accidents annually, which means that 18 citizens are killed daily, which is a dreadful rate on an international level. Leader:moreover results would be expressed by (tony ) (Tony): Moreover, it is reported that the number of car accidents has reached about 22.4 thousand accidents in 2007 against 19. 2 thousand in 2006, and the number of deaths has reached 6. 7 thousand in 2007 against 6.

2 thousand in 2006, while . the number of injuries reached around 30,000 in 2007 compared to 26,000 in 2006. Leader:now we had an overview about the problem of traffic accidents (causes and future effects)so lets discuss the possible solutions(advantages and disadvantages) for the problem. (maged) Any road traffic system is highly complex and hazardous to humans.

Elements of the system include motor vehicles, roads and road users, and their physical, social and economic environments. Making a road traffic system less hazardous requires an understanding of the system as a whole and the interaction between its elements, and identifying where there is potential for intervention. Policy, legislation and enforcement: Enforce legislation requiring the use of seat-belts and child restraints, and the wearing of motorcycle helmets and bicycle helmets. Enforce legislation to prevent narcotics-impaired driving.

Set and enforce appropriate speed limits on the roads. providing extremely punishment for those who break the law. (mido)its advantage is proved by The who which reported that applying policy and extremely punishment rules help to decrease the rate of accidents in uk by 10% from 2007-2010. but it has difficulties to be applied in developing countries like Egypt the law must be protected by a strong government to make people follow the rule according to their responsibility not as arestriction for their freedom.

Traffic Awareness: The degree of awareness of traffic safety and regulations is one of the economic elements that affect the severity of traffic accident in any country; this degree of awareness reflects and is linked closely to the economic level of the country. it can be achieved by Arranging Campaigns for greater attention to road safety. The economic status of a country affects directly the performance of the media institutions in the field of awareness.Its abilities also affect the size or the duty of preventing traffic accidents and limiting its risks and dangers and its negative effects on the national economy of this country. (mark)the only disadvantage of this solution that the millions cost which cant be afforded by the government; this degree of awareness reflects and is linked closely to the economic level of the country as mentione before.

Institutional development for urban planning,Set appropriate design standards for roads and manage infrastructure that promote safety for all, Set appropriate road safety targets and establish national road safety plans to achieve them. it will ensure that Egypt has applied all safety precautions. Provide efficient, safe and affordable public transport services. developing subterranean alternative transport system to minimize the heavy load of traffic jam which is the main cause of accidents .