From resources I have researched it is referred, as "essentially an area of psychology, which attempts to explain why people, of animals, behave in a certain manner. "(Hume1995, p9) From Britannica Encyclopedia motivation is defined as the "factors within a human being or animal that arouse and direct goal-oriented behavior.Motivation can be categorised and assessed to increase the understanding of the approaches to motivation and the reasons why. The two main categorised theories that will help me with this essay are content theories and process theories.
The other two additional theories are behavioural and cognitive. Behavioural theory is mainly on the focus on individual kind and cognitive theory is manly based on the consciousness action taken by an individual.Content theories focuses on what motivates humans/ employees and process theories focus on how human/ employees needs influence their behaviour. Combining these two theories gives a better insight in the understanding of motivation in the work placement of employees. *Static * Dynamic *Emphasis on what motivates *Emphasis on the process of motivation * Concern with individual needs * Concern with how motivation occurs and goals Brooks, 2003 (Figure 3.
1 Distinction between process and content p50) The diagram above shows the difference and dynamic stage it takes in the process of explaining how and what motivates humans.To assess how useful content and process theories of motivation is in explaining what really motivates people to work, as a group we decided to pick two theorist of each theories to analyse and understand the concept of motivation. Once we collected data needed by using the Internet, books and encyclopedia as a group we shared our information to one another. By doing this as a group, any unclear information was cleared so we can understand which theories we would pick individually depending which one is more relevant for us to write and compare about.This would help me to analyse and compare with the result we will receive from the questionnaire later on.
The two content theories I have picked are the: Needs hierarchy by Maslow Two-factor theory by Herzberg From all the research we collected as a group I picked these two theories because I believe that by using these theories,*** as a part time employee I felt I related to what they said and understood the aspects of what life can lead you in and what you want to achieve through motivation. Needs hierarchyMaslow's theory argues that individuals are motivated to satisfy a number of different kinds of needs, some of which are more important than the other one. Mainly choosing the most important or essential to accomplish at the moment. He argues unless the essential needs are not satisfied then the less essential needs are less likely to be accomplished. In other words once fully satisfied your first essential need, can you only then move to the next less pressing need.
This is called the needs hierarchy, as seen below, it is a stage where individuals strive to seed a higher need when lower need is fulfilled.Brooks, 2003 (Figure 3. 5 Needs hierarchies p56) Self Actualization Self-esteem Esteem of others Security Physiological needs The first need that anyone must satisfy from hierarchy stage of needs is physiological. As Maslow said, "Undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most prepotent of all needs. What this means specifically is that in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others.
A person who is lacking food, safety, love and esteem would probably hunger for food more strongly than anything else. "(The Working Manager Ltd. 2004) Maslow's hierarchy of needs overall maintains a trend or a routine that everyone takes. Once the first level needs are satisfied, the next level of needs emerges in this stage it would be security as individuals get concerned with their need of safety. Once satisfied it will go to the next stage and so on, each individual desire or aim to achieve to motivation varies as they got different jobs, position, qualification and so on.From Maslow's theory it shows individuals will always need something, no one can be sated in what they have achieved.
There is always one more thing needed to motivate and achieve in everyone's life stag. Two-factory Theory The two-factor model of motivation developed by Herzberg gives a better understanding of what motivates employees at their work place. Through the explanation of Herzberg, motivation there is a better understanding aspect for the relation to the affect to employees working. Herzberg called the factors, which results in job satisfaction motivators and the results in job dissatisfaction hygiene.The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivator) are: Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement The factors that may prevent dissatisfaction (the hygiene) are: Company policy and administration Working conditions Supervision Interpersonal relations Money Status Security Overall if hygiene applied effectively it can at best prevent dissatisfaction however if applied poorly, they can result in negative feelings about the job. Motivator factor are those things that allow for psychological growth and development on the job.
I can relate to his theory as hygiene is a simple factor that describe the conditions of work rather than the work itself. I pacifically encounter the condition of work placement and evaluate my needs toward the condition of work. If applying for a job I will be concerned with the job itself and not simply with the surroundings. The two process theories I have picked are: Expectancy theory by Vroom Goal theory by Locke Expectancy Theory According to Brooks (2003) Expectancy theory argues that humans act to their conscious expectations that a particular behaviour will lead to individual desirable goals.Vroom developed expectancy theory from the original work of Tolman and Honzik. Vroom developed the idea further to the point that task goals such as productivity, quality standards or similar goals attached to jobs are often means to an end rather than the end in itself.
As Vroom (1964) states: "an expectancy is defined as a momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome. " He refers high expectancy in individual behaviour will result in a desired outcome. The next level of outcomes reflects on the concept of valence.This is the second level of outcomes, which reflect the real goals of individuals as it varies to a degree through their task behaviour. An individual is motivated to behave in a certain manner because: The third aspect is the concept of instrumentality, whilst expectancy and valence are concerned with how behaviour results in one specific outcome or goal. Instrumentality is concerned with how additional goals are attained as the result of such behaviour, as a by-product or bonus.
Therefore Vroom concluded that motivation of an individual depends on a cognitive process.I can relate to his theory as we as individuals do not attempt simply to satisfy a need or even a set of needs in a straightforward manner. Therefore Motivation = Expectancy x Valance from his perspective. Goal Theory Locke (1968) identified that individual are motivated when they set specific goals. Goal setting gives challenging tasks to satisfy needs and strive to attain goals. By given a challenge goal, individual belief about their ability to achieve increases therefore within individual capacity they will work harder to reach the goal.
However if an individual strives beyond capability they can lose motivation and may abandon task. The important aspects of Locke's goal theory are: The setting of difficult goals Participation in goal setting and Feedback on performance with guidance and advice. (Hume1995, p26) Lock has identified employees can be motivated by managers setting specific objectives as it is used in many organisations. Once as a group done the questionnaire related to the aspect and definition given by the theorist. To have a relevant and reliable result we decided to investigate two companies.
These two companies have no relations in their selling product therefore their employees would be trained and motivated differently by setting different goals to achieve as the working condition is not the same. The first company we investigated was a coffee shop called Tchibo, as this is where I worked I had no trouble questioning my colleges. We also had the privilege to ask the managers to fill in the questionnaire. The other company we investigated was a retail shop called the Linins Direct, as one of our group worked at.The results we got from both companies were quite similar to the theorist aspects and stages of motivation. These diagrams are few of the questions we have questioned employees.
I have put the results in charts and graph, as I believe these are the essential questions and answers given relating with the theorist I have studied. 45%of employees go to work for the money. This shows from Maslows theory the majority of employees are still in the first stage of the hierarchy theory. 25% are in the second and so on.The majority of employees are given the opportunity to work their way up as experiences increases and of course they are given higher goals to achieve. This can relate to locks theory as companies give higher opportunities they aim and achieve higher.
65% of employees prefer to have positive feedback from their bosses or manager. This shows from Lock theory employees what feedback on their achievement relating to their goals and aim. 20% want advancement and 15% enhanced responsibility this can relate to Herzberg theory, as these are two to the many positive factors leading to motivation.20% of employees believe they are set goals that are related to their job. 20% of employees believe they are not set goals that are related to their job.
This shows companies do set goals for their employees to keep them motivated relating to Lock's theory. All the employees I questioned believe that meeting their targets or aims is important to them. This shows pure thirst for achievement as they can be given the opportunity for pay raise, appraisal, recognition or even advancement in their position. Conclusion