TEAMWORK in Cooperative Extension Programs Home Go To Page... Acknowledgements This booklet has been prepared as part of a national project on "Teamwork in Cooperative Extension Programs. " The project was conducted by the Division of Program and Staff Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension, under a grant from the ECOP 4-H Subcommittee's Standing Committee on Staff Development. As authors, we wish to express appreciation to those who have offered support and valuable insights by serving as consultants for the project-especially our colleagues in Wisconsin, Virginia and Iowa; graduate students-Deb Russler and Linda Parker; Dr.
John Banning and Dr. Scott Soder. A special 'thank you' is extended to the many Extension agents across the country who attended the Regional Association Presidents' Workshops, 1980. Their reactions to draft materials and suggestions for further project development were most encouraging and helpful. Terry L. Gibson Jeanne Moore E. J. Lueder September, 1980 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Gale L. VandeBerg, Director, in Cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress and provides equal opportunity in employment and training.
Home Home Go To Page... Introduction This booklet is intended specifically for use by County Extension professionals including secretarial staff, but is appropriate for all individuals interested in strengthening their Extension teamwork relationships (4-H committees, home economics committees, Agricultural Extension councils, advisory groups, area/state or national staff, etc. ). Although many examples of positive teamwork relationships can be identified, there is always an opportunity for staff to improve their understanding of and support for a teamwork approach to programming.
This booklet is designed to do just that. It is our hope that ideas and activity suggestions presented will promote and/or strengthen positive attitudes on your part toward team efforts in Extension programming. This booklet attempts to answer the following questions about teamwork, as well as suggest numerous activities that will help you begin to assess your attitudes and working relationships. This is however, just a beginning. Actual development of your teamwork skills will require additional time and effort, so we leave that up to you!
Teamwork ... What Are Your Beliefs and Attitudes? Team Building Opinionaire -- Provides the reader with an opportunity to become aware of his/her own attitudes and beliefs about teamwork Teamwork ... Why? Rationale for a Team Approach -- Describes the importance of and need for teamwork in Extension Teamwork ... What Is It? Dimensions of Involvement -- Defines teamwork as a continuum of alternative relationships among Extension professionals Home Home Go To Page... Teamwork . . . What Influences It?
Variables In the Current Extension Situation That Influence Teamwork EffortsIdentifies organizational and individual variables in brief outline form, as cited from interviews with selected Extension personnel Factors That Promote and Hinder Working Relationships -- Lists factors which Extension personnel feel promote or hinder positive working relationships Teamwork ... Is It Effective? Attributes of Ideal Teamwork Relationships -- Describes characteristics and skills necessary for effective team relationships Team Building and Working in Groups-Offers a series of questions to guide a group in organizing for teamwork
Teamwork ... How Does It Develop? Stages of Team Development -- Explains seven stages through which staff units pass as they become effectively functioning teams Teamwork ... How Does Your Team Rate? Team Assessment Too/ -- Series of 35 statements to help a group assess its teamwork relationships in seven key areas Home Home Go To Page... Teamwork .... What Are Your Beliefs and Attitudes? Let's begin by considering the most important element of teamwork-how you feel about it! Teamwork depends not only on your skills, but on your attitudes as well.
Completing the following Team Building Opinionaire should help you become more aware of your own thoughts before looking at other ideas presented in this booklet. Team Building Opinionaire Instructions: Read each statement once. Indicate whether you agree (+) or disagree (-) with it. It should take you no more than 5- 10 minutes to complete this exercise. There are no right or wrong answers. If you wish, share and compare your answers with other team members. Try to arrive at a consensus with them on each statement. You may change the wording to aid such agreement, if you desire.
