Perception is considered to be one of the oldest areas under discussion in scientific psychology. When perception is related to psychology, it is the procedure of attaining, understanding, choosing and systematizing. When individuals systematize and translate their sensory impressions is the procedure of perception. These individuals express their sensory impressions to give meaning to their surroundings.

However, the way one perceives can differ from the actual situation. Perception can be effected by the perceiver, the circumstances and the target.An individual’s outlook, object, interests, understanding, and expectations are the uniqueness of his or her perception. Situations are also effected by work and social settings. The victim’s relations around them affect perception. The common question that comes in one’s mind when in business field is that what is the critical factor that gives rise to conflict? The answer to that is very simple and straightforward.

Perception and the impact it makes on decision making is the reason that may give rise to conflicts. Most of the managers do not know the actual reality of the situation taking place in their organization.The perception of manager regarding any situation can determine his or her action which can make it worse. Like any other managerial skills, perception is also an art that can be improved with respect to time. The understanding of situation is controlled by the manager and that will determine how successful he or she is as a manager. Alertness in corporations can determine how a director examines what is taking place inside the company (Plous, 1993).

The ability of managers to make decisions is based upon their perception which is their sense and understanding of events and people.Accurate perceptions require a stronger base of decision making. Most managers strive to be a little better than their peers which means they require a good understanding of the perceptual process in order to develop the skill to perceive events and people more accurately. A manager’s world sees data about any situation or event when another person in the organization is surrounded by desks, machines and reports. Perception is a process which leads to a desired output.

The process is called perceiving while the product is known as the percept.Managers must process and evaluate information using their filters into their perception field so that they might reach the final structuring of a conclusion or judgment. The manager can use the product to make decisions. A manager can make effective decisions by perception and understanding other people. This process of understanding and perceiving people is known as attribution. A person’s behavior has a cause from which managers infer whether they are internal or external to the person.

This allows the manager to perceive people and their behaviors as structured and meaningful.Positive and Negative Effects of Perception Shortcuts Perception is influenced by the personal characteristics of the perceiver. Attitudes, personality, motives, interests and expectations are the characteristics which can affect perception. Energetic people can be noticed in a group in contrast to quiet people. The relationship of an object with its background is the criteria to determine perception (Plous, 1993). Managers perceive objects like desks, machines or buildings differently because of the actions of people.

Perception shortcuts are used to judge other people and events.These shortcuts can have positive and negative aspects associated with them. Their application is most prominent during company interviews. Some people are hired without an interview because managers might make judgments that can be accurate. Different interviewers perceive different things in the same people which lead to different conclusions. Early impressions become the only impression by interviewers.

Positive information exposed during the initial stages of the interview will more likely be considered. A good applicant can be characterized by the absence of unfavorable characteristics.Perception shortcuts can also be used positively for performance evaluation of employees (Ullman, 2006). It can be tied to employee promotions, pay raises and continued employment.

Performance appraisal is a critical process during which managers might use perception shortcuts for judgments and predictions. Managers determine their goals using perception shortcuts. Perception shortcuts can help managers to broaden their perspectives by reading and observing people. Managers can accept any anxiety with uncertainty because every person handles their anxieties over uncertainty.

They do not evaluate perceptions based on premature judgments and close the learning loop between individuals. They also verify or validate their perceptions. Perception shortcuts can be important for an organization on many levels. The time which managers spent with an organization allows them to gain an understanding of the structure of the company. They can share knowledge with people in similar positions.

This can be achieved by using perception shortcuts in a positive manner because attitudes, emotions and needs play a major role in interpretation and judgment of people.Perception shortcuts are used by people to judge others. The process of perception and interpretation is a very difficult person. The use of perception shortcuts helps to make the process of evaluating and interpreting persons and events more easy.

Perception shortcuts are an important tool in allowing managers to make precise decisions. They provide crucial information for any situation or event. They do have their negative aspects which can lead managers into trouble. Selective perception is a form of perception shortcut in which specific characteristics of people and events are used to make interpretations and predictions.It is not possible to look at each characteristic of an individual; therefore using selective criteria in making predictions becomes a valuable tool for managers in making assessments and predictions.

Selective interpretation involves using specific bits of data to influence the decisions of any organization. These bits and pieces can be chosen according to the experience and expertise of managers. Selective perception is a speedy process which allows managers to quickly make decisions and resolve potential conflicts. However they can also create a negative picture which can lead to unnecessary conclusions from a situation.

Another perception shortcut is the halo effect in which a general notion is developed based on a single attribute. For instance a manager can evaluate an employee on the basis of intelligence or educational background or appearance. The manager might use a single attribute to judge the performance of an employee. Contrast effects are used by managers to evaluate a person based on the interaction with other persons. For instance, if the numbers of job applicants that have applied for a job are ordinary, than the new applicants will also be judged on the basis of the previous applicants.

Projection is a type of perception shortcut in which managers assume the similarity of others based on some common characteristics and attributes. A manger can attribute his or her characteristics to other people (Robbins, 2005). Stereotyping is a form of perception shortcut which is based on making evaluations based on the group to which they belong. Generalization can have its benefits because of a complex world. The negative aspect of stereotypes is that they might not have truth or might be irrelevant.

It can be an inaccurate form of perception which can cause many problems.Real World Decisions The decisions in business corporate sector are made by the manager. The decisions are based on manager’s observation. Then the decisions are taken to the running team for the ultimate decision. When circumstances and commotions are created at the time when all of the managers are not present in the decision making procedure, it is obligatory to wait for the remaining members of the management committee so that they also know about the present situation and take active part in discussing important actions that are needed to be carried out.

It is during this period when the final verdict is passed when all of the members of the committee reach it (Ullman, 2006). Perceptions and Ethics Ethics play a vital role in influencing the individual’s point of view. Ethics is the subject that teaches the knowledge and assessment of individual’s behavior in the light of ethical beliefs. Moral values are either the benchmark of conduct that humans have made for themselves or an organized collection of tasks and obligations that any particular group requires for its members.Business ethics is defined as the study of the procedure of decision making by business in accordance to moral concepts and judgments. There is a wide range of ethical questions starting from issues such as the organization’s loyalty to its customers, corporate responsibility to protect the company and its worker’s rights.

Managers of business organizations are faced with the dilemma of ethics in their decision making. One person’s moral values may differ from another. Our views in today’s time and at the time of our childhood cause our decisions to me made on basis of moral and ethics (Virine and Trumper, 2007).Conclusion When we reach a conclusion, perception differs from situation to situation. Reality is the true essence that everyone needs to understand especially managers. A manager must be able to understand why it is they see things the way they want to.

This will help the manager in the procedure of decision making and at the same time understanding the colleagues working under him or her in the same organization. Many factors play an important role in affecting perception such as interests, expectations, purposes and feelings with respect to time, the actual situation at work, etc.Perception of the manager will depend on how he or she views things that can lead to a decision process to be difficult or very easy. Perception in a way affects decision making process of the manager in any organization. The manager of the organization will be required to thoroughly make decisions without being biased and must not make quick decisions based on evaluation of an individual’s characteristics.

The process of rational decision making is probably an exception than the rule for majority of people. Managers must be able to correctly perceive any situation, people or events in order to ensure the success of any organization.