Highly intelligent, highly skilled individuals were recruited but some of them were significantly less than successful as leaders. This paper will discuss a novel approach to be taken in recruiting the new staff to libraries at executive level who will not only be skillful and intelligent but also will be successful leaders. Introduction Right leadership is believed to have a strong Influence on the perceptions and attitudes of the employees towards the organization which Is defined as organizational Culture (Menlo 2009)).There Is also a strong escalation between the leader's ability to arouse the motivation of the employees by appealing to human needs for achievement, affiliation and power.
Business organizations try to achieve a favorable organizational culture because it has been proved that it decreases cost of turnover and employees' resistance to change and improves quality and turnover (Erasers 2005). For instance, research has proved that between 1990 and 2000 the 100 best US public companies rated as best places to work realized 70% higher returns than the other companies (Coleman et. L 2001 They argue that such returns are influenced one third by a positive organizational Culture and Chem. et. Al (1998) also argue that 90% of the business success is attributed to the organizational culture of the company.
While organizational culture Is considered as a significant factor In the company returns, feelings of employees about the management Is seen as the mall facet that creates an Improved feeling about the organizational culture (Lyman 2003).On these ground the organizational leaders are expected to make a serious commitment to develop a positive attitudes towards the management by the employees in order to develop a positive organizational culture. In this endeavourer, the leaders' mood and behaviors are the most influential in affecting the employees. Effective managers with appropriate moods and behaviors who can create positive organizational cultures conducive for high returns are a vital asset for any business organization.This appropriate moods and behaviors were defined as emotional intelligence (Salvoes and Mayer 1990).
They concluded that smart decision-making requires more than the Intellect as measured by traditional IQ. This leads us to another major drive for Increasing recognition of emotional Intelligence - the failure of IQ alone to account sufficiently for differences In success levels In Individuals In both education and organizational contexts. When IQ test scores were correlated with how well people performed in their 1 ND as low as 4%.For example in a 40 year longitudinal study of 450 boys in Massachusetts, IQ had little relation to their work or rest of their lives. The biggest difference was made by their emotional abilities (Sternberg 1996). Cherries (2000) also mentions a study of 80 science PhD which proved that their social and emotional capabilities were four time more important than IQ in determining their professional success and prestige.
However it is does not mean that the cognitive ability of individuals is irrelevant for success but that cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are very much related.Contemporary libraries are not different from business organizations as far the organizational culture is concerned. Librarians, the organizational leaders of the libraries are expected to make a serious commitment to develop positive attitudes towards the management by the employees in order to develop a positive organizational culture. At the same time Librarians are expected to develop a positive attitude among the Chief Executives, Funding bodies and the user communities in order to develop an optimistic work environment for the library staff.Effective librarians with appropriate moods and behaviors who can create positive organizational cultures conducive for high returns are a vital asset for any library and emotional intelligence therefore cannot be ignored in recruiting future leaders of the libraries. What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional Intelligence is "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's own thinking and actions.
" (Salvoes and Mayer 1990, p. 189).Origin of studies on emotional intelligence can be traced back to John Mayer and Peter Salvoes who invented the whole field according to Coleman (2005). Later Coleman adopting the work of Solves and Mayer (1990), published an international best seller "Emotional Intelligence: why it can matter more than 'Q" (1995) which really brought the concept of emotional intelligence to the world.
This was followed by his "Working with Emotional Intelligence" (1998). There are several theoretical definitions of emotional intelligence (Bar-on 1997, Coleman 1995, AAA, Meyer et. L 2000) but they all share several conceptual underpinnings which include an awareness of one's own emotions and of others' emotions, an understanding of the emotions and the ability to manage emotions of self and others. However, Cherries (2000) comments that the suggestion "emotional intelligence is important for success" is simplistic and misleading.
Coleman (1998) and Meyer et. Al (1998) also agree that emotional intelligence is not a strong predictor for Job performance but it provides the bedrock for competences that are.Coleman (1998) further clarified this making a difference between emotional intelligence and emotional competencies. Emotional competencies are personal and social skills that lead to superior performance in the world of work and a certain level of emotional intelligence is necessary to learn the motional competencies. Coleman (1998) discussed extensively five emotional competencies; 0 Self awareness - knowing what we are feeling in the moment and using those preferences to guide our decision making. Self regulation - handling our emotions so that they facilitate rather than interfere with the task at hand 0 to help us take initiative and strive to improve and to preserve in the face of setbacks and frustrations.