Such an activity may initiate a "lively" discussion and help your team become openly aware of individual members' beliefs and attitudes. 1. Teamwork stifles creativity and individuality. 2. Members should be required to attend meetings to set team goals and discuss team problems. 3. Personal goals can be accomplished through teamwork. 4. It is sometimes necessary to ignore the feelings of others in order to reach a team decision. 5. In teamwork, conflict should always be avoided. 6. A silent member of the group is not interested in working as a team. 7. The person in the group with the highest status in the rganization should always take the leadership role. 8. In teamwork, it is important and necessary to allow time for discussion and agreement on operating procedures. 9. Every team member has a contribution to make toward the group task. 5 Home Home Go To Page... 10. In teamwork, "majority rule" applies. 11. Teamwork always involves working toward a common goal. 12. A good team member provides emotional support to all other members. 13. Every team needs a leader/coordinator. 14. Teamwork accomplishes a task more effectively and efficiently than individual efforts. 15.
Every team member should contribute equally toward accomplishing the task. 16. If a team fails to accomplish a task, it is the fault of the leader/coordinator. 17. A primary concern of all team members should be to establish an atmosphere where all feel free to express their opinions. 18. Final power in teamwork always rests with the leader/ coordinator. 19. There are often occasions when an individual who is part of the team should do what he/she thinks is right, regardless of what the team has decided to do. 20. All members must be committed to the team approach to accomplish the task.
Teamwork .... Why? Rationale for a Team Approach Teams are a part of everyone's life. You're a member of a family team, an Extension staff team, church, school, and community teams. So it's appropriate that you understand how to function effectively as a team member. In Extension especially, there is a need for teamwork. Extension clientele are confronted with increasingly complex problems with many dimensions. For example, the energy problem has implications for Extension programming in agriculture, family living, community development and youth development programs for both rural and urban people.
Home Home Go To Page... The multi-dimensional and thus multi-discipline nature of many problems requires a team approach. This approach encourages you as staff with complementary skills and competencies, to coordinate your efforts. By establishing priorities, concentrating financial resources, and combining knowledge and expertise, you can have greater impact on serious problems through your program efforts. Such efforts can serve to 1) lighten your work load, 2) reduce duplication of efforts, and 3) produce a result greater than all of your separate efforts. Teamwork ....
What Is It? In Extension programming, a variety of working relationships exist among staff. You might view these relationships as dimensions (levels) of involvement or as a continuum of relationships among agents. As you move along the continuum, the degree of communication, integration and commitment seems to increase. Greater interpersonal skills are necessary if you are to work together effectively at more complex levels. As your skills develop, more options become available to you regarding the dimension of involvement which you might select for any particular program effort.
There is no intent to place a value judgment upon this continuum, but merely to suggest that alternative working relationships exist. Not all programs should be planned and conducted by the total county staff. Other options are available. Some programs may be more effective if planned by individuals, some may require the resources of several staff members, including state specialists and volunteers, and still others may be most effective if planned and conducted by the entire staff. These dimensions of involvement should be considered a part of our definition for teamwork.
Too often we think Home Home Go To Page... Home Home Go To Page... of a team as a group (a collection of people) who interact to achieve a common goal, but an effective, well-functioning team is much more than this. Participants in an effective team care about the group's well-being. They skillfully combine appropriate individual talents with a positive team spirit to achieve results. Regardless of whether the program effort is that of an individual, several individuals or the entire county office unit, a climate of teamwork can exist. Viewing teamwork in this way encourages a broader nderstanding of the concept. It not only suggests that there are alternative working relationships for agents in their programming efforts, but that regardless of the approach selected, a climate of teamwork can be created. Can you identify dimensions of the continuum that you have used in your programming efforts? Are there some you have never considered? Are there some you might try? Teamwork .... What Influences It? As a part of this national project on teamwork, extensive interviews were conducted with selected Extension personnel to determine what influences their teamwork efforts. People nterviewed included district directors, state program leaders, state 4-H youth specialists, and county staff from both rural and urban situations in Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin, Virginia, and Canada. As a result of these interviews, the following variables were identified as elements that affect teamwork efforts. Although they have been separated into two general categories -organizational and individual --there are interrelationships among all the variables described. How do some of these variables affect your working relationships? Do they influence them positively or negatively?
