THESIS Most all primary care givers discipline there children on some type of level. Caregivers that work full time jobs and need care provided for their child before proper school going ages opt for daycare centers. Most parents are anxious about leaving their children only because honestly they would like to stay home with their children. Most caregivers main concern is the discipline that will be adminisiterd to their child. Most daycer centers do not dipsipline the same way the primary caregivers do but should be trained on how to properly discipline.

There are different levels and ways to discipline children , there are also age limitations on discipline. In the paper I will disscuss the implecations  of discipline for children in the pre- school range ages birth to 5yrs. Although discipline is used by adults and th expectations are high the ablitiy for a child to identify and comprehend the acts of discipline may be limited. From the ages of birth to about age 2 children need a lot of support and loving interactions.

At this age if a caregiver is absent from the child, the child may fear that the caregiver may not return.At this early age children learn to trust that the caregivers will be there in all times of need. During these years children also learn through senses and physical activity. Children from ages 2 to 6 years of age children learn language, reading and many social skills. A child will try to seek independence from caregivers and try and find ways of selfreliance. If the childs independence is understood and acknolged by the caregiver and also is encouraged then that child may take more initiative.

Children at this age will learn by exploration, feeling, pounding, and mixing objects over and throwing them.Children also begin to ask more questions. ARGUMENT; Most day care centers believe in ways of discipline which are through time outs or loss of privileges. There are some cases in which centers do displine with physical discipline, however it is very rare that these practices are used do to many state laws. Physical discipline can have negative long term results.

COUNTER ARGUMENT: PRESENTATION: In order for anyone to have self control there has to be parental guidance and support. Parents have to help toddlers and infants in the process of self- control, discipline and the over all process of learning.By the age of six the child usually starts to show self-control. With parents guiding the process the self control increases throughout the school years. The ways of child disipine is issued by many forms natural consequenses, logical consequenses, fix up, time out and redirection. Natural consequeses allow children to experience the way of learning from their own mistakes.

Natural consequeses is a form of didsipline that allows the parent to have the child use prosessing skills to understand cause of actions.This form of discipline is also referred to commonly as learning the hard way. Logical consequences CONCLUSION Guidance and discipline has to be the main focus on a child development. If actions are taking that insult or belittle the child it usually tends to have the child view the caregivers as negative and unkind. If the caregiver is attentive and shows a interest in the child it will encourage healthy development.

Teaching children any form of discipline is a very demanding task. the discipline a child it takes patience, thoughtful attention, cooperation and good understsnding.The parent in order to fully discipline and guide a child the caregiver has to be able to have proper knowledge of there own strengths and struggles with disciplinary issues. Most caregivers unfortunately only have their own experiences of being parentedwhich gives a very bias look to determining wherter of not a caregiver id giving proper disiplineor child rearing.

Proactive strategies Child misbehavior is impossible to prevent completely. Children, usually curious and endlessly creative, are likely to do things parents and other caregivers have not expected.However, there are many positive steps adults can take to help prevent misbehavior. ?         Set clear, consistent rules. ?         Make certain the environment is safe and worry-free.

?         Show interest in the child's activities. ?         Provide appropriate and engaging playthings. ?         Encourage self-control by providing meaningful choices. ?         Focus on the desired behavior, rather than the one to be avoided.

?         Build children's images of themselves as trustworthy, responsible and cooperative. ?         Expect the best from the child.          Give clear directions, one at a time. ?         Say "Yes" whenever possible. ?         Notice and pay attention to children when they do things right. ?         Take action before a situation gets out of control.

?         Encourage children often and generously. ?         Set a good example. ?         Help children see how their actions affect others. Possible reasons children misbehave If parents understand why their children misbehave, they can be more successful at reducing behavior problems.

Listed here are some of the possible reasons why children misbehave.          They want to test whether caregivers will enforce rules. ?         They experience different sets of expectations between school and home. ?         They do not understand the rules, or are held to expectations that are beyond their developmental levels. ?         They want to assert themselves and their independence.

