Communication and language is essential to communicate, whether it be speaking, reading, or signing to others. From the age of birth babies will use “sound, gestures and symbols” (P.

Tassoni, 2007 pg 44) to communicate to express their needs. For example a baby at the age of 6 weeks will express “cooling, making cooling sounds to show pleasure” (P. Tassoni, 2007 pg 44) But at the age of 18- 24 months babies will begin to put together two or more words to create a mini sentence. These are world’s to create a mini sentence.This is a baby’s way of singling others language development is progressing “Toddlers begin to combine worlds to make sentences” (P. Tassoni, 2007 pg 44) From birth babies do not know how to separate themselves form others.

At birth babies begin to “turn to a familiar persons voice, especially that of their mother” (Bruce Tina Meggitt Carolyn 2007 pg 83) this is a babies way of socialising with others around them. Babies then at the age of 5 months babies begin to realise who their mother is and known that they only have one mother.By the time a baby is 12 months babies begin to develop a more self-image about themselves. And become more aware of others feelings.

“They like to look at themselves in the mirror” this is a baby’s way of emotionally being aware of their self-image and awareness of themselves. By the age of 1 they express their needs socially by using words and gestures. By the age of 2 year babies begin to crave affection from others “are affectionate towards others and familiar people” (Meggitt Carolyn 2001 pg 34) E3Communication and language a theorist that expressed this was Barnett 1999 he defined spoken language as a code in which spoken sound is used in order to encode meaning. The way in which children obtain the difficult system of language in the early years of life is not fully understood. He believed that some issues will be explored in the following sections as we observe the sequence of language development through which children progress and the contexts where this happens.

The main areas Barnett believed in for language development was phonology, where sounds are used in language, semantics, refers to meanings encoded within language, syntax, refers to the form in which words are combined to make sentence’s. Finally pragmatics is the knowledge about how language is used in different contexts. Bowlby was a main theorist for social and emotional development within children. He believed that the attachment theory is an important and vital approach to early social and emotional development.

Bowlby first put forward his views publicly in 1951 to the world.Bowlby proposed at the time that institutional care focussed on physical needs of a child, good food and clean environment but little on the child’s social and emotional needs. Bowlby believed that it was essential for mental health in infants and young children should experience warmth, intimate and continuous relationships with their mother in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment. In the long term Bowlby work in the 1960 had greater effects together with other research it led to improvement in care for young children greater awareness of a child’s emotional needs was stimulated.

Bowlby later proposed in 1953 to 1969 that children should not be develop contact with the mother during a critical period when attachment is being formed, after an overall assessment of Bowlbys ideas early attachment is more critical for social and emotional development in later years. E2 Children at the age of 3 often socialise with peers, by expressing feelings, such as talking or using gestures. At three children children play begin to play alongside others but not playing the same game this is called parallel play, or cooperative play.Playing with another child sharing and taking turns with other peers. “Are willing to share toys with other children and are beginning to take turns when playing”. By this time children reach the age of 5 they begin to find their own friendships groups and pick which friends they want to be friends with.

“Choose their own friends” (Meggitt . C 2001 pg 92) Social development for a 4 year old is having the understanding of emotions and behaviour within a child. At the age of 4 children are able to play and interact within a group activity, they are also able to take turns.Children at the age of 4 can wash and dry their hands, dresses themselves in the morning, and are able to brush their teeth.

“Dress and undress alone, but may have difficulty with shoelaces” Social milestones for a 4 year old are the important steps that children go through at that age. For example a child at 4 years is able to hold a knife and fork correctly, and is able to use the toilet correctly as well as independently. E5 E6 Following the correct policies and procedures regarding confidentiality is essential.When carrying out observations before carrying out observations always get consent form signed with a clear signature from the class teacher or supervisor within the setting, with permission form the parents and carers consent that their happy for to do so.

Secondly when starting any observation do not state the school name or address on the front sheet, as this could get lost and someone who is trying to find information about a child could be found by which stating which school he or she is at. This is breaching confidentiality, on specific information and breaching confidentiality towards the school regarding the child protection act 1989.Using TC target child throughout the observation maintains confidentiality as if the observation was left around, no one would know or have an idea on which child the observation was carried out on. When completing observations each one should be placed, out of sight from the public eye, put in individual files, and in a locked out of sight cupboards protected by the setting.