Home Home Go To Page... Variables In the Current Extension Situation That Influence Teamwork Efforts A. Organizational 1. Approaches to programming-vary among program areas 2. Continuing professional development-philosophy of organization 3. Administrative support 4. Staff turnover 5. New staff orientation 6. Number of staff within working unit (team) B. Individual 1. Understanding of and commitment to a teamwork philosophy 2. Personalities and attitudes of agents 3. Climate of openness and communication 4. Procedural guidelines for staff functioning 5. Leadership and management skills within county off ice . Degree of familiarity with alternative approaches for effectively working and programming together 7. Perceptions of roles/responsibilities/functions among team members 8. Time available as a resource Home Home Go To Page... Factors That Promote or Hinder Working Relationships Other factors also promote or hinder teamwork relation ships among Extension personnel. Perhaps they will help you begin to think more critically about your team. Factors that promote good working relationships • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Staff meetings-with agenda and sufficient time to discuss
Job descriptions with annual review Knowledge of others' job descriptions and responsibilities Common criteria for personnel evaluation Openness and willingness to communicate-listening Trust Loyalty Respect for others in spite of professional differences Courtesy Respect for professionalism regardless of person's sex, age, race Recognizing talents of the others Giving credit Recognizing a job well done Pride in work of total staff Understanding and supporting others' programs. Agreed upon priorities Coffee-making shared by everyone Shared coffee breaks Circulation of pertinent information Willingness to talk over problems
Adequate facilities and supplies Cooperation Sincere caring for others with a respect for privacy Constructive criticism Home Home Go To Page... Factors that hinder good working relationships • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of understanding of others' jobs and responsibilities Lack of concern about total staff efforts Disregard for feelings of others Unwillingness to compromise Poor communication Competition among staff for individual prestige and recognition Negative and destructive criticism No involvement in administrative decisions Lack of leadership Over- sensitivity
Lack of privacy Disregard for talents of others No job descriptions No opportunities for staff meetings Gossip, rumors Putting off decision making Inequities in facilities and supplies Lack of trust Negative and sarcastic remarks Lack of common goals and philosophy Disloyalty to staff and organization No evaluation and/or feedback from supervisors Limited understanding of total program Holding a grudge Poor job attitudes Uneven work loads Lack of confidence in fellow workers Prejudice, racism, sexism Home Home Go To Page... Teamwork .... Is It Effective? In the literature on teamwork, the following factors are dentified as contributing to an effective teamwork approach. They provide the means for a team to begin to analyze its working relationship. Attributes of Ideal Teamwork Relationships •Participants believe in and are committed to the value of working together in a spirit of cooperation. •Team size is appropriate for effective communication (2-5 members are ideal, a group of 5-10 is workable, a group of 10-15 is difficult, and more than 15 may be impossible unless divided into subunits). •Participants understand the overall objectives of the organization and of the phase of the program each represents. Participants understand individual roles and responsibilities, as well as relationships to other staff members and to the total Extension program. •Participants take the time to establish and clarify guidelines and procedures for a working relationship; they are committed to making plans and achieving them. •Participants define and agree upon meaningful and measurable objectives that meet both group and personal needs; individuality and creativity are not stifled. •Someone within the group assumes leadership to coordinate each task or program effort. •Participants function well in a variety of roles (initiating, informing, ummarizing, mediating, encouraging) and know when appropriate roles are needed. •Participants know each other-are aware of each others' resources, skills and areas of expertise; they know what each can contribute to the group. •The group allows sufficient time for the teamwork effort. •The group places work orientation first, but allows social interaction, too. Home Home Go To Page... • Participants communicate openly and non-defensively; they listen attentively. • Participants respect and trust each other, have confidence in each others' abilities, and are supportive of one another. •
Participants allow and encourage equal participation and sharing of ideas, including expression of dissenting views. • Participants confront conflicts and problems; they use disagreement and conflict productively. • Participants are skillful in decision- making, problem solving; decisions are understood and supported by all members of the team. These attributes are important regardless of the 'dimension of involvement' described in our definition of teamwork. How many of these attributes describe your team? Are there some areas which need improvement? Extension structures and processes vary from state to state nd from county to county. There is no single definition for teamwork, nor is there one model or one best way for staff units to operate. Rather, it is the responsibility of each team to develop procedures and approaches, based on the personalities, skills, and