2 Empathy - sensing what people are feeling, being able to take their perspectives and cultivating rapport and attainment with a broad diversity of people. Social skills - middling emotions in relationships well and accurately reading social situations and networks. (Coleman 1998 p. 18) Coleman (1998) further identified 25 related competencies that help one to identify the existence of particular competencies and these are depicted in Appendix 1 for further clarification. Carrion et. Al (2001) too agreed that emotional intelligence consists of four under mentioned branches of mental abilities similar to that of Coleman (1998); 0 0 0 0 Emotional perception and expression - the ability to accurately assess and respond to emotions in oneself and others Emotional acclimation of thought - the ability to accurately associate emotions to other sensations such as colors and textures.
Emotional understanding - the ability to analyses emotions in to parts, understand the transition from one feeling to another and understand complex feelings in social situations. Emotional management - the ability to manage feelings in oneself and others (Cockroach et. Al 2001). Bar-on et. Al (2002) also presented a similar set of competencies after a factor analysis of a survey which involved over 4000 people; 0 0 0 0 0 Optimism - the ability to be positive and look at the brighter side of the life. Self actualization - the ability and drive to achieve goals and actuality one's potential.
Happiness - the ability to feel content with oneself, others and life in general. Independence - the ability to be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others. Social responsibility - the ability to identify with and feel part of one's social group (Bar-on et. Al 2002).
Application of Emotional Intelligence Since early 1990 from which emotional intelligence started receiving attention of the psychologists and management trainers a wide range of research proving a positive relationship between high motional intelligence scores and effective performance of leaders has been conducted.Coleman (1998) established after analyzing 188 companies that emotional intelligence as twice as important for excellent performance as technical skills or cognitive abilities. He also established that higher the rank of the star leader more emotional intelligence capabilities showed up as the reason for his/her effectiveness. Mendel and Pertain (2003) used 32 managers in northeastern section of USA and established that transformational leadership style of managers could be predicted room their emotional intelligence scores.Considering the appropriateness of transformational leadership style over the transactional leadership style and the research findings that prove organizations with transformational leaders are not only better at handling change but are also more effective and profitable (Bass 1985 and (2003) concluded that emotional intelligence measures would be valuable tools in hiring, promotion and development of organizational leaders. Kerr et.
L (2006) studied the relationship between El of managers and the subordinate ratings of leadership effectiveness 3 sing 38 supervisors and 1258 subordinates in a British manufacturing organization. The findings established that individual's emotional intelligence is a key determinant of effective leadership and the employee perceptions of supervisor effectiveness are strongly related to the emotional intelligence of supervisor.Based on the findings they suggest that manager's level of emotional intelligence need to be included in the recruitment, selection and training process of managerial personnel. Moment (2009) using 30 managers and 140 others from car manufacturing industry in Iran infirmed that higher a manager's emotional intelligence, the better the manager's organizational climate and recommends that organizations should focus on emotional intelligence when recruiting especially the managers.Stein et. Al.
(2009) used 180 executives of an executive mentoring organization to study the emotional intelligence of leaders and the results showed that the top executives differed significantly from the normative population on the CEQ-I and executives who possessed high levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to generate high profits in their companies.Considering these research findings and also the failures f highly trained executives with analytical minds recruited by the company in previous occasions to become successful leader I strongly recommend that the company considers adding an assessment of the emotional intelligence of the future managers recruited to the company. There is a plethora of other evidence that prove the positive relationship between the emotional intelligence and business success.Yet, literature on emotional intelligence in the library context is scanty and does not indicate any existence before 2000. Edison (2000) has discussed the significance of El for the successful performance of Reference Librarians. While Hopper (2005) established that El is a relevant tool for characterizing effective library leaders, Hereon and Roister (2006) have investigated the recruitment efforts to hire staff with El skills.
