bAHRIA UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD| FACTORS EFFECTING CHILD LABOUR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES| Research Proposal Submitted In The Partial Fulfillment Of Requirement Of RMT| | STUDENT NAME: Chaudhry Ahsan Riaz| 5/30/2011| SUPERVISOR: Mohammad Ayub Siddiqui The issue of child labor has taking hype now a days. Child labor is one of the major problem for developing countries. The future of these children is on risk. There is a need to eliminate this issue from the world in order to make the future generations secure.
There are laws to control this but these laws should be implemented. | I- INTRODUCTION Child labor means the employment ofchildren who have completed less than 18 years. In recent years the problem of child labor must take attention from the media. Child labor is a major problem for developing countries. The future of these children are at risk. .To solve this problem, first we should know that what are the factors affecting child labor only then we can solve this problem of child labor around the world and made ?? the future of these children safe.
I choose this topic for telling our society, inparticular to give statistics on child labor and to tell them this is our problem, we had to resolve it, in order to protect our children, certainly the future of our children and I also choose this topic to bring the matter to any suggestions, that relieve this problem. All countries in the world on this thing, that child labor is not desirable agreed. By reading the history, we came to know that child labor has begun before the Industrial Revolution, without knowing their growth after the industrial revolution.
Asia has the largest number ofchild workers in the world. ILO estimates 52 million children work in 1979 increases to78. 5 million UNICEF in 1991estimated the number of working children is 90 million and by simply banning child labor is not enough to reduce it. As knight, (1980 p17) notes that child labor is prohibited by law only the law cannot protect these children workers because they are legal. focus on people, particularly education and poverty in the subject.
Most of the people said that the most important variables which effects on child labor is poverty but parental education and intelligence of children and debt bondage, and traditions are also important variables,that effects child labor. If we want to reduce the child labour then we had to take some serious actions. II- REVIEW OF LITERATURE Jensen, P and S Nielsen H. writes an article in January 1997 and the primary purpose of this study is to examine the effects of things on schooling and child labor in developing countries by using data from Zambia.
The analysis of their study suggest that both economic and sociological variables are important given the choice between school and child labor. In this study, they came to know that poverty is the main cause of child labor and poverty are the cause that forces parents, to keep their children away from school. For this reason, child labor is increasing in the less developing countries. One of the main results of this study is that girls leave school earlier than boys in Zambia and why girls leave school earlier because they are burdened with household chores and their marriage will be held earlier than boys.
Mitra, S September 1994. His study was a large slum in Calcutta. This paper shows the results for the entire lives of children, and he works mainly focus on socio-cultural factors. The main findings of this study is that 85% of working children not attending school. While 85% of children would not work regularly, although they are the same socio-cultural environment and had the same school as living area. The 15% of children who are part-time jobs were in school. By conducting this study, the researchers have come to know that poverty is the main cause of child labor.
The study also shows that children who work 40% of them are between nine and 10 years. In this way, the researchers found that 50% of the children who came to work for economic reasons, while 30% of the children to learn good intension some technical skills. Ranjan, R March 1999. His work is an analysis of child labor participation and the large firm of data sets from Pakistan and Preu. The main purpose of this study is the comparison between nature and determinants of child labor in Pakistan and Peru.
The results of this study showed many differences between the Pakistani and Peruvian. Results of a study is also shown that in both countries, the participation of boys in child labor has higher than girls. The results of this study show that Peru's college attainment rate is higher as compared to Pakistan. This study shows that the public variables have a significant impact on child labor. Bhatty. C February 1996. The main purpose of this study is to show that most of the economic reasons cited for child labor is either wrong or very weak.
The primary purpose of this article is to examine why, after so many years of independence, and although many legislative process and social objectives for the child's situation is still so poor in India. By examining the researchers learned that most commanly this explanation is given that poverty is the main reason that the work provides chilren. Researchers two proposals to shrink to child labor, is only doing it to improve basic education and laws to prevent child labor and the application of these laws in any condition. Ahmed, I. July 1999.
The main purpose of this study is a political insights to address the underlying causes of child labor. This study identifies the essential and central causes of child labor and shows ways to influence to reduce the long-term factor of child labor. After conducting this study, the researchers learned that a one percentage point increase in participation is the existence of child labor to decline by 0. 38 percentage points. Cross Country differences in the adult literacy rate of more than half of the variation in the employment of children to explain the world. Basu, Chau and A. K, N. H June 2004.
This article is about child labor and debt bondage. It shows why households send their children to men for working country. The purpose of this paper is that institutional arrangements leading to the analysis of the bonded child labor and to investigate the static and dynamic effects of policy interventions. The main finding of this study is that lenders gave money to poor people, and make the agreement that if they returned not in a position to repay the money they would bring their children to work. In this study, the researchers know that the most important work for children involved in agriculture.
Satz. D (2003). The main purpose of this article are the major issues which leads to detect children to work. By Publisher parents are the decision makers in the household, so the parents decide to send their children to work. Unequal distribution is another factor to convince the child. The conclusion of this article is to replace labor abuse and child prostitution, servitude, slavery and the work of children's lives will not be tolerated under any circumstances, is imminent. Further research should be carried out to be the best policy to eliminate child labor in the world.
Khadria, B, July 1996. It has conducted a study and this article is written primarily for tax relief by the Government of India, is the national savings certificates are given. It is for those who register their children in class one and issued its maturity after five years. This article was written primarily to give suggestions in the Indian policy of tax incentives. The author after the completion of this study was to know that poverty is the main cause of child labor forces. In this way the researchers know that the face value of the NPC is less than the average income for child labor.