attitudes of individual members, as well as on the nature of the task to be accomplished. Perhaps the following questions will provide some beginning guidelines for establishing your team's working procedures: Home Home Go To Page... Team Building and Working in Groups A. Belief in Teamwork Approach • Do you believe in the value of working together in a eam effort? Do you believe that a team decision or product can be superior to the work of a single individual? Have you made a personal commitment to work with your colleagues in a team effort? Has the collection of individuals made a commitment to work together in a team? B. Size of Team • Is your team small enough to make effective communication possible? A team of 2-5 is ideal, a group of 5-10 is workable, a group of 10-15 is difficult and more than 15 may be impossible. C. Resources Available • Do you know every member of the group and what they can offer to the group? Are your expectations ccurate or have they been blinded by past experiences? Do you perceive certain individuals as playing only certain roles, having certain skills, and limited knowledge? • Is the group a collection of individuals assembled because each member of the group has a different area of expertise? Is that expertise accepted by all members of the group? What are the areas of overlap and thus potential conflict in the areas of expertise? D. Organization for Task Accomplishment • Does the team take time to establish ground rules for the operation of the team, or is the team anxious to get on with the task? Has the group agreed upon: - goals and objectives - individual and team timetable - procedures for establishing an agenda - priority of efforts - individual and team - methods of conflict resolution - length of meetings - location of meetings - allocation of resources - leadership requirements Home Home Go To Page... • • • • Does the group understand that any team usually goes through several stages of development before a team spirit emerges? Do you have enough time - realistic deadlines - to enable you to operate as a team? It takes time for a collection of individuals to become a team.
Has the group designated a team leader? A group of peers can still benefit from a leader. The group can make more progress if they will let someone guide the efforts of the team. A group lacking a formal leader will usually waste much time in a struggle for power among group members. Does the group take minutes for the meeting? Are accurate notes kept to avoid losing group decisions? Do you proceed on the basis of specific conclusions and delegation of responsibilities rather than on the basis of general understandings? E. Maintaining the Team Effort • • • Does the team have an open climate of trust and espect for all group members and their ideas? Has the group achieved an appropriate balance between the requirement for group productivity (task) and the satisfaction of individual needs? Do people in the group avoid breaking into subgroups of trusted friends to share rumors, complain, or form alliances that will affect the productivity of the team? Home Home Go To Page... • • Does the group concentrate on the mission of the team rather than spend all the time socializing? As a member of the team, do you assume a variety of roles? - Task Roles Initiating activity, seeking information, eeking opinion, giving information, giving opinion, elaborating, coordinating, and summarizing. - Team Building Roles Encouraging, standard setting, following and expressing group feelings. - Task and Team Building Roles Evaluating, diagnosing, testing for consensus, mediating, and relieving tension F. Decision-Making and Conflict Resolution • • • • • • Do all members of the group have an equal opportunity for participation or do dominant personalities and people with status and power control the participation? Have you identified your vested interests and the vested interests of other group members that may ause conflict in reaching a group decision? Are dissenting or minority viewpoints treated with respect? Is there an effort by the group to understand the reasons behind a dissenting opinion? Can the group work through differences of opinion rather than ignoring them? Can team members separate criticism of an idea from criticism of the person who had the idea? Are group members willing to discuss areas of conflict or do they try to ignore the conflict or pass it off as being of only minor significance? Does the group avoid a "wait until next meeting" attitude toward decision making and conflict resolution? Home Home
Go To Page... • Does the team make an effort to understand the problem before finding solutions? Is the team cautious about proceeding on the basis of premature conclusions? Have problem-solving procedures been identified? • Are group members good listeners or are they busy preparing a rebuttal to ideas being presented? • Is the group willing to accept a dissenting opinion and reduced level of commitment as a natural consequence of a group effort? Are individual members of the team willing to compromise their personal objectives for the sake of team objectives that are universally accepted by all group members? Are all members of the team required to adhere to the group decision? Can individual members "opt out" of the group decision? • What criteria will you use in determining your personal level of acceptance of the team product? Do other members of the team know, understand, and accept the criteria that you are using? Are you really honest about the criteria you are using? Are other group members aware that a threat to your competence and self-esteem will reduce your level of commitment? • Is the team willing to take the time to reach a totally acceptable decision?