?         They feel ill, bored, hungry or sleepy. ?         They lack accurate information and prior experience. ?         They have been previously "rewarded" for their misbehavior with adult attention. ?         They copy the actions of their parents.Parents' early experience with discipline Take a few minutes to reflect on your own childhood years. Evaluate the ways your parents disciplined you.

Which practices would you thank them for, and which would you like to do differently? Practices to keep| New practices to try| |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | Remembering how it felt to be a child can help you understand children and relate to their behavior. Positive discipline techniques True misbehavior occurs when a child chooses to behave inappropriately. Before you take action, ask yourself the following questions: ? Is the child really doing something wrong?Is there a real problem, or are you just tired and out of patience? o  If there is no real problem, release your stress away from the child. o  If there is a problem, go to the next question.

?         Think for a moment. Is your child actually capable of doing what you expect? o  If you are not being realistic, re-evaluate your expectations. o  If your expectations are fair, go to the next question. ?         Did your child know at the time that she or he was doing something wrong? o  If your child did not realize she was doing something wrong, help her understand what you expect, why, and how she can do that.Offer to help.

o  If your child knew what she was doing was wrong, and she intentionally disregarded a reasonable expectation, your child misbehaved. If the behavior was an accident, like wetting her pants while sleeping, it was not a misbehavior. If the behavior was not an accident, ask your child to tell you the reasons she has for doing what she did. If the child is old enough, ask her how she might solve the problem or correct the situation.

By using a problem-solving approach, children can develop skills in thinking through a situation and developing possible solutions. Responding to misbehaviorHere are five strategies parents and other caregivers can use to respond to child misbehavior. Remember, however, that it's always a good idea if rules are explained fully and clearly understood before misbehavior occurs. Whenever possible, involve children in making the rules for the family or the classroom. Natural consequences Allowing children to experience the consequences of their behavior is also called learning the hard way. For example, Gena does not put her books back in her school bag after she finishes reading.

One day she loses a book, and therefore must find a way to replace it.Only use natural consequences when they will not endanger the child's health or safety. Logical consequences These are structured consequences that follow specific misbehaviors. The child should be able to see how the behavior and the consequence are directly related. For example, Andrew, who is a teenager, knows that if he stays out past his curfew on a school night, his parents will not allow him to go out with his friends over the weekend. Fix-up If children damage something, they need to help in fixing it or in cleaning up.

If they cause someone distress, they should help in relieving that.For example, "Now that you made your brother cry, please come apologize and help me soothe him. " Time out During time out, children are required to spend time alone in a specific place that has few, if any, rewarding characteristics. This strategy gives the child a chance to reflect quietly on her or his behavior away from others. When giving a time out, be calm and firm. One minute for each year of the child's age is appropriate.

For example, "Hannah, we have talked often about how hitting is not acceptable. But because you hit Jerry, please leave the playground and go to the Time Out Table for five minutes.Please think about how Jerry might have felt when you hit him. " Redirection This strategy can work when you notice that a child is not following the rules and is being uncooperative.

Quickly get the child's attention and introduce another activity. For example, "Tom, please help me water the flowers now. You've been riding the bike for a long time and it's now Lena's turn. " Parenting styles Researchers have described four general styles of parenting: authoritarian, permissive, neglectful and authoritative. Most parents, however, do not fall neatly in one category, but fall in the middle, showing characteristics of more than one style.Also, some parents change styles depending on experience, age, maturity level of the child and the given situation.

A caregiver who is authoritarian ?         Values obedience, tradition and order ?         May use physical punishment ?         Usually doesn't allow choices or freedom of expression Possible outcomes Children of authoritarian parents might become followers and depend on others for making decisions. They may develop low self-esteem, become aggressive or defiant. A caregiver who is permissive ?         Sets few rules and guidelines ?         Does not provide structure          Does not enforce limits when they are established Possible outcomes Children of permissive parents may have low self-control and little ability to handle frustration. They may remain immature and have difficulty accepting responsibility.

