Change is a usual task in every organization in order to develop an organization itself or survive in the industry. Since the business world is changing rapidly these days, the management has to have the ability to handle the organization’s development properly by applying change theory models with an organizational strategy. Therefore, people in an organization can implement with change effectively.This paper will compare three broadly used change models: Lawin’s Change Management Model; Action Research; and Positive Model, to understand how to practically apply these change models with an organization’s development including strengths and weaknesses of each model.

Keywords. Change models, organization development, the comparison of change models, Comparisons of Change Models Positive Model Positive Model is one of the broadly used change models. As the name of the model suggests, it obviously implies that this model has a positive way of thinking.The organization mainly visualizes the positive side and sets an ideal goal. However, the organization does not absolutely omit the negative side. It just emphasizes the positive side over the negative side.

Initially, the group of participants introduces what should improve in an organization, which does not have to be a problem. Next, a practitioner will analyze the strengths of the team or people who participate in the area, based on the goal report that they have achieved very well in the past, and list the strengths of the people in this area.According to these strengths, they will be used to set the ideal future that they want to achieve. Lastly, the organization will develop the implementation plan to achieve this ideal future (Ashton, 2010). Strengths and Weaknesses of Positive Model. Basically, the organization can improve very well if the implementation plan is effective, since it was not based on an initial problem.

The groups of participants just project the bright future of the organization based on their strengths, even though the organization might not achieve the desired future successfully.In following the positive approach, people will have strong attitudes and beliefs, which at least might help the organization to achieve a better future than the current situation. Moreover, the people who participate in the change will be more motivated because this model encourages them to be more productive in the way that they have already been good at. On the other hand, despite the fact the negative attributes are not totally omitted, some significant problem might be ignored since the model does not mainly emphasize the problem.As a result, it might harm the company in the long run.

Lawin’s Change Management Model According to Mindtools. com (2013), the concept of the Lawin’s Change Management model claims that people naturally resist changes. In order to reduce the resistance, Kurt Lawin (A social scientist who invented the theory) presents three processes in the change model: Unfreeze, Change, and Refreeze, which are based on the behaviour of the people who participate in the change process.Initially, the first thing that a management should do is to clearly address to employees why the change has to take place because employees should have an intensive understanding that change is crucial for the organization before implementing change with the organization. As a result, everyone involved in the change task will have the same attitude and understand the value of change extensively.

In this process, people might feel shock and fear with the impact of the change. Thus, mentoring and answering all of doubts are significant tools.Practically, in order to ensure that everyone involved in the implementation understand why the change has to occur, a manager should perform some survey activities about this change and set the open-communication in the organization about the change. Moreover, there should be reinforcements from the senior management (Mindtools.

com, 2013). Change. After the employees understand why the change has to take place, they will move forward to the new direction of the change. Some researchers explained this process that “People are ‘unfrozen’ and moving towards a new way of being” (Connelly, 2011, para 12).

In this process, they will have a better attitude towards the change and feel the change significantly benefits the organization. The process might be time consuming because the people involved with the change need more education about the new solution. Accordingly, the manager has to provide support intensively such as coaching, training, and providing tools for the new direction (Connelly, 2011). According to Mindtools. com (2013), communication is very significant in this process. The manager has to set the open communication, clarify the benefits of the change, answer questions honestly, and manage the problem presently.

In addition, the manager should empower the employee involvement in the change. Thus, it will improve the morale of the organization. Lastly, the manager should create a short-term goal to encourage the employees in this process. Refreeze.

In this process, the employees are getting comfortable with the new direction. The implementation has become stable. Everyone who participates in the change currently works in full performance. At this point, the manager should arrange some celebration in the process to enhance the morale in the organization.In addition, the manager should keep the records of the successful change for the next change in the future (Mindtools. com, 2013).

Strengths and Weaknesses of Lawin’s Change Management Model. In conclusion, Lawin’s model is not really a practical model for the business area because there is not the practical methodology compared with the other two models. However, Lawin’s change model can guide management to psychologically understand how people in an organization act and how to approach to them in different processes when a change takes place which can implement with every change model.Action Research Model According to O'Brien (2001), Action Research is the model of learning by doing. Action Research is one of the change models that is based on social science.

The model allows the groups of participants who are in the change area to define the problem and collaboratively solve it together with the practitioners. The participants will contribute the solution and feedback to resolve the problems. There are several usual steps of practical Action Research methodology. Firstly, the group of participants examines the problem which needs to be resolved.Then, the practitioners who might be organizational development consultants, or organizational psychologists will assist in the diagnostic method.

After the diagnostic process, the data will be gathered and analyzed in the preliminary stage. The feedback will be sent to the participants. The participants will work with the practitioners collaboratively until the diagnosis and action plan are concluded. After the participant group implements the action plan in the actual working area, the result data will be gathered and analyzed again.If the implementation is not done successfully, the process will revert to the initial stage again until the implementation has been done successfully.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research Model. Since the Action Research model is based on the social science, it is the most practical model out of these three models because it is a practical methodology that suits what is known about human behavior. The workers or employees in the actual working area can participate, examine the problem, and give the action plan along with the practitioners’ advices.However, the Action Research model requires spending more time for the implementation to succeed because there are usually many participants and practitioners who participate in the implementation and several steps of group experimental actions. Therefore, the implementation will require a higher budget than other two models. Moreover, according to the model’s method, it focuses on the current problem.

As a result, it does not help the organization to move on to the better future in the big picture.Thus, participants and the practitioners should have a strong vision in the organization’s future. Recommendation Based on the present research, the most effective methodology when implementing change in the organization is Action Research. The management should use the Action Research for the methodology for current or significant problems because the Action Research allows the people in the actual working area to identify the problem and practice an implementation plan by themselves before the change is done successfully.

Thus, the problem will be examined and resolved effectively. In addition, the management can use the Lewin’s model to psychologically understand the behavior of the people in an organization when the change is taking place and how to approach them in each stage of change. While, the long-term implementation plan of the organization, on the other hand should apply the Positive Model, which project in the desired future in the big picture because it is not based on a specific problem.