Is it possible to reach a decision with a uniform level of acceptance and consequent commitment? Is it better to have several members with a high level of acceptance-commitment and several members with a low level of acceptance-commitment than to have all members with only a medium level of acceptance-commitment? What is the trade-off? Assume five persons with a possible level of 100% acceptance-commitment--Which results yield the best investment of time and energy? 1. 2. 3. 5 persons at 95% requiring 10 hours of extra meetings? 5 persons at 75% requiring 3 hours of extra meetings? 2 persons at 90% - 2 at 60% - 1 at 25% = Average of 650, Are conflicts handled openly in meetings or negotiated privately in a "me and you" against "them" manner? • Are conflicts handled on the basis of logic and agreed upon criteria or are they determined by loyalty to individuals? • Does the team use voting as a means of resolving conflicts only when they are dealing with simple operational concerns? Conflict that is resolved by voting tens to encourage an argumentative atmosphere in which members commit themselves too quickly and may not examine the possibility of finding a settlement agreeable to all. Home Home Go To Page... Teamwork .... How Does It Develop?
It's important to realize that the development of effective working relationships among staff is a gradual process which requires considerable time and skill. This is not meant to discourage you, but to help you realize that teams aren't created overnight. A certain amount of frustration and conflict are normal. Team development is often viewed as a series of stages, described below. Although all the attributes and skills needed for an ideal working relationship (as listed in the preceding section) are important at every stage, some become more crucial as the team develops and staff members increase their level of involvement.
At a minimum, it's important for individual staff members to realize the benefits of teamwork and to have a commitment toward working together. Without such elements, further team development will be less likely to occur. Conflict, a natural part of the development process, will overpower or dominate the situation, preventing the team from ever reaching its full potential. With a positive attitude toward team efforts, and with increased opportunity and time to practice teamwork skills, staff members can develop as an effective working team, and consequently have greater impact upon clientele problems.
Stages of Team Development Stage 1: Hello, I Am… Getting acquainted is of most concern at this initial stage of team development. It usually includes polite dialogue of a superficial, information-sharing nature. Based on first impressions or past experiences, group members develop stereotypes in an attempt to categorize each other and anticipate future responses. Ideas are simple; emotions and feelings are kept in tight control, and controversy is avoided. There is an unspoken agreement not to disagree-a feeling that all members think and feel alike.
Items on the hidden agenda stay hidden, and there is a shared ambiguity about the specific task to be undertaken by the team. Home Home Go To Page... Stage 2: What's Our Destination? Members begin to question the team's goals and objectives. They want to discuss reasons for the group effort. If external forces have specified the destination of the team, members may want to discuss why each was placed on the team, and the purpose of the specific group task. As members begin to express divergent opinions, hidden agendas are sensed and poor listening develops. Team members may be quick to agree in an effort to avoid confrontation.
