Some think that illegal aliens cannot receive welfare benefits, but they can, as a result of a provision known as PRUCOL (Permanently Residing Under the Color of Law). PRUCOL means a status that has the appearance of, but not the substance of, a legal right. This is not a status created by legislation, but one created by the courts. When an alien is designated as PRUCOL, it means that he/she technically has no right to be here, but is allowed to stay anyway. And, since the illegal alien is allowed to stay, he/she gets the same rights as if he/she were here legally. The exception is that a PRUCOL alien is not a legal permanent resident and may not apply for U.S. citizenship. This means that the PRUCOL alien may not sponsor the immigration of family members.

Illegal aliens are legible for four federal programs; Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Supplemental Security Income (SSI); Medicaid, and Unemployment Insurance benefits.
Each program determines for itself, which aliens it, considers meeting the PRUCOL criteria. In this way, the federal government uses taxpayers' money to subsidize illegal immigration. Many state governments follow the federal government's lead, and give benefits to PRUCOL aliens.
Examples of illegal aliens who might qualify as PRUCOL include:
- aliens who have been here for more than twenty years
- aliens who have been granted stays of deportation by the courts
- aliens who are not being deported because of U.S. citizen children
- aliens whom, for political reasons, the government is not deporting.
Illegal aliens and our allowing them welfare and other benefits of an American citizen is a major problem in society today. Not only are they affecting our economy in a negative way, but they are taking away job opportunities and health benefits that Americans are guaranteed because of our taxes. I believe that we have an obligation to help those in need, but I do not feel that illegal aliens should have the same rights that I do, if roles were reversed and I was illegal to Mexico, I would probably be thrown in prison.

