Page 50 1 - A Competitive Coup in the In-Flight Magazine. What are the most prudent decisions she can make about her responsibilities to herself and others? The most prudent decision that she can make to herself, her organization and the competition is to turn the document over to one of the airline personnel. She should continue on with her research because even though she saw the competitor’s results she may be able to find more information that may change the end results. She should also inform the organizations ethicist along with her manager.

What are the implications of those decisions even if there is no violation of law or regulation? The implications of her actions are more personal values along with showing her manager, the airline personnel, and the competitor’s organization that she works for an ethical organization and that she herself is able to conduct herself in a manner that is a positive reflection of her organization. Page 155 Terms in Review 1 - Distinguish between the following: A Exploratory and formal studies. Exploratory studies tend toward loose structure with the objective of discovering future research tasks.

The immediate purpose of exploration is usually to develop hypothesis or questions for further research. Formal study begins where the exploration leaves off – it begins with the hypothesis or research question and involves precise procedures and data source specifications. The goal of a formal research design is to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions posed. B Experimental and ex post facto research designs. Experimental or experiment – the researcher attempts to control and or manipulate the variables in the study.

Ex post facto design – the investigators have no control over the variables; to do so introduces bias. C Descriptive and causal studies. Descriptive study is if the research is concerned with finding out who, what, where, when, or how much. Casual studies are if a study is concerned with learning why – that is, how one variable produces changes in another. 2 - Establishing causality is difficult, whether conclusions have been derived inductively or deductively. A Explain and elaborate on the implications of this statement.

Casualty or the relation between cause and effect is difficult to establish whether the conclusions have been derived inductively or deductively because anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. There can be direct or indirect factors that affect an effect. B Why is ascribing causality more difficult when conclusions have been reached through induction? It is difficult to ascribe causality when the conclusion is reached through induction because one cannot attribute to a specific source or origin when logic was used as the bases for the conclusion.

C Correlation does not imply causation. Illustrate this point with examples from business. In my husband’s company they are waiting for the election to determine the future growth of the organization but does the appointment of a republican over a democrat or vice versa really have that much cause and effect. Another example would be people in the UK tend to spend more in the shops when it's cold and less when it's hot doesn't mean cold weather causes frenzied high-street spending. A more plausible explanation would be that cold weather tends to coincide with Christmas and the new year sales. Green, 2012) 3 - Using yourself as the subject, give an example of each of the following asymmetrical relationships: A Stimulus-response A change in Relay for Life directors for in my community lead to a change in volunteer position. B Property-disposition As my husband and get older our priorities changed and are centered more at increasing our for the future. C Disposition-behavior d Property-behavior As I have increased in age my exercise routine has changed to fit my current life style and age.

And as I have increased in age the quality of my output has increased. 4 - Why not use more control variables rather than depend on randomization as the means of controlling extraneous variables? An extraneous variable are undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining. Another way to think of this, is that these are variables the influence the outcome of an experiment, though they are not the variables that are actually of interest. These variables are undesirable because they add error to an experiment.

A major goal in research design is to decrease or control the influence of extraneous variables as much as possible. (Extraneous and Confounding Variables and Systematic vs Non-Systematic Error, NA) Using extraneous variables allows one to encounter real life circumstances that controlled variables do not allow. 5 - Researchers seek causal relationships by either experimental or ex post facto research designs. A In what ways are these two approaches similar? Experimental and ex post facto research designs are similar in that this is the power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study.

B In what ways are they different? " Experimental and ex post facto research designs are different in that experimental research design the researcher attempts to control or manipulate the variables and in an ex post factor the researcher has no control over the variables. Page 388 7 - Your large firm is about to change to a customer-centered organization structure, in which employees who have rarely had customer contact will now likely significantly influence customer satisfaction and retention.

As part of the transition, your superior wants an accurate evaluation of the morale of the firm’s large number of computer technicians. What type of sample would you draw if it was to be an unrestricted sample? The type of sample that I would draw if it were to be an unrestricted sample would be a simple sample. This sample would draw its elements from the population. With simple random sampling, the estimates of the mean and variance are unbiased and the precision of the estimate of the mean can be assessed.

However, this precision may be low if the sample is not well distributed over the population. It is also likely to be low if the population is variable and the intensity of sampling is low. References: Green, N. (2012, January 2012). Correlation is not causation. Retrieved from Guardian: http://www. guardian. co. uk/science/blog/2012/jan/06/correlation-causation Extraneous and Confounding Variables and Systematic vs Non-Systematic Error. (NA). Retrieved from Pstchology World: http://web. mst. edu/~psyworld/extraneous. htm