A desire to move ahead without "real" understanding and commitment results. A tentative timetable may be developed that probably overestimates the contribution of each team member and underestimates the amount of time for each phase of the project/task. Stage 3: What Are the Costs/Benefits as Perceived by the Individual/Team? With first notions of a team effort emerging, members perceive that there are costs/benefits of their involvement in the team effort. Members may ask themselves such questions as: Will the team effort have value for me? Can I use the team to help me achieve individual goals?
Will my individual contribution be large and the benefits small? Will I do all the work and have the team receive the recognition? Will nonproductive members get some of the rewards I deserve? OR: Will others on the team make comparable contributions? Will individuals share the workload? Can the team benefit from such an effort? As individual agendas are identified and expressed, members with similar needs and viewpoints begin to form private alliances. Stage 4: What Skills Do We Need? In the struggle to determine the costs/benefits of team efforts, the resources of team members are explored.
Home Home Go To Page... Attention is given to the talents and skills which each member might contribute to the effort. Hidden talents may go undiscovered as the group is still dealing at a superficial level and still blinded by stereotypes and labels, If talents overlap, if there are too many experts on the same subject, or if additional skills are necessary, decisions are made about whether to add or drop members or develop the skills of existing members. When members are added or subtracted from the team, the team development cycle begins again. Stage 5: What Is the Best Route?
With the "end" goals agreed upon, team members begin negotiating the "means. " There is a strong need for structure, which includes a bid for power and struggle for leadership. As a result, competition develops. Individual agendas are made public. Emotion and alliances to each other, rather than logic, influence judgments of team members; members listen poorly and are close-minded about others' opinions/ideas. The team may prematurely resort to voting as a means of making decisions, which causes some individuals to feel they have not been given adequate opportunity to express their viewpoints.
There is a lack of team spirit in this stage. Many members feel uncomfortable with the group struggles. Some are silent and others tend to dominate the group. Commitment to this team effort will vary significantly. Individual priorities seem to block the work of the team as some members place personal commitments "first. " The team may be difficult to assemble as members are unwilling to change their schedules to accommodate the work of the team. Extreme frustration with indecision may impede progress such that the team will never get beyond this stage.
It may still fulfill its task, but not to the satisfaction of all members. Home Home Go To Page... However, if the team persists in its task and at least a few members are willing to sacrifice individual agendas for the benefit of the team, a compromise approach may begin to emerge. Stage 6: How Can We Compromise and Work Together? Team members' attitudes change as they realize that working together can produce a product greater than the sum of their individual efforts. Individual agendas are adjusted to accommodate the needs of the group. Members begin to share leadership responsibilities.
Individuals continue to disagree but their ideas are heard; members listen actively and differences are dealt with honestly and openly. Understanding results. Alliances remain, but they are built on ideas rather than personalities and loyalties. Logic rather than emotion guides the decision-making process. Competition gives way to compromise, for conflict is now viewed as a mutual problem. As team members begin to relax in an atmosphere of trust and openness, creative ideas emerge, and the team feels that progress is being made. Stage 7: We Are ...
High group morale and loyalty, empathy, and an open climate of trust and acceptance characterize this final stage of team development. Even though one member may be identified as the "coordinator" for a particular group task, leadership roles are shared among all members. There is freedom to select from the variety of working relationships outlined by the earlier description of the dimensions of involvement. Group members agree to disagree; they agree to settle conflicts, to make decisions, and to proceed to work together on the basis of criteria identified by the group.
The team is both effective and efficient in meeting deadlines and accomplishing its objectives. Productive results are most evident. Home Home Go To Page... Because of an intense feeling of "group spirit," new members are reluctantly accepted. If new members join, the group must regress to an earlier stage and grow again to this final phase, together. Home Home Go To Page... Teamwork .... How Does Your Team Rate? A continual process of assessment is necessary for effective team development. Hopefully, the ideas and activities presented in this booklet have helped you begin such a process.
