Learning Team A Week Five Reflection In week four of class, one of the objectives that Team A covered in discussions was how to develop collection instruments. These instruments can be used to extract, assess, monitor, and record data and information. This process is important to ensure that all accurate needed information is gathered to make fact based changes to present procedures.

The second objective we learned was how to differentiate between sampling methods and to apply their application in business research.The different sampling methods include simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, convenience, judgment, quota, and snowball. These techniques can be of use to gather information about the way different variables affect large or small populations of individuals. This paper is a reflection on the concepts Team A learned in week four of class.

A Census on the other hand will be used when the population is small and when there is a big difference in the answer, For example "Some companies specialize in speakers, some in amplifier technology, and others in compact-disc transports" (Axia College RES/351 Ch 14 p. 365).These are some examples of when a census would be used. Accuracy is when the sample was drawn correctly to its conclusion. For example getting almost all the surveys back compared to half.

Precision, or known as random sampling error, is done upon what the surveys suggest against what their system might have calculated. The closer the surveys are to the system data, the closer the precision. A researcher has multiple sampling methods available to choose from when performing research. The different sampling methods available are simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, convenience, judgment, quota, and snowball sampling.

Simple random sampling is a simple percentage randomly selected from the target population. An example could be if ABC Widget Company mailed a product questionnaire to 1000 random customers taken from a frequent customer list of 25,000. The sample size as a percentage of the entire target population would be 4%. Systematic sampling is a method where the researcher takes the sample based on a predetermined order.

In the above example the researcher will create the sample size by picking every 25th customer from the same frequent customer list.Stratified sampling is a method where the target population is divided into groups. The groups have similar internal characteristics, but have different characteristics between groups. In the above example, the researcher may divide the target population into groups based on ethnicity.

A random selection would then be taken from each group. Cluster sampling is similar to stratified sampling in that the target population is divided into groups. The groups have different internal characteristics, but have similar characteristics between groups.In the above example, the researcher may divide the target population into groups based on neighborhood. A random selection would then be taken from each group.

Convenience sampling is a method where the participants are selected in a manner which is easiest to access. In the above example, the researcher would select participants from the store floor as the walk past while shopping. Judgment sampling is a method where the researcher selects participants based on some reason. In the above example, the researcher could select participants based on past shopping history.

Quota sampling is a method where the participants are selected in a manner which represents the percentage of a certain characteristic. In the above example, if the frequent customer population was 65% female and 35% male, the quota for the sample size would consist of 65% female and 35% male participants. Snowball sampling is a method where the participants are selected based on previously selected participants. In the above example, the researcher would select initial participants which in turn would refer or direct the researcher to additional participants. This process would continue until the desired sample size is achieved.

In conclusion, as a team we have discovered many research designs that would be appropriate to use in various situations. Once a research design was evaluated, data collection instruments came into play. We studied and learn the various types of data collection instruments that fit the particular research design chosen. We have studied the various uses of sampling that can be used to study and survey the outcomes of what is being researched. Reference Cooper, D. , & Schindler, P.

(2011). Business research methods (11th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.