Summary of Pages 65-74, A Nation of Immigrants: An Overview of the Economic and Political Conditions of Selected Racial and Ethnic Groups. The North American economic development has seen several stages of development. The first stage of economic development was a plantation-slave economy mixed with mercantilism, the second stage of development was a competitive industrial economy, and the stage third stage of economic development is multinational capitalism. Economic institution and related governmental actions have formed the tides of migration and the resulting patterns of immigrant adjustment. The original groups of inhabitants in North America were Native Americans. These Native people lost much of their land and many of their lives to the vicious European invasions. Many groups of immigrants came to America, yet each group had left their native country for various reasons and under various circumstances. Some immigrant groups entered America as slaves, others came to work at low paying labor jobs, and some came as entrepreneurs. These various groups were discriminated against at varying level, depending on the resources the group brought with them. Those immigrants who made the journey to America on their own freewill with economic resources found that it was much easier to find good jobs than those immigrants with less than such freewill and resources. Small business opportunities unfortunately were not available for most immigrants. The waves of immigrant migration to the North America are highlighted in phases. With phase one came English colonists from the 1600’s to the 1800’s. The English created colonies and forced land from the native people. The English also established a form of capitalism. During this same time Africans were seized from their native lands and were shipped to America involuntarily in the form of property, to be used as slave labor. Also, phase one brought an era in which Irish Catholics immigrated to America, driven from their native land from the 1830’s to the 1860’s, due to famine, oppression, and poor living conditions. These Irish immigrants were able to obtain low wage jobs. Phase two began with the immigration of Chinese people from the 1850’s to the 1870’s; these people came due to recruitment efforts by the United States and in hope of obtaining better living conditions. The Chinese became employed mostly in construction, and menial service jobs. The Italians arrived between the 1880’s and the 1910’s. The Italian people were recruited for construction and other related low wage labor jobs. The Japanese immigrants came to live in Western America after migrating from their land to Hawaii from the 1880’s to the 1900’s. The Japanese people had also been recruited as laborers. The third phase of immigration to the United States began with the Mexican people from the 1910’s to the 1990’s, due to labor shortages from Europe and Asia. The Puerto Rican people started arriving in the 1940’s and continue to arrive into the 1990’s. These people accessed labor jobs in farms and jobs in blue-collar occupations. Recent Asian and Caribbean groups started arriving in the 1960’s to the 1990’s, mostly as political refuges, and also for political reasons. Commercial capitalism and the slave society were the effect of the East Coast colonial expansion of English land. The early economy was derived of a combination of enterprises under English rule and independent entrepreneurs. Included in this system was Slave plantations. The goal of English colonial settlement was to secure raw goods and markets for English products. In England merchants invested in the colonial industries. Other people from Europe began to immigrate into the colonies with the hope of becoming small farmers. In the colonies there were two types of major production, small farms, and plantations and merchants. From the 1600’s to the mid 1800’s African people were used for slave labor in colonial plantations. Around the time of 1860 there were as many as 3.9 million slaves in the united States due to a strong demand for their labor. The Southerners in the United States had held nearly all political and economic power in the government until the end of the civil war, which granted the Northern Industrialists the majority of governmental power in the United States. In the Northern Industrial society and in small farms immigrants from Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia were among those in the labor force. These Europeans had been recruited from their countries, and they had also left for other reasons such as famine, political and economic problems and the hope of a better life. The immigration of Europeans laid the foundation of patterns of racial conflict. The African people that were now free from slavery began working as low wage laborers for entrepreneurs. In some cases African Americans were used as strikebreakers, which raised racial pressure even more. Eventually African workers began losing their jobs to arriving immigrants from Europe. The English had oppressed the Irish people in their native land but after a few generations in America were considered part of the white dominant race. Western expansion brought the loss of many Native and Mexican peoples land, not to mention the horrendous loss of lives. The white people felt that that these races should be subordinates to them. The Mexican people did not altogether migrate to the United States their land was brought into the United States as a result of the victory over Mexico in the Mexican-American war. After the civil war the Industrial capitalistic economy bloomed, large enterprises began to take over the major economy. As industrialism grew Asian workers were recruited for labor from China and Japan. The United States victory in The Spanish-American war had granted the United States annexation Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Cuba. Many people from these countries immigrated into the United States mainland. The actions that were taken by the government had an influence on racial and ethnic relations. One action that effected racial and ethnic relations was the Homestead Act, which granted land to many people but made it difficult for African Americans to get such land. For the most part, African families were not given the opportunity built up their wealth. The newly rebuilt South had a need for low wage workers and mostly the now free slaves performed these jobs. This, in effect, kept the African Americans in the South where it was difficult if not impossible for them to gain wealth. The moving of African Americans to the cities is similar to that of the transition of European immigrants. Eventually the African people should be able to move up on an economic level, as did the European settlers. This argument is challenged because Europeans had, had greater group mobility. Among the most mobile groups are the Jewish people. The African Americans that had moved to the North were losing their jobs to the recent arriving European immigrants. African American migrants were subject to much more racial discrimination than their white European counterparts. Also, during this time racial tensions were increasing due to economic competition between European and African groups, which led to hostility and discrimination toward the African Americans from the European Americans. Modern Mexican immigrants came after WWI and immense industrialization had brought a decrease in the number of laborers available. Mexican workers migrated to the United States to fulfill these new labor needs. International corporations have been the major influence on U.S. politics and the economy since the 1920’s. When the depression hit African and Latino Americans struggled because white people took over many of the low wage jobs. After WWII the United States began to dominate the world economy, for many decades. During this time many white Americans moved to the suburbs of major cities and traveled to the city for employment, while most of the subordinates lived in the inner city. This separated the two groups and brought them further apart from each other. Until the 1960’s discriminatory quotas against Asians had limited the number Asian immigrants. When the quotas were lifted the United States received many new Asian immigrants from China, Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam. These Asians generally migrated to the United States in hope for better opportunities. Many immigrants from Cuba arrived after Fidel Castro came to power. Most of the Cubans were considered political refuges and were accepted by the U.S. government. During this time many Haitian refugees came to the United States, but were treated differently than the Cuban refugees because the Cubans had been fleeing a communist government, because of the U.S. opposition to communism. Many groups of immigrants still enter the United States for the same reasons that Europeans and other groups entered the United States. Among the new immigrants Mexicans make up a large portion of undocumented immigrants. The decline of European immigrants to the U.S. has brought an increase in Asian and Latino immigration. Native-born Americans have considered these new immigrants a problem and therefore immigration restrictions have been placed on these groups. The Latino and Asian population is steady growing throughout the United States and in some areas the majority of the population is or soon will be made up of people of color. As these people grow in population they will press for equal treatment and political, social, and economic opportunities. This introduction has examined the economic and political ways in which people have immigrated to the United States and how that immigration has been adjusted. It has been suggested that several factors effect a group’s economic and political success including time of arrival and the amount of resources brought with them upon migration. A greater understanding to the rivers of migrations into the United States requires analysis of political and economic aspects as well as group mobility. The government and it’s subsequent actions have shaped the way in which migration has occurred and also has shaped the ethnic and racial relations between groups, and has also effected the distinct development of cultures. Analysis, problems, and Remedies. After analysis it is my belief that the modern problems concerning racial and ethnic groups do stem from the authors’ reasons, such as political and economic conditions, time of arrival and reason for migration. I feel that there is a stigma that has resulted from these past experiences that people of color are inferior to the white race. I feel that the relations between different ethnic groups have been very poor in the past and do still remain poor in many areas. I also feel though, that it is important to see how far ethnic relations have positively improved in modern America. I for see that an egalitarian society is in the near future for the United States, but it will not happen "over night" and it will take a lot of work on the part of modern American society. I feel that the way, in which an egalitarian society will become a reality in America, is through education of all Americans about all other Americans, interaction between all ethnicitiys in a positive atmosphere, and finally the removal of all stereotypes, stigmas, oppression, discrimination, and labels. With this the people of America can share this great land in peace and with a degree of harmony.

The nineteenth century in the US had an unmistakable theme, immigration. Over 20 million immigrants, mostly European, came to the United States between 1820 and 1900. They came for a variety of reasons. Most came because the economies of many European countries were in crisis and workers had a very hard time finding work. As well, some fled religious and cultural persecution. Most of them decided to come to the US because of the opportunities they had heard abounded in the US. One immigrant put it well when he said, “We are in such bad shape and in need of so much that there is nothing left for us here, we must go.” Once they arrived in the US, the immigrants were seen as second class citizens by the vast majority of US citizens. As one American put it, “I can't understand those scum, those immigrants, for they talk differently and do things differently than I do.” The flood tide of Europeans also overwhelmed the limited charitable services available at the time. One historian referred to the settlement house movement as, “effective as bailing out the ocean with a teaspoon.” Immigrants emigrated to America for the opportunity to improve themselves and found horrible working and living conditions that were a large price, although it was one they were willing to pay.