A caregiver who is neglectful ?         Rejects or ignores the child ?         Does not get involved in the child's life ? Allows the child to do as she or he pleases Possible outcomes Children of neglectful parents may face many challenges, including difficulties with skill development, trust and self-esteem. A caregiver who is authoritative          Sets appropriate rules and guidelines ?         Is firm, consistent and fair ?         Has reasonable expectations ?         Encourages child independence and individuality ? Uses clear communication and reasoning ?         Allows choices and empowers the child Possible outcomes Children of authoritative parents are likely to be responsible, independent, have high self-esteem and able to control their aggressive impulses. This style of parenting provides a balance between setting appropriate limits and granting independence to the child. It is this style of parenting that provides warmth and supportive guidance.Parenting, however, is not the only factor influencing child outcomes.

Cultural values, peer behavior, family circumstances and community characteristics all impact the development of children. These factors also influence the style of parenting that is used. For example, authoritative parenting is more effective in some contexts and for some groups than others. Knowing what to expect from a child From age 6 to about 12 Children begin to act with increasing self-control. During these years, they begin to lay the groundwork for becoming productive members of society.They process the information they receive and can make complex decisions.

They are able to follow rules and accept responsibility. They also develop a self-image based on their experiences and feedback they receive from significant adults. If this feedback is positive, children grow to become confident and successful teens. If it is frequently negative, a child can grow to feel inadequate and inferior.

Learning about your child Your child is a unique individual. To interact with your child effectively, take time to learn about the special qualities of your child.Observe him or her in various settings and jot down your responses in the space below. ?         How my child is similar to me? ?         How is my child different from me? ?         How does my child gets my attention? ?         What are the things my child loves? ?         What special challenges does my child faces? ?         What are my child's special strengths? ?         What do I appreciate about my child? It's also important to talk directly with your children about their feelings and daily life experiences. Through frequent and positive interaction, the parent-child relationship is strengthened.

Growing with your child Learning is a life-long process for both children and adults. Take a few minutes to think about the new information you've gained about discipline from this guidesheet. Writing down your responses can help you remember them. ?         I used to think discipline is.

.. o  Now I know discipline is...

?         I have used this strategy to discipline. o  Now I will...

?         I used to think that I am... o  Now I know that.

.. ?         I used to think my child is...

o  Now I know my child is... It's also important to talk directly with your children about their feelings and daily life experiences.

Through frequent and positive interaction, the parent-child relationship is strengthened. Nurturing your child According to numerous studies, nurturance in raising children is a highly important quality. A nurturing adult is warm, understanding and supportive. Researchers have found that a child will learn more easily from a nurturing parent than from a harsh parent. Children who are raised by nurturing parents are also less likely to become delinquent than are children who are raised by rejecting parents.

Here are some examples of nurturing messages to give children. ?         You are valued as a person.          I believe in you. ?         I trust you. ?         I know you can handle life situations. ?         You are listened to.

?         You are cared for. ?         You are very important to me. ?         I am pleased with you. ?         I love you.

?         You can tell me anything. ?         It's OK to make mistakes. ?         You belong. ?         I am learning with you.

More help for parents To learn more about children, consider taking a class, attending a workshop, reading a book, subscribing to a parenting magazine, accessing Internet resources and/or talking with other caregivers.To develop a sense of connectedness, consider forming or joining a support group. Support groups are a great way to share ideas, learn with others and possibly trade child care. As you care for children, remember that caring for yourself is very important. Rest, nutrition, exercise and relaxation can help make caring for children more enjoyable.

Parenting and child care will always be challenging, no matter how well prepared you are. However, helping your children achieve self-discipline is worth your effort. It is a major foundation for their life-long personal and social development.