The following tool can be used to provoke further thought and discussion among team members. As you read the statements under each of the specific areas, think about the working relationships among staff members within your immediate county office setting including secretarial staff. Record your responses on the answer sheet provided. Team Assessment Tool Work Orientation / Work Methods: 1. We accomplish much in our team meetings. 2. Team meetings are unorganized and chaotic. 3. At team meetings, we spend more time socializing than accomplishing the task at hand. 4.
As a team, we spend time reviewing our working procedure, how it works, and how to improve it. 5. All members of the team are involved in decisions when appropriate; participation is real, not tokenism. Communication / Active Listening / Interaction: 6. People on our team communicate openly and frankly with each other. 7. In group discussion, team members are guarded and cautious. 8. We listen to each other in an effort to really hear and understand what is being said. 9. Communication among team members is poor ("catch-ascatch can"). 10. Disagreements between team members are worked through horoughly; individual viewpoints are fully heard. Home Go To Page... Leadership: 11. The county chairperson makes decisions for the team without asking members' opinions when appropriate. 12. The county chairperson adapts his/her leadership style to changing circumstances. 13. The county chairperson ignores the different needs of team members. 14. Leadership for group tasks is passed around and shared by various team members depending on the situation. 15. Levels of authority and responsibility for the county chairperson and team members are clearly defined and understood.
Resource Utilization: 16. Team members are unable to handle the current requirements of their work. 17. The mix of expertise and skills among our team members is appropriate for the work we are doing. 18. Members adapt well to the needs of the team. 19. We know the skills and resources that each team member can contribute to our county program. 20. We involve volunteers/state specialists/other resource persons when appropriate to our program needs and if they are available. Objectives/Goals: 21. We have an adequate way to establish our team's objectives and work strategies. 22.
Objectives for team efforts are imposed by one staff member or by administration. 23. We lack understanding about our individual responsibilities in relation to each other and to the organization. 24. Our objectives for team efforts are vague and unclear to all team members. 25. Members seem to understand how personal needs/goals can be met through group work. 26 Home Home Go To Page... Group Commitment: 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Members feel that teamwork is worthwhile. As an individual, I feet a strong sense of belonging to the team. Team members are reluctant to commit themselves to team efforts.
I feel very motivated to work as a team. If a team member gets into difficulty, she/he is supported by other team members. Group Climate / Environment: 31. Our team respects the individual, as well as the innovative, creative ideas of members. 32. Individuals in our team get to know each other as people. 33. 1 feel uncomfortable expressing my thoughts and opinions with team members. 34. We compliment each other on our work when appropriate. 35. The climate of our relationships within the team is one of mutual trust rather than hostility, suspicion, fear or anxiety. Home Home Go To Page...
Indicate your response to each Team Assessment statement by selecting from among those presented. Place an X in the blank under the appropriate column. Note that the statements are divided into two columns (for analysis purposes). Do check the statement number carefully before marking your response. (instruction for analysis and coding follow. ) Home Home Go To Page... Analysis and Team Coding Instructions Analysis The statements have been divided into two columns. Note the reason: some statements on the tool are positive and some are negative. Thus, adjustments must be made when interpreting the results.
As you look over the entire coded sheet, "never" and "occasionally" responses to statements in the left column suggest a need for improvement in those areas (Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, etc. ). Whereas, "never" and "occasionally" responses to statements in the right column suggest favorable working relationships, and less need for improvement as perceived by you, the respondent (Nos. 2, 3, 7, 9, etc. ) Team Coding Coding the responses of all team members onto a single answer sheet allows you to further analyze the strengths and weaknesses of your team's working relationships.
