1. Overt discrimination

This is when discrimination is “clear and up front” despite equality legislation making it illegal. For example paying a male nurse more money than a female nurse for the same job because of his gender. It could also be refusing to treat a patient because they are of a different race or religion.

2. Covert Discrimination

This is the opposite of Overt Discrimination. It is when the discrimination is hidden or masked in some way. For example if three people applying for a nursing job, with all the same qualifications, and one of the nurses is black and because of this they don’t get the job, this is covert discrimination. It isn’t obvious, and it disadvantages individuals.

3. Infringement of rights

This is preventing an individual or group from accessing something which is their right to receive. For example, there may not be enough staff within a residential setting to provide choice in activities.

4. Stereotyping and labelling

This is the belief that all people are the same in certain circumstances. For example: All runners have bad knees and should put up with the pain. Overweight people are lazy and do nothing to help their situation. Male nurses are gay. Labelling is when a label or term is used about an individual that is considered to explain who they are. In health and social care labels can lead to loss of dignity and discriminatory treatment.