Importance of El skills for mid-level managers has been discussed by Kermit (2009).Both Porter (2010) and Maxwell (2010) have proved that El helped them to perform well as library managers and Catheter (2009) has suggested that El can be learned and transferred to employees by the library managers. However these papers indicate that application of El in the library domain is still to be substantiated tit more empirical research. Measurement of El If emotional intelligence is important and the researchers recommend that it should be tested as recruitment criteria the question of how to assess and measure the emotional intelligence arises.There are two prominent models of emotional intelligence measurements; the ability- based model and skills-based model. Ability-based models focus exclusively on cognitive aptitudes that reflect the ability to process emotional information.
The skills-based incorporate a diverse range of abilities, behaviors and personal traits within the emotional intelligence framework. This is also referred to as mixed models (Kerr et. Al 2006). Dads and Gymkhanas (2005) further refined the different emotional intelligence by rating an individual's ability to perform emotional intelligent related tasks.Stream 2 models also measure the same abilities but they adopt a self or peer report format.
Stream 3 comprises the broader mixed models that contain variables beyond what is meant by emotion or intelligence or what reasonable people would infer from the phrase Emotional Intelligence. " (Mayer et. Al. 2000 p. 415).
They also adopt a self or peer report format. The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence (CREE) 1 lists a range of measures which are indicated below and provides a brief status report of the validity of each of these methods. . Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory - CEQ-I (Bar-on 2006) 1 http://www. Consortium.
Org 4 The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Etiquette) (Peptides, K. V. & Burnham, A. 2003). Emotional & Social Competency Inventory (SEES) (Coleman 1998) Genes Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genes E') (Palmer and Stouts 2001) Group Emotional Competence (GEE) (Conman and Wolff 2008) Mayer-Salvoes-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (EMCEES) (Mayer et.
L 2003) The Schuster Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SETI) (Schuster et. Al. 998) Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEEP) Gordon et. Al 2002) Wing's Emotional Intelligence Scale (WOE'S) (Wong 2007) Nevertheless, CEQ-I of Bar-on (1997), EMCEES of Meyer et. Al (2002) and SEC' -360 of Coleman (1998) are the more frequently used than the others.
There are evidence of using EMCEES (research of Kerr et. Al. 2005), CEQ-I (research of Mendel and Pertain (2003) and Stein (2009)) and Cell-360 (research of Moment 2009) measurements in some of the above quoted empirical research. However Cell-360 or SEES of Coleman (1998) is not allowed to be used for hiring people.As Bar-on (2006) explains the Emotional Quotient Inventory (CEQ-I) is the first scientifically validated and most widely used Emotional Intelligence assessment in the worlds.
Based on more than 20 years of research worldwide, the CEQ-I examines an individual's social and emotional strengths and weaknesses. More information and the technical manual can be obtained on-line through this web site but at a price. If anyone is keen to measure their Emotional Intelligence an online test is available at http://www. Queen. Com/ est.
(Accessed on 17. 02. 2011).This test consists of 146 multiple choice type questions which will take about one hour to complete.
At the end scores of test will be given with a brief analysis and the full analysis is available for a price. Conclusion In this paper the concept of Emotional Intelligence and how it has become important in the library domain were discussed using a considerable amount of evidence from business domain. This should lead the policy makers and senior executives in the profession to understand how significant it is for the library to have emotionally leads to higher turnover.Preceding sections also discussed what measures are available to assess emotional intelligence and how they can be accessed.
It is expected that with this information and skilful application, the recruitment of the new library leaders would be a productive endeavourer for any organization. References Erasers, D. F. (2005).
Organizational climate in its semiotic aspect: a postmodern community college undergoes renewal. Community College Review. 33. 1-21.
2 Early versions of the CEQ-I were completed by 2,868 subjects in six countries.In addition to providing agricultural norms for the inventory, this preliminary piloting f the inventory was important for item selection and modification, continued scale development and validation and establishing the final response format. The final 133-item version of the CEQ-I boasts a normative database of nearly 4,000 participants, ranging widely in age and ethnicity. Collecting normative data is an important part of test development. Norms establish a baseline against which all subsequent results are compared, and they enable the test developer to capture the characteristics of an 'average' respondent.
Norms indicate the average performance on a test and the frequency of deviation above and below the average. The larger and more representative the normative database, the more accurate and indicative the results (Bar-on 2006). 5 Bar-on, (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (CEQ-I): technical manual.
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The Bar-on model of emotional-social intelligence (SE').