For each statement, tally (on a clean answer sheet) all team members' responses by making a mark under the column which corresponds to each member's response. (Example: For question No. 1, three members responded "never" and two members responded "occasionally. ") Never 1. 3 Occasion- Some- Most of ally times the time Always 2 Continue in a similar manner for all statements. Each team member may want to do this so as to have a copy, or one such coded sheet per team may be sufficient. If there is a wide variation in response on a statement by eam members, it may be especially beneficial to discuss such a statement and attempt to clarify reasons for the varied perceptions. This analysis should help team members identify particular areas of concern. Additional time/activities could be planned for team members to further explore and develop their attitudes and skills in working together. Home Home Go To Page... Conclusion Keep in mind that the development of an effective team requires a positive attitude and commitment toward teamwork, coupled with an understanding of what teamwork involves. Secondly, it requires practicing teamwork skills.
This booklet of ideas has attempted to promote the former; it is up to you to pursue the latter. Home Home Go To Page... Annotated Bibliography 1. Dyer, William G. , Team Building: Issues and Alternatives, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1977, 139 pp. This book is highly recommended for its practical focus upon how to design and conduct a program in team development. A range of design alternatives are suggested for both improving a unit's effectiveness, as well as for developing a new team. Dyer emphasizes the need for individual team diagnosis with the creation of a program suited to a team's particular needs.
Instrumental checklists, an index of characteristics essential for team effectiveness, and need assessment tools are included. Problems such as role clarification, suppression of disagreement, revitalizing the complacent team, and reducing team-conflict are discussed. 2. Filley, Alan C. , Interpersonal Conflict Resolution, Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1975, 175 pp. A manual for people who are working in groups, this book speaks of changing conflict situations into problem solving challenges. It presents an analysis of the conflict process, how it develops, and methods of resolution.
It relates the various effects of language, personal behavior, attitudes, and situational conditions upon problem-solving. Also included for groups are a series of exercises demonstrating issues and behaviors discussed. Home Home Go To Page... 3. Francis, Dave and Don Young, Improving Work Groups: A Practical Manual for Team Building, La Jolla, California: University Associates, 1979, 261 pp. This book is a practical, easy-to-read guide to building an effective team. Teambuilding is explained in depth; the book includes a questionnaire for use in identifying team strengths and weaknesses.
It explores many learnable skills for team members to develop in working through their problems; suggested structured experiences are described in detail. 4. Lawson, John D. , Leslie J. Griffen, and Franklyn D. Donant, Leadership Is Everybody's Business (A Practical Guide for Volunteer Membership Groups). San Luis Obispo, California: Impact Publishers, 1976, University Associates, 1979, 261 pp. This book combines group dynamics theory, philosophy, activity suggestions, and resources for task-oriented groups or organizations of volunteer memberships. Part I focuses on individual values and motivations for joining groups.
Part II describes organizational ski[ Is and competencies necessary for leaders. Part III discusses in more depth such leadership concepts as the cycle of organization involvement, leadership styles, role conflicts and suggestions for overcoming them, improving individual motivation and interpersonal communications. 5. Robinson, Jerry W. and Roy A. Clifford, Process Skills in Organization Development, University of Illinois: Board of Trustees, 1972, 212 pp. This text was created for use with Extension professionals and local leaders. It emphasizes personal behavior and process skills within an organization.
Five concepts important to organizational development are developed and discussed-organizational styles, leadership styles, team skills, conflict management, and change implementation. Team activities and additional references are included. Home Home Go To Page... Dr. Terry L. Gibson, Project Director and Co-Author, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication, and Chairperson of the Personnel and Professional Development Unit of the Division of Program and Staff Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension. Jeanne Moore, Associate Project Director, Co-Author, and
Editor, is a former Extension 4-1-1 and Youth Leader from Iowa, and graduate student in Continuing Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. E. J, Lueder, Project Consultant and "Reality Tester," is a Professor in the Department of Youth Development, and a Youth Development Specialist in the 4-H Youth Development Program Unit, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Published by: Division of Program and Staff Development University of Wisconsin-Extension 432 N. Lake St. Madison, Wisconsin 53706 T ypist: Julie Harper Artist: Dale Mann Editorial Consultants: Sheila Mulcahy Rick Crowley Home Home Go To Page...