Immigrants came to the US because of political persecution and economic hardships at home. Some European countries persecuted certain ethnic groups for no apparent reason. For example, both Yugoslavia and France blamed Jews for their economic problems. As the French Secretary of the Treasury put it, “Those Evil Jews who befoul our towns shall not work here, for they are second. Christians shall get the right.” Jews would get beaten by the police and as a result sought political asylum in the “land of the free”, the United States. It was also extremely difficult for many to get jobs in Europe where 50% of the workers were unemployed in some countries. The main exception was England which thrived on industry as the US did. Workers were encouraged to go to the US because of pamphlets that gave such promises as “Good work, a free life, a good life for all.” The demand of factory workers was constantly growing, and immigrants decided to take their chance. As one immigrant said, “We have nothing to lose, for we have nothing. The US is our greatest and only chance.”
Immigrants came to the US expecting a higher standard of living but were forced into poor living and working conditions. The vast majority of immigrants, who lived in cities, lived in tenements. These were apartment buildings that were shabbily constructed and contained extremely small apartments. Twenty four to thirty two families were packed inside these six to eight storey structures, often referred to as dumbbell buildings due to the air shaft between the buildings that made them look like dumbbells from above. The residents were highly susceptible to disease, and life expectancy was significantly lower, by about 10 years, in these areas.Up to 4,000 people lived on some city blocks. Families had one, maybe two, small rooms. They had no privacy as the walls were thin as well. As one immigrant put it, “I can't even talk without my entire building knowing what I said, the walls are so thin.” Bathrooms were also usually outside, although around the turn of the century, some began to appear inside.

Tenements were also susceptible to fires. Due to the required air shaft between buildings, the air got trapped which caused more fires. As the material that tenements were made of was very susceptible to fire, widespread fires were common. As one immigrant described it, “I watched it and as the flames struck it, the entire block seemed to go up in a flash. It was horrible.”
Working conditions for the immigrants were also horrific. The immigrants generally did two kinds of work. The first were the jobs Americans wouldn’t do and the second were the unskilled jobs that almost any person, American or immigrant, could do. Immigrants were also willing to be paid less money for the same work. Immigrants were often used as strike breakers because many of them didn’t understand the concept of strikes since it wasn’t part of their culture. The immigrants saw these jobs as ones that had been abandoned and so they took them, provoking anger in Americans for “job stealing”. As Guillaume Fouchon said,“We do not strike because it challenges our honor. As well, in the old country, there were so few jobs and so many workers.” Also, immigrants misunderstood the process of striking because it was hard to organize people who spoke different languages.

Immigrants also had very little in the way of political power. This was not much of a problem, however, for as one immigrant said, “I just want to succeed, and then I'll worry about how much political power I have.” With the exception of some groups like the Irish, the immigrants had no political power at first. However, near the turn of the century, immigrant votes became a factor as they represented 15% of the voting public in New York alone. This caused the immigrants to gain increased political power through the vote.

The Chinese were often called the devils of the immigrants. They were different than all the other immigrant groups because they had a different complexion. As a result, they were subject to more prejudice. The Chinese, who mainly lived and worked in California, took many railroad jobs away from the preexisting Americans. This resulted in their being stoned and having their houses burned to the ground. Such actions were supported by both major parties. As a Democratic National Committee spokesman said, “We must fight to rid the earth of the evil Chinese.” This was significant because even the “party of the immigrants”, the Democrats, were against the Chinese. Also, most Chinese, unlike most Europeans, wanted to go to the US, earn money and then go back to China. The American public resented the Chinese and labeled them as a second-class race. As a result of all this prejudice, the Chinese were largely banned from immigrating. As Robert Ingersoll said, the Chinese were not allowed to follow the national progression that benefitted earlier immigrants.

Immigrants hoped that by coming to America, they could still retain their culture which they were unable to do in large part due to the education system. Immigrants hoped that they could both move up socially to the same level as the Americans as well as keep their identity intact. When they first arrived, immigrants kept their cultural identity intact by creating ethnic neighborhoods such as Little Frances or Little Italies. These were places for people of one ethnic group, or even one town or one province, to retain their cultural values. These were very prominent, with 17 little Italies in Chicago alone. It was essential for these immigrants to have these places to attempt to avoid assimilation. As Italian immigrant Verduccio Marsongeri put it, “I need my little Italy because the old country is still so important to me.”
In this way, the free education given in the US to most children, American or immigrant, was a mixed blessing. While it certainly prepared immigrant children for better jobs due to better education than their parents had had, education also resulted in a loss of cultural identity. Those children who were educated in the US were instilled with American and not old country values as well as English as the primary language. This was in fact an intended consequence of the education expansion, that the immigrant children be assimilated into American culture so as to eliminate the foreign influence on the US. While immigrants certainly didn’t want their children to be assimilated into American culture, they were willing to pay the price if it meant better education. This accounted largely for the 3 fold increase in students from 7 million in 1870 to 22 million in 1920, as well as a rise in participation from 57 to 78 percent. While the doors of primary education were open, the doors of higher education remained largely closed to the immigrant. Immigrants could go to some lower tier private colleges and state universities, but not in general to the big names such as Yale, Harvard or Stanford. Yet, still it was a major improvement for now the immigrants could be educated the same as Americans.