Donnell, OO, Rosati, FC and Doorslaer, EV November 2003. They conducted the survey and the basic needs of this study is to test that on the work of childhood, affecting children's health. They focused on working with agriculture, the great work with children throughout the world. They examine the three most important signs of health, the relative weight, reported ill-health and height growth. In their study, they came to know that child labor has a negative impact on the health of girls. If they act in childhood increases the risk of illness up to five short years.
Even for boys it is different. The researchers found no evidence that child labor reduces the growth of children. In this study, they found that there is not much difference between working children and non-working children. They also found that children have jobs, no major impact on child health in a shorter period, but it has its effect on longer maturities. Wahba, J. October 2006. He writes an article and the main purpose of this article is to examine the influence of adult market wages and parents, were the children who work on child labor to investigate.
When the researchers identified those things together and Child Education using the data collected from Egypt. The results of this study showed that low adult market wages are the most important factor for child labor. The results of this study says that parents who were child laborers themselves to supply on average 10% more likely to work their children. This study also reports that large regional differences in income increases the probability of child labor. In this study, he came to know that there are difference between child labor and child rearing-started.
Psacharopoulos, G. October 1997. He wrote an article, the research addresses the issue of child labor in contrast to the enrollment of children working. This study is based on information from Bolivia and Venezuela. This study shows that working children contribute most to the total house hold income. Repetition of the same class, is a common phenomenon in Latin America highly associated with child labor. In this study, the researchers came to know that children who are working their education decreased by about two years compared with the non-working children.
The government should provide assistance for the poor to keep their children in school. The government should made free primary school education by taking some serious action, so that our future generations will become safe. Burr, N, February 2001. This article is written primarily to benefit the people intent on child labor and education with an unusual focus on girls' education. In this study, the researchers that the number of children from school has grown quickly and know that it is estimated over 100 million and out of 100 million for these 60% are girls.
The main reason is lack of education of parents. Traditions also play an important role in the formation of girls we cannot deny this aspect. The person who manages income house hold has power and authority to decide whether to take their children to school or work to send. The state and civil society to give this argument, consider that even policies for girls' education, we had the cultural values ?? and traditions in our heads, so traditions are not interchangeable. Sahoo, U. C November 1990. This article is mainly about child labor laws.
Indian Government did a lot of laws on child labor. As stated in Article 45 of the Indian Constitution is written that the government provides free education for their children until they complete the age of 14. Similarly, many measures taken to protect the child, but those documents are not properly applied by the government. The main reason for this uneffectiveness of legislation is that it applies to 20% of children were not the result of 100%, because 80% work in other agricultural sectors, as these laws do not apply.
Under the government has made such laws, which severely protects children and their future secure. III- METHODOLOGY The first method is to be prepared for face interviews with questionnaires and the results must be with the children, with those who do not work real comparison. A subjective assessment of the leve lof intelligence of the children will be tested in the interview to check his speed of understanding and the quality of their understanding and vigilance. I will also conduct research household to check income and expenditure of household and to policy makers in the household.
After collecting data, I will analyze the descriptive statistics on the data and interpreting data, making it understandable and useful for the study. IV- CONCLUSION This study isdeals with the factors that affect child labor . Poverty is not the only factor affecting children's work, but there are some other factors affecting the child, parents' education, tradition and include debt bondage. The Government should provide free for training. Child labor cannot be governed by the laws that currently prevail in developing countries.
These laws should be amended and new laws should secure the future of children and eliminate child labor from these countries. Legislation should focus on agriculture, rather than apply only to the industrial sector. Thereafter, the interest in reducing child labor. V- REFERENCES Jensen, P and Nielsen H. S. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia. 2 January 1997 Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4 pp. 407-424. Mitra, S. Factors in the sociocultural environment of child labourers : A study in a small scale Leather goods industry in Calcutta. 1 September 1994.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 51, No. 12 pp 822-825. Ranjan , R. Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study 10 March 1999. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 13, No. 1 pp. 3-19. BHATTY, K. Child labour: breaking the vicious cycle. 17 February 1996 Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 7 pp. 384-386. Ahmed, I. Getting Rid of Child labour Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 27 pp. 1815-1822. Basu, A. K and Chau, N. H. Exploitation of child labour and the dynamics of debt bondage. June 2004. Journal Of Economic Growth, Vol. , No. 2 pp. 209-238 Satz. D. Child labour: A normative perspective. (2003). The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 pp. 297-309. Khadria, B. Child- labour: Reform through a fiscal instrument. July 27 1996. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 30 pp. 2009-2010. Donnell,O. O, Rosati, F. C and Doorslaer, E. V. Health effects of child work: Evidence from rural Vietnam. September 2005. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 18, No. 3 pp. 437-467. Wahba, J. The Influence of Market Wages and Parental History on Child Labour and Schooling in Egypt.
October 2006. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 19, No. 4 pp. 823-852. Psacharopoulos,G. Child Labour Versus Educational Attainment Some Evidence from Latin America. October 1997. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4 pp. 377-386. Burra, N. Cultural Stereotypes and Household Behaviour: Girl Child LabourIn India. 3-16 February 2001. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 36, No. 5/6 pp. 481+483-488. Sahoo,U. C. ChilLabour and Legislation. 17 November 1990. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 46 pp. 2529-2530.