Classical China and Classical India Classical China and Classical India are one of the most unique early civilizations during the Classical Period. They are known for their contributions to its modern world.
China and India are similar and different in many ways. Both China and India had many similarities and differences in politics, economics, and religion. The Qin and Han dynasties of Classical China developed a kind of government called bureaucracy. The Qin stressed central authority, while the Hans expanded the powers of bureaucracy.
In addition, Legalism was developed.India's political eatures involved regionalism and diversity in political forms, unlike China's bureaucracy. It is the reason why the Guptas did not require a single language for all their subjects. India did not create an extensive bureaucracy and instead allowed local rulers that they had defeated to maintain regional control as they deferred to Gupta dominance.
Indian religion generally did not stress the importance of politics, but for the preeminence of priests as sources of authority, while the Han rulers of China played a major role in promoting Confucian philosophy as a statement ofChinese values and in encouraging the worship of Confucius himself. India had a caste system that separated different social class into different castes. The caste system and religious encouragement to the faithful performance of caste duties did for Indian life what more conventional government structures did in many other cultures, in promoting public order and providing a network of rules by which people could regulate their lives and activities. China and India both had a tax system. Even though politics and culture was ultimately important in China and India, economy also had an impact on both the empire's history.There were three main social groups in China.
The landowning aristocracy plus the educated bureaucrats, or mandarins, made the top of the group. Second were the peasants and urban artisans who manufactured goods. Then came the mean people who were people that are unskilled. India's social groups consists of five groups that made up the caste system. Both China and India depended on a large peasant class.
Women in China and India were subordinate to men but women did have an important role to the family and society.It was said women were featured clever and strong-willed omen and goddesses in Indian culture, which made it subtly different from women in China. Children in China were different than that in India. Disobedient children would be punished harshly by parents. Parents had the right to do so as said by Confucius's quote, "There are no wrongdoing parents".
But in India, children were pampered. Both families of both countries served as an important and explicit emotional function as well as a role in supporting the structure of society and its institutions.China had an extremely well technological society (one of the best, if not he best) during their classical period. India had some technology as well. They were the first to manufacture cotton cloth, calico, and cashmere.
China and India had an that of the classical Mediterranean world which they used as an advantage to spread their religions. Indians traded more than China because merchants were high in society. Merchants in India were higher than merchants in China because China and India did not produce a single system of beliefs, as people looked at different values. China developed two major belief systems called Confucianism andDaoism and India also had two major belief systems called Hinduism and Buddhism. The beliefs between China and India were quite different. China's religion was more political than India's religion, whereas India was more religious.
Confucius traveled many parts of China preaching his idea of political virtue and good government. His virtues stressed respect for one's social superiors including elders. Buddhism and Hinduism believed in reincarnation and nirvana while Confucianism and Daoism didn't. India had several gods, including Vishnu (the preserver) and Shiva (the destroyer).
However, China's belief of Confucianism did not have gods, though Confucianism is an ethic and philosophical system. Confucianism and Buddhism were both greatly supported. The Han Dynasty's famous ruler, Wu Ti, urged support for Confucianism as it will help the government. Buddhism was aided by the missionary encouragement of Ashoka and Kushan emperors. India had many literary traditions including the Bhagavad-Gita, Mahabharata, and Ramayana.
China's Confucianism includes the books: the Analects, and the Five Classics. Chinese art was very decorative and stressed careful detail and craftsmanship.Calligraphy ecame an important art form in China, whereas India made lively art. Ashoka made many stupas and statues honoring Buddha.
India made many discoveries in astronomy and medicine which China were the same. Chinese mathematics and Indian mathematics were different. China stressed the practical. They would study mathematics of music that led to advanced acoustics. India were more into studying numbers.
China and India are different because they have different views of politics, economics, and religion. They also had many similarities also in those three criterions. Altogether Classical China and India are unique civilizations.