In conclusion, the immigrants came to the US in search of opportunity but found harsh conditions. The opportunity and advances the immigrants made in the US came at a large price. Factory workers were not able to move up and were forced to work in horrid conditions for low pay. Many despaired and wanted to move back, but they couldn’t due to lack of money. Many more, however, willingly stayed. The real benefits of American opportunity and culture would be passed down to the succeeding generations. Overall, the immigration from the Europe and Asia to the US was the largest in world history. As Christa Jackstone, historian, said about the affect immigrants had on the US, “Immigration in the late 19th and early 20th century really made this country because they literally built this country. As the blacks had done in the years before the Civil War, the immigrants were doing the hard work behind the scenes while other people took credit for it.” Although the immigrants themselves paid a large price, they willingly took the first steps that would benefit future generations.

The world has gone through a revolution and it has changed a lot. We
have cut the death rates around the world with modern medicine and new
farming methods. For example, we sprayed to destroy mosquitoes in Sri
Lanka in the 1950s. In one year, the average life of everyone in Sri
Lanka was extended by eight years because the number of people dying
This was a great human achievement. But we cut the death rate without
cutting the birth rate. Now population is soaring. There were about
one billion people living in the world when the Statue of Liberty was
built. There are 4.5 billion today. World population is growing at an
enormous rate. The world is going to add a billion people in the next
eleven years, that's 224,000 every day! Experts say there will be at
least 1.65 billion more people living in the world in the next twenty
We must understand what these numbers mean for the U.S. Let's look at
the question of jobs. The International Labor organization projects a
twenty-year increase of 600 to 700 million people who will be seeking
Eighty-eight percent of the world's population growth takes place in the
Third World. More than a billion people today are paid about 150
dollars a year, which is less than the average American earns in a
week. And growing numbers of these poorly paid Third World citizens
In the 1970s, all other countries that accept immigrants started
controlling the number of people they would allow into their countries.
The United States did not. This means that the huge numbers of
immigrants who are turned down elsewhere will turn to the United States.

The number of immigrants is staggering. The human suffering they
Latin America's population is now 390 million people. It will be 800
million in the year 2025. Mexico's population has tripled since the
Second World War. One third of the population of Mexico is under ten
years of age, as a result, in just ten years, Mexico's unemployment rate
will increase 30 percent, as these children become young adults, in
search of work. There were in 1990 an estimated four million illegal
aliens in the United States, and about 55 percent of them were from
These people look to the United States. Human population has always
moved, like waves, to fresh lands. But for the first time in human
history, there are no fresh lands, no new continents. We will have to
think and decide with great care what our policy should be toward
immigration. At this point in history, American immigration policies
Our borders are totally out of control. Our border patrol arrests 3000
illegal immigrants per day, or 1.2 million per year, and Two illegal
immigrants get in for every one caught. And those caught just try
More than 1 million people are entering the U.S. legally every year.
*From 1983 through 1992, 8.7 million of these newcomers arrived -- the
highest number in any 10-year period since 1910. A record 1.8 million
were granted permanent residence in 1991. Because present law stresses
family unification, these arrivals can bring over their spouses, sons
and daughters: some 3.5 million are now in line to come in. Once here,
they can bring in their direct relatives. As a result, there exists no
visible limit to the number of legal entries.
Until a few years ago, immigrants seeking asylum were rare. In 1975, a
total of 200 applications were received in the U.S. Suddenly, asylum is
the plea of choice in the U.S., and around the world, often as a cover
for economic migration. U.S. applications were up to 103,000 last year,
and the backlog tops 300,000 cases. Under the present asylum rules,
practically anyone who declares that he or she is fleeing political
oppression has a good chance to enter the U.S. Chinese are almost always
admitted, for example, if they claim that China's birth-control policies
have limited the number of children they can have.

Right now, once aliens enter the U.S., it is almost impossible to deport
them, even if they have no valid documents. Thousands of those who enter
illegally request asylum only if they are caught. The review process can
take 10 years or more, and applicants often simply disappear while it is
under way. Asylum cases are piling up faster than they can be cleared,
with the Immigration and Naturalization Service falling farther behind
every year. At her confirmation hearings at the end of September, Doris
Meissner, Clinton's nominee as commissioner of the Immigration and
Naturalization Services, conceded, ''The asylum system is broken, and we
Adding the numbers of legal and illegal immigrants, 50 percent of all
U.S. population growth comes from immigration. While Americans try to
have smaller families, immigration threatens our nation. If immigration
rates continue to be this high, more than seventy million people will be
added to the United States population in just fifty years, with no end
in sight. We are taking in more people than all of the rest of the
world combined. As have all the other countries of the word, America
needs to control its borders. As every house needs a door, so every
country needs a border. And yet, our borders are full of holes. We
have clearly lost control over our future. Our children will pay the
The United States is no longer an empty continent. In 1886, when the
Statue of Liberty was built, there were 58 million people in the United
States. In 1984 there were 240 million people, that's four times the
total population in less then a century
The U.S. cannot and should not be the home of last resort for all the
world s poor, huddled masses. We are not doing a good job with our own
poor, as we see more people without jobs.

