In the texts Antigone by Jean Anouilh and The Outsider by Albert Camus, the authors compare the natural and artificial landscapes to express freedom and control of characters.

In both texts, features of light, earth and water are used to symbolise the characters freedom, whereas the control of characters is displayed through the artificial surroundings such as the prison and streetlamps in The Outsider or the guns and dungeons in Antigone. Camus also contrasts streetlamps with the natural features of light, to express the control that artificial landscapes have over society and Anouilh takes a similar approach in Antigone by contrasting guns to life and death, to convey how manmade objects power over nature.Natural features are utilised to symbolise freedom and hope. Antigone includes nature symbolising hope, where the protagonist, Antigone, believes she was "the first person today to believe in the light" (Anouilh, 6), portraying how she was the first to believe in the new day. Because light breaks dawn, it holds the hope for the new day.

Light is a natural occurrence and because it is symbolic of hope, the reader is influenced to see an element of nature as being symbolic. Similarly, The Outsider also features light and the sea.When the protagonist, Meursault, is imprisoned he "thinks like a freeman" (Camus 75). His cell contains one window, from which he could "just see the sea" and in one instance was "clinging to the bars with [his] face straining towards the light"( Camus, 72). The "clinging" and "straining" displays desperation and hope for relief from his cell, conveying the authors intent to show the reader how the artificial landscape of the prison controls Meursault. The light is used in a similar as in Antigone, also being symbolic of hope when Antigone is "the first person today to believe in the light" (Anouilh, 6), the light symbolising Antigone's hope for a new day and Meursault's hope for freedom.

The symbol of freedom is expressed through the use of earth in Antigone. Antigone defies Creon's command by covering Polynice's body. She attempts to put earth on Polynices body so his spirit "doesn't wander forever in search of rest"( Anouilh , 31) showing that the burial of the body is important and unless his body is buried his 'spirit' will not rest, or gain freedom. Burials are significant tradition in the society, and Anouilh has shown readers how this important burial is in the earth, a natural element; demonstrating how nature is part of traditions, and also symbolises freedom.

The reader is positioned to view the dirt as putting Polynices spirit to "rest", and the earth is a natural symbol for the freedom in the after-life, again conveying that nature grants freedom and was even part of old traditions such as burials.The use of nature as a representation for freedom in the burial of Polynices shows how Creon is trying to control his freedom by denying him this burial. A similar situation of nature symbolising freedom is when Meursault is imprisoned, he wants "to be able to walk down to the sea, to feel the water on [his] body and the freedom it would give [him]" (Camus 75). The actions Meursault yearns for involve natural elements and he states that the "feel [of] water on [his] body"( Camus,75) would give him freedom, emphasising that natural features allow the character freedom.

Camus used this to convey how the freedom gained by nature differs to the restriction by prison, an artificial landscape. In both texts natural surroundings represent freedom, conveying that the emotions parallel with nature.Both texts feature manmade mechanisms to express control of characters, contrasting with the freedom and hope expressed through natural elements. In Antigone, Creon expresses his contempt towards the assumed 'child' that disobeyed orders by burying Polynice's body; the "white faced brat ready to spit down the barrels of my guns.

My hands stained with young fresh blood!"( Anouilh , 24)The manmade mechanism are the "barrel of [his] guns" (Anouilh 24), which are used to end the "white faced brat's life" ( Anouilh 24), expressing the control it has over life and death, exposing Creon's obsession with control also shown with his control over Polynice's burial.The obsession with control to positions the reader to view how, with the development of manmade mechanisms that hold power, society has begun to attempt to control natural occurrences such as life and death, freedom and restriction. Similarly in The Outsider is Meursault's observation of the streetlamps changing the night's darkness into light. He notices "the streetlights suddenly came on and just then they made the first few stars that were appearing in the night sky look quite pale"( Camus,27), where during the day the "streets gradually became deserted" (Camus,26). These lights overpower the stars, which are natural features.

The lighting of the streets are created during night, however during the day when there is naturally light "streets gradually became deserted" (Camus. 26).The description of how the streets had become deserted during day shows how people do not value the day light, yet wish to create light during the night. The street lamps are the mechanism of control, humans have attempted to control the night sky that should be dark, by creating their own lights.

Camus includes the control of light to display how society has become obsessed with controlling nature with the power of the streetlamps. The control that the light has over the street bears similarity to the way in which Creon's "guns" (Camus,24) control the child's life, showing how in both texts the artificial objects are utilized to overpower nature, conveying the author's views about society's disregard for natural cycles and obsession with control.Prisons and punishment related mechanisms of control are featured with a direct contrast to nature. In The Outsider Meursault feels "closed in by his prison walls" and is told he is "deprived of your freedom"( Camus,76). The reader can see that the prison has such control over his life that his cell is even small.

The extent of control is emphasised by his restriction of meetings, "they wouldn't let [Marie] come anymore because she wasn't [his] wife" (Camus, 71).Camus includes the restriction of Meursault's visitors because allowing Meursault to have visitors who were not directly related to him would be giving him a sense of freedom, however this is controlled by the prison, displaying the obsession for control. This control is also contrasted with the nature outside the building. When Meursault is able to briefly leave his prison he recalls the "familiar sounds and colours of the summer evening" ( Camus,93), showing his longings for nature and freedom. The nature is representing the freedom and the prison cell represents the control and Camus has shown how the prison is controlling Meursault's life and it is the natural elements that would grant him freedom.

Anouilh has used a similar approach in Antigone, as Antigone is threatened with manmade mechanisms of control as Creon believes "if I were just an ordinary brute, you'd have been locked away in a dungeon by now"( Anouilh , 36). The dungeon serves a similar purpose as the prison in The Outsider , as both are used for control. Anouilh includes the dungeon as another example of Creon's obsession for control, as the dungeon is a manmade mechanism which gives him the power to control Antigone and to emphasises how manmade mechanisms create an obsession for control. Antigone is informed that her death will take place in the "caves of Hades, outside the city gates"( Anouilh , 55).The city gates are controlling as anyone inside falls under Creon's control. Antigone's death brings her freedom because she is no longer forced to do as Creon demands and because her death is taking outside the city gates, it reiterates how her death is to bring her freedom from Creon's obsession with control.

The caves are the natural element, a natural form of shelter, the place that gives her freedom as it is where her death happens and is also outside the city. The city gates express the control of Antigone whereas her death and the caves are features of nature that grant her freedom. Anouilh includes this to show how nature grants freedom yet manmade mechanisms bear power which society uses for control. This immediate contrast between nature and artificial mechanisms, opens the reader to the authors opinion on manmade mechanisms creating an obsession for control whereas nature is where the freedom is.Camus and Anouilh have created a comparison between the natural and artificial landscapes in Antigone and The Outsider.

Natural features such as light and water are symbolic of hope in both texts, however street lights and guns are used to represent the control natural occurrences. Camus's use of a prison and Anouilh's use of dungeons and city gates are directly contrasted with the natural elements that symbolise freedom. This contrast expresses the views of Camus and Anouilh on the way society has controlled natural ways through artificial landscapes used for control.