Keeping all information about children and families confidential is extremely important. Information shared and discussed within a childcare setting must not be spoken outside of the setting.Observations that are shared with parents should be spoken in a private place away from other parents and carers. All records and files of any children attending the setting must be safe and locked away, out of reach and view of any other individual. Any files stored on the computer must be password protected so no other person can access or view it. Information shared or discussed with you, and other childcare practitioners, must not be told to anybody outside the setting.

Also information given to you by a family member of a child must not be shared with others. You must not disclose confidential details to anyone who does not need to know about them’ (Thornes. N 2008 pg 217)You should keep this confidential by either storing it on record, or keeping it stored on the computer password protected.C1 Confidentiality is securing all information disclosed within a setting safe and secure from that of others. Issues can occur with confidentially such as if information is not stored in a correct place or left around this can be breached concerning a specific child’s and the public can then find out information about that child.

On documents about individual children date or births shouldn’t be written on documents and observation years and months should en include instead. If this was to be breached this could then lead to the child being tracked down. Being objective throughout observation means telling the truth not assuming behaviour, what their going to say or do. D1 Throughout my observation I used the planning cycle, I planned and prepared ready to carry out the observation, following this I act upon it and carried it out at an appropriate time.

After completing the observation I collected all the evidence and and analysed the evidence to come to activities to achieve the working towards milestones. Looking at the checklist observation it appeared TC is working towards the 6 year social emotioanl milestone ‘Quarrels are frequent, short duration, forgotten quickly” (www. uic. edu/classes/sped/sped506/milestones. html) An activity that would promote achievement of this milestone could be and outdoor game such a football, I will explain and demonstrate the rules and tactics of the game, and allow the children to give it a go.

I now help promote quarrels by seeing if TC got into arguments about teams, tactics, and general playing of the game. This will then allow me to see if TC achieved to solve it independently, whether it was shortly and forgotten quickly and also decides whether quarrels are frequent within TC behaviour. To bring in different culture’s by doing a multi-cultural game, allowing all children to pick a different country to play as from around the world, using correct coloured uniforms, and different culture football rules. For example I could use Green clothing for one team for Brazil.It was also highlighted that TC needs support in working with other peers and working part of a team.

Looking at the time sample method it was suggested that TC will now be working towards the 6 year milestone ‘can carry out simple tasks, such as peeling vegetables, watering plants, hanging up clothes and tidying the contents of drawers’ (Meggitt. C 2001 pg 100) An activity that would promote achievement of this milestone could be during snack time allowing children to peel carrots, or potatoes, but using safe secure equipment in place for the children to use.I will promote can carry out simple tasks such as peeling vegetables allowing all children to have a go, at trying to peel each vegetable, taking it in turns, and giving a demonstration beforehand on how to do it. This will then allow me to see if TC achieved to peel vegetables independently without out and carry out simple task by him.

Carrying out these activities will allow me to reflect to see if TC has achieved the 6 year milestone. It also was seen TC needs support in gaining independence, and building friendships with peers.The event sample identifies TC will now be working towards a 6 year social emotional milestone ‘can hold long conversations with another child or an adult, naturally taking turns in speaking and listening’ (Meggitt. C 2001 pg 100) an activity to promote and help achieve this milestone could be show and tell, show about a project or something they have brought in to show to the class, communication, and holding a long conversation describing their show and tell to the class.

I will promote hold long conversations by getting the class to ask questions to TC about his object allowing him to think for himself to answer back. This will then allow me to see if TC achieved whether he can communicate and hold a long conversation to others around him. Another one of my suggested activities was show and tell I could adapt this for different cultures by setting the children a project to find information, pictures, or make something that they know about form a different country, also ask children to bring in presents that have bought in form different countries.It was also shown throughout the observation that TC needs more support in developing impendence and amusing himself for longer periods, and building good relationships with others. D2 My observation form part of the planning cycle. Firstly I would carry my observation On TC within the setting.

After carrying out my observation I evaluated TC’s individual needs, and achievements ready for planning for the next step. Activities were then planned to suit TC individual needs relating to their development. Observing a child can give practitioners a better understanding on a child individual needs and abilities ‘ observations may lso help you realise that a child needs more support in a particular area of development’ ( P. Tassoni 2007pg 99 ) this is essential when planning for TC particular needs in regards to planning activities. I will then implement my planning for TC’s particular needs by putting it into to practice.

As a practitioner you should reflect on your practise. ‘Think of it as a circular progress whereby you think about what you have done and how it went well’ (P. Tassoni 2007 pg 101). Being reflective towards planning allows room for improvement, and develops on your working practise.