Supporters of immigration use many arguments to support their side.
Let's look at a few of these arguments: Illegal immigrants take jobs no
Americans want. The fact is that the average illegal immigrant arrested
in Denver, Colorado, made more than seven dollars an hour. Many were
making over 100 dollars per day. Denver identified 43 illegal aliens
making 100 dollars per day as roofers, while 438 people were registered
in their employment services who would have loved those jobs. The
average illegal immigrant arrested in Chicago makes $5.65 an hour. More
than thirty million American workers make less than that.

A common belief is that aliens fulfill many of the least desirable
jobs. However, most experts agree that in today's economy, there is no
shortage of Americans competing for many of these same jobs. Actually,
many Americans already work in these low-paying jobs. For example: the
poor black woman, who works as a seamstress, Her boss asked her to train
a new employee, an illegal immigrant. As soon as she finished training
her new charge, she was fired. Her position, of course, went to the
illegal immigrant, who was willing to work for less pay, and under
deplorable working conditions. This is one example of how illegal
workers depress wages, and slow, stall or prevent unionization or
improvements to working conditions.

Another myth cited by supporters of immigration is that illegal
immigrants work hard, pay taxes, and do not go on welfare. The sad
truth is that these folks seem to learn the ropes of the welfare system
Today's illegal immigrants apply for and receive benefits from the
government that citizens need. According to Donald L. Huddle, an
economist at Rice University in Texas, legal and illegal immigrants cost
the nation a net 42.5 billion dollars in 1992. The Huddle study also
found that in 1992, more than 2 million Americans were displaced from
their jobs by illegal immigrants. This resulted in an additional 11.9
billion dollars in public assistance.
In California alone, they cost more than 18 billion dollars a year.
California currently has an estimated 300,000 illegal immigrants now
attending grades' 0-12. This will costs the California tax payers an
estimated 1.5 billion dollars. This is 10 percent of the students
currently enrolled in our elementary schools today! California has
49.8 percent of the countries illegal aliens, therefore, California pays
multiple costs for its leaky borders.

Providing health care for illegal immigrants costs California tax payers
400 million dollars annually. Illegals drain about two billion dollars
a year for incarceration, schooling and Medicaid from the budgets of
such major destination states as Texas, Florida and California. For
California alone, a 1993 study by the California Legislature estimates
criminal justice costs involving illegal immigrants to be 385 million
dollars to the state, with an additional 112 million dollars to local or
county government. This is a total cost of 497 million dollars, paid by
the California tax payer, each and every year!
Illinois did a study showing that it paid 66 million dollars in
unemployment benefits to illegal immigrants in one year, despite a law
that was supposed to stop illegal immigrants from getting unemployment
benefits. Los Angeles estimates that it spends 269 million dollars in
social services on illegal immigrants each year. Every person added to
our population drains our natural resources and contributes to the
In a Pulitzer-Prize-winning study, the Des Moines Register found that
for every person added to our population, 1.5 acres of the richest farm
land goes out of production to make way for new houses, roads, and
shopping centers. If this continues, the United States will stop
shipping food to other countries shortly after the year 2000. How can
the United States feed the hungry people of the world?
The national majority now says it favors cutting back on legal
immigration. A TIME/CNN poll determined last week that 77 percent of
those surveyed felt the government was not doing enough to keep out
illegal immigrants. For years now, the battle has raged between the
federal authorities who are supposed to police the borders and the
states who pay the price if they fail.

In an attempt to reduce illegal immigration, Nevada Senator Harry Reid,
has introduced a bill that would establish an annual limit of 300,000
newcomers, including ''immediate relatives,'' and a national
identification card. Congress passed legislation in 1986 that
stipulates fines and other penalties for employers who knowingly hire
illegal aliens. The bill includes provisions to grant amnesty to
illegal aliens who were in the United States prior to January 1, 1982,
and to aid farmers who have relied on illegal aliens to harvest their
Does anyone benefit from the rising tide of illegal immigration?
Businesses that can profit from employing illegals at low wages do. And
many illegals are better off here than in their own countries. But many
others are exploited by dishonest employers and are treated like slaves.

These immigrants are denied the rights and privileges we want every
person in the United States to enjoy.

In closing, we must all realize this issue will not go away. Other
generations of Americans made great sacrifices so that we today can
enjoy the freedom, the quality of life, and the standard of living that
we have. When I think of what uncontrolled immigration will do to the
dreams of my parents and grandparents, what it will mean to the future
of my children, I realize that we will find a way to control
(These listings are in order of their importance, in category.)
"Immigration: Identifying Propaganda Techniques"
Bonnie Szumski & JoAnne Buggey, Ph.D.

College of Education, University of 'Minnesota
David Bender & Bruno Leone, Series Editors
"Immigration-A pictorial History of"
"Immigrants, Refugees, and U.S. Policy"
(H. W. Wilson Company 1981)
Patricia A. Von Brook, B.A., M.S.

A word search was performed on the system,
All Articles Were Transmitted Within
The United States is the land of diversity largely due to the immense amount of immigration to the United States throughout history. People from all over the world leave their homeland to journey to the United States. Why do these people leave their native country? What makes the United States so appealing to them? What makes their country so unappealing? There are many different reasons why particular immigrants emigrate to the United States. Anything from personal to economic to political reasons may have convinced these people to immigrate to the United States. The common understandings of why immigrants come to the United States are discussed. Some of the reasons are more obvious than others are, but they are all recognized as factors that cause people to emigrate.

A popular cause of immigration among people coming from poor and undeveloped countries is the condition of the immigrant's homeland. Many immigrants are coming from countries where living conditions are bad and unemployment is high. If they do have a job the wages are very low and they are posed with the problem of not being able to properly provide for their families. "At 4.25 an hour, the U.S. minimum wage is approximately six times the prevailing one in Mexico, which is, in turn, higher than most in Central America." (Portes and Rumbaut, pg. 409) Who would not pack up and leave with those kind of wages available right across the border. The need for workers for menial jobs is very high in the United States so the immigrants know they can get a job. (410) Not only would they be able to find a job, they would get paid rather generously compared to what they were usually accustom to getting. The people that immigrate basically just want to live a better life. If they see that is possible over in the United States, they are going to go for it. For some immigrants it is an easy choice of basic survival, if they can not find a job they know they could go to the U.S. and find one in a second. Immigrants see the United States as a land of opportunity and prosperity and they want to be a part of that.

The United States itself is one of the major reasons that so many immigrants come here; the United States offers things that are not offered by the immigrant's home country. It is not just jobs and wages it is much more. In the United States the people are provided with so many things that seem ordinary to American citizens, but to some immigrants it is unimaginable. The United States has good health care programs, which a lot of poor countries do not have. In many cases people are in dire need of medical treatment and they can not receive it, in the United States medical care is easily accessible. The United States has welfare programs for those that are having financial problems and need some assistance. The United States also has unemployment programs to help the citizens. If you really can not find a job you are given some monetary help until you can get a job. The way the government helps out the people that are in need is one of the reasons that the United States is such a good country. Not all countries have programs that help out the citizens like the United States does, that is one of the reasons that immigrants are turned on to the United States. The United States government tries to make life better for the citizens whatever way it can, which is very appealing to the immigrants who come from countries where the government could care less. The United States also provides children with a good education so they will be able to get a good job when they grow up. An education is very important, and no matter what part of the world you are from it is understood that an education is the key to success.

When discussing immigration many people tend to focus on the poverty stricken immigrants that come over to the United States because their backs are against the wall. What many tend to forget is the large amount of professional immigrants that come over to advance their careers in their specific fields. Professional immigrants do not come to the United States because they are poor, they come because they want to make more money and have better working conditions. (411) The United States has the best technology and is always on the cutting edge of what is going on. Foreign professionals want to be working with the best technology and have the best opportunities that are available to them, and the United States can provide that for them. It has been proven that it is a good choice for the professional immigrants to make. After working hard for a few years and moving up in their field, they are making large salaries. (412) Professional immigrants have little difficulty coming into the United States; they are well educated and are welcomed into the country.

One of the major reasons that some people do not immigrate is the fact that they do not want to give up their life that they have in their country. When immigrants leave their home country they are leaving their family, friends, culture, and whatever else they have going for them. The thing that convinces these immigrants to go that are scared to leave their native country is the emergence of ethnic enclaves that have been established in the United States. (413) These enclaves or communities are areas that are almost totally populated and run by immigrants. The communities retain the culture from which the immigrants have come from, so it does not seem so strange and uncomfortable. "This city is wonderfully textured with Chinese sensibility. Graceful calligraphy blinks brilliantly from neon signs on banks, fish markets, and boutiques. The Chinese language is spoken at every turn and other aspects of Chinese culture are seen everywhere. Chinatown is like a haven between hemispheres, an oasis of the Orient firmly planted on our western shore." (Bentz, pg. 333) These communities are good for new immigrants coming into the country it makes them feel at home and not so out of place. The language, all their foods, and familiar surroundings are all present in these communities. It takes the worry out of trying to adapt to a different culture so quickly. New immigrants are also able to receive help from other immigrants that have been in the country for a while. Immigrants may also have families that already live in these communities to reunite with. These ethnic communities make it easier for immigrants to live in the United States. These ethnic communities promote immigration by providing a comfort zone for the immigrants; they are not totally abandoning their culture just because they immigrate to a different country.

All of these reasons are a part of why immigrants come to the United States. A lot has to do with the economic opportunities that are available to immigrants that come to the United States, whether it be to pick strawberries or to be a doctor. The United States provides immigrants with things that were not available to them in their home country, things such as welfare or health care. They are able to live a better life, and experience new and different things. The ethnic communities influence immigration by providing immigrants with a home away from home, so it is easier for them to come to the United States. The United States is all around one of the best countries in the world; it is obvious that people would want move here. Lets face it the United States is the place to be.

How does the immigration process of citizenship work?
Becoming a citizen of the United States is a very lengthy process. Not just anyone can become a citizen of the United States. There are many requirements and responsibilities to becoming a citizen, whether it is of the United States or any other country. Being a citizen of the United States is a very special privilege. The people who do become a citizen should be very lucky and proud to be the citizen of the United States. Even though they do become citizens of the United States they shouldn't forget about their own country either, but share the joyfulness.
The process to becoming a citizen is not hard, but you have to have been a good residence of the United States. That means you had to obey all laws and be a person of good moral character. To become a citizen an applicant must be 18 years of age or older. They should have also been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence. Individuals who have been lawfully admitted as permanent residents will be asked to produce an I-551, Alien Registration Receipt Card, as proof of their residency. The applicant also has to have been residing in the U.S. for five years prior to filing with absences from the United States totaling no more than one year. Also the applicant should have also been physically present in the United States for at least two and a half years out of the previous five years, and has resided within a state or district for at least three months. The most important thing in the naturalization, or citizenship, process is the moral character of the applicant. This is important because the U.S., or any other country from what I know, would want a person who has been a criminal or has done illegal activities within that country. An applicant is permanently barred from naturalization of they have been convicted of murder or an aggravated felony. Also an applicant is not considered to be a person of good moral character if they have done any of the following within the five years: 1) has committed and been convicted of one or more crimes involving moral turpitude. 2) Has committed and been convicted of 2 or more offenses for which the total sentence imposed was 5 years or more. 3) Has committed and been convicted of any controlled substance law, except for a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana. 4) Has been confined to a penal institution during the statutory period, as a result of a conviction, for an aggregate period of 180 days or more. 5) Has committed and been convicted of two or more gambling offenses. 6) Is or has earned his or her principle income from illegal gambling. 7) Is or has been involved in prostitution or commercialized vice. 8) Is or has been involved in smuggling illegal aliens into the United States. 9) Is or has been a habitual drunkard. 10) Is practicing or has practiced polygamy. 11) Has willfully failed or refused to support dependents. 12) Has willfully failed or refused to support dependents. 13) Has given false testimony, under oath, in order to receive a benefit under the Immigration and Nationality Act. An applicant must also show that he or she is attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States.
Another important requirement is that applicants for naturalization must be able to read, write, speak, and understand words in ordinary usage in the English language. The only people who are exempt from that are those who have been residing permanently in the U.S. for over 15 years and are 55 years of age or older, have been residing 20 years and 50 years of age or older, or have a physical or mental disability which impairs them from learning English. An applicant must also demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the history and the form of government of the United States. To demonstrate this knowledge and understanding the applicant must take a U.S. History test which consists of approximately 25 questions. When the applicant passes this test they must take the Oath of Allegiance. By taking this oath, the applicant swears to support the Constitution and obey the laws of the U.S., renounce any foreign allegiance and/or foreign title, and bear arms for the Armed Forces of the U.S. or perform services for the government of the U.S. when required. This is the process that is taken to become a citizen of the United States. In certain instances, where the applicant states that he or she is opposed to any type of service in the armed forces based on religious teachings or belief, the INS, or Immigration or Naturalization Service, will permit those applicants to take a modified oath. This is the process for becoming a citizen of the United States.

The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service estimates that there were 10.525 million legal permanent residents residing in the United States as of April 1996. Approximately 5.776 million of these immigrants were eligible to apply for U.S. citizenship. Legal permanent residents are entitled to live permanently in the United States but are not naturalized citizens, either because they have chosen not to apply for citizenship, or because they have not met the citizenship requirements. One of the most important requirements is residence in the United States. Immigrants may become naturalized citizens after a minimum of 5 years residence, or in some cases after 3 years residence, by taking an oath of allegiance in a court or in a administrative hearing, or by deriving their citizenship through the naturalization of their parents. In addition to the 5.8 million immigrants eligible to apply for U.S. citizenship, approximately 687,000 children may be eligible to derive their citizenship through their parents' naturalization.

This is the process by which one goes to becoming a citizen of the United States of America. As you can see there are many things that you have to have to be eligible. Some of those things are for example, a specific age, a permanent residence of the United States for 5 years, proof of permanent residency, good moral character, etc. By taking the Oath of Allegiance you are accepting all of the responsibilities that are stated in the oath. When you do that you are a citizen of the United States of America, which I think is the best citizenship a person can have.

The first move stopping immigration decided by Congress was a law in 1862 restricting American vessels to transport Chinese immigrants to the U.S. The Alien Contract Labor Laws of 1885, 1887, 1888, and 1891 restricted the immigration to the U.S. of people entering the country to work under contracts made before their arrival. Alien skilled laborers, under these laws, were allowed to enter the U.S. to work in new industries. By this time anti-immigrant felling rose with the flood of immigrants and in this period the anti-Catholic, anti-foreign political party the Know-Nothings, was already born. The problems and issues are still much the same today, as they were 150 years ago, but as the numbers and facts show the immigration problem is growing worse and worse.

After World War I a marked increase in racism and the growth of isolationist sentiment in the U.S. led to demands for further tightened legislation. In 1921 a congressional act provided for a quota system for immigrants, which the number of aliens of any nationality admitted to the U.S. in a year could not exceed 3 percent of the number of foreign-born residents of that nationality living in the U.S. in 1910. (Potter, Gerald., Congressional Quarterly 1921) This law applied to nations of Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Asian Russia, and certain islands in the Atlantic and Pacific. In the 1980s concern about the surge of illegal aliens into the U.S. has led Congress to pass legislation aimed at cutting illegal immigration. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 allows most illegal aliens who have resided in the U.S. regularly since January 1, 1982, to apply for legal status. Also, the law prohibits employers from hiring illegal aliens and mandates penalties for violations.

Debate over immigration and immigration policy is not new to the nation's history. From time to time, Congress brought legislation to control the flow of immigration. As immigration rises and hatred grows more laws will be implemented trying to release some of the pressure. Illegal immigration has some pros and cons. Here are some of the so-called “pros” if they’re really that is debatable. It offers cheaper labor to businesses. By not paying minimum wages to the workers who are willing to work for a lower price, this gives the business an edge over other competitors. It Provides culture diversity in the United States. Bringing in immigrants gives more and different cultures to the U.S. which can expand businesses to other fields of the world. Also giving people a more understanding of other cultures. Lowers the cost of products produced in the U.S. that we buy. If the businesses can produce products and services at a low price keeping there overhead low, then we as a consumer will also pay a lower price. Most illegals are skilled workers and helps run the economy. Other countries economies are also being helped. The workers bring money to their families out side of the U.S. which in most cases the U.S. dollar has a higher value than their own. Most people disagree saying the cons of this issue out way the pros. Here are some of the cons to this hideous problem. Illegal immigrants pay no tax. If they pay no taxes then how can we as a country pay for public services we as well as they do. Sending money out of our economy and sending it to their families abroad. If money is taken out of our economy it causes a monetary problem. this can cause an inaccurate account of money in circulation, which might cause inflation. Lower wages; if an illegal is willing to work for under the minimum wage then the employer will not pay more for the job to any other employ. In fact might higher only illegals and take away jobs form legal residents who are willing to work. When illegals come to this country they do not get tested for diseases that might infect the population. Which can cause a health problem. Such as polio, tuberculosis and other forms of diseases. Illegals cost the states money, paying for education, health care, and other social services. In an already under funded programs they give these services a more heavy burden to deal with.
When it comes to illegal immigrants there are a lot of interest groups that have been involved in this issue. From businesses to governments agencies. The businesses, especially in agriculture. Agriculture employs more undocumented workers than any other industry in the country. Half of California's 700,000 farm workers are estimated to be undocumented. "Three decades ago, the percentage of foreign-born farm workers in California was 50 percent,"8 the San Francisco Chronicle stated. "Now it is 92 percent."(Opinion, SF Chronicle, July 4th 1998) Agriculture, however, is not the only industry with an insatiable need for the cheap labor provided by immigrants. These business groups have a lot of interest in illegal immigration. They provide cheaper labor, which cuts costs and causes better competition. 11 Government agencies are also involved. The new immigration legislation nearly doubles the size of the Border Patrol. In addition, National Guard and active-duty armed forces personnel are used more and more along the border.

Our ideas for solving the problems are pretty straightforward. First, would be implementing a armed wall on the U.S. Mexican border. Pat Buchanan first proposed this in the 1992 Presidential elections. The idea of the wall is since economical deterrence and any other programs we’ve done over the past 40 years since Mexican immigration has risen has been an absolute failure. Since we’re unable to solve the problem through peaceful courses of action, it’s time to get serious. 92% of illegal immigration comes from Mexico with 6% coming from the Caribbean and the other 2% from SE Asia and Europe. So the 1st key in slowing down immigration would be stopping the Mexican’s from coming into our country. The wall would completely shut down their efforts to take away the glorious opportunities American’s have. If you shoot them as they come over attempt to come over. What would be the benefit for them? They couldn’t possibly make it and after a few got shot the message would be clear that American’s don’t want us here and if we try we’re going to pay the price. The other steps to keeping them in their own country would be to improve the economic conditions within their own country. The idea would be to cut off foreign aid, instead of relying on American and international handouts they could start to develop something they’ve yet to have the initiative to start. Industry & Hard work!
Immigration has taken a great toll on the United States the immigrant population is growing faster then the native born population and it’s about time we do something about it and take back our country not theirs. Sure it’s true that we were all immigrants at one time but just as the constitution changes America has changed as well. We’re no longer the “Great Melting Pot” we’re our own separate culture and that culture has no more room for illegal immigrants and very minimal room for new immigrants. The idea of closing the borders up is not a “racial” issue or a “cultural” issue; it’s a simple matter of self-preservation. It’s the way to keeping our country great and keeping those undesirable for our country out. It’s way past time to find a cure for the Immigration Cancer.

Conover, Ted. A Journey Through the Secret World of America's Illegal Aliens. Vintage, 1987.

Opinion, “The Immigration Crisis.”, SF Chronicle, July 4th 1998
Dan Carney, " Social Policy " Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 9/7/96, Vol. 54 Issue 36, p250