Arsel 2006). Furthermore, the lack of authenticity is stressed by polished and expensive marketing techniques that global brand companies typically use because commercialization is negatively related to perceived authenticity (Holt 2004).
Similarly, since global brands are often pushed into markets with enormous marketing budgets, while being produced at ever lower cost in low-income countries, they could also be thought of as aggressive or even reckless.Beliefs about and reactions to global brands seem to be quite heterogeneous indicating the relevance of additional explaining factors in that context. Relevant variables can be identified on a product/brand, individual and cultural/country level. Apart from a few constructs, e. g.
consumer ethnocentrism (CET), most of these variables have not been empirically researched in the given context so far. On a product level, especially the product category should have a strong influence on the favorability of the type of the international branding strategy.Johansson and Ronkainen (2004) suggest that global brands are more successful in high profile and high-involvement categories with pronounced symbolic functions. An important distinction has also been made etween culture-free and culture-bound products (Wind and Douglas 1972). Thus, for example, food would be regarded as strongly culture-bound products and therefore as difficult to standardize, while high-tech products would be regarded as essentially culture-free products and consequently as easy to standardize (Baalbaki and Malhotra 1993).Another important brand related variable is the country-of-origin or country image.
Global brands from countries with a bad publicity are likely to have acceptance problems and vice versa. With regard to individual variables, consumers f global brands have been characterized as younger, more educated, wealthier and more urban than the average consumer (Quelch 1999). Apart from demographics some studies have dealt with the influence of consumer ethnocentrism (CET) on the preference for global versus local brands (e. g. Aysegul 2006; Steenkamp, Batra and Alden 2003). According to Shimp and Sharma (1987, p.
280) CET is defined as "the beliefs held by consumers about the appropriateness, indeed the morality, of choosing foreign-made products". Steenkamp, Batra and Alden (2003) showed that low-CET consum- ers from the U. S. and Korea showed a higher tendency to buy lobal brands compared to high-CET consumers. Similar effects should be caused by related constructs, e.
g. consumer animosity (Klein, Ettenson and Morris 1998), nationalism and patriotism (Druckman 1994).Consumer cosmopolitanism should also influence the acceptance of global brands. In a recent definition, a cosmopolitan consumer is defined as "an open-minded individual whose con- sumption orientation transcends any particular culture, locality or community and who appre- ciates diversity including trying products and services from a variety of countries" (Riefler and Diamatopoulos 2006). Cosmopolitan motives are expressed through the search for "au- thentically distinctive social and aesthetic experiences" (Thompson, Rindfleisch and Arsel 2006, p. 6).
Since global brands stand in contrast to authentic local brands, cosmopolitan consumers should therefore avoid global offerings. In addition, since global brands can be viewed as symbols of a globalized and materialistic world, general attitudes towards global- ization and consumption as well as materialism may be important in the given context (Wit- kowski 2005). More generally, global brands can be associated with ither the benefits or the drawbacks of globalization depending on globalization attitudes.Similarly, global brands, such as Nike, seem to be especially vulnerable to a change in people's attitudes toward consumption and materialism, because they represent a favourite target of the growing antimaterialistic, anticonsumption and anticorporate movement (Holt 2002) "Glocalization" - Different Perspectives According to the dictionary meaning, the term "glocal" and the process noun "glocalization" are "formed by telescoping global and local to make a blend" (The Oxford Dictionary of New Words, 1991 quoted in Robertson, 1995).
The term was modeled on Japanese word dochakuka, which originally meant adapting farming technique to one's own local condition. In the business world the idea was adopted to refer to global localization. The word as well as the idea came from Japan (Robertson, 1995). According to the sociologist Roland Robertson, glocalization describes the tempering effects of local conditions on global pressures.
At a 1997 conference on "Globalization and Indigenous Culture," Robertson said that glocalization "means the simultaneity (co-presence) of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies (Rant, 2003).Glocalization is a concept that explains the interactions between global and local dimensions in any strategy i. e. political governance strategies, business marketing strategies, media and communication strategies etc. This concept also explains the failure of some strong strategies, as they do not consider the effect of cultural diversity and strength of local dimensions.
It is considered as creation or distribution of products or services intended for a global or transregional market, but customized to suit local laws or culture James D.Wolfensohn (World Bank president 1995-2005), tated: "Glocalization is of enormous importance because it brings us from the global question down to issues at the human scale, and to issues of humanity and people". Ritzer has added another term "globalization" while discussing glocalization. He refers to it as "growth imperative for organizations and nations to expand globally and to impose themselves on the local", for him globalization is the sum total of glocalization and "grobalization" (Khondker, 2004). Glocalization is important in all types of businesses from automobiles to comic books and mass merchandisers to fast food restaurants.Comics on Spiderman were launched in India by modifying the original version to suit the Indian markets.
The real life name has been changed from Peter Parker to Pavitra Prabhakar, he wears a loincloth worn by hindu men in India. The other aspects of the comic book have also been modified (The Hindu, 2004). These modifications help consumers in the host country relate with the character in a much better and effective way. Similarly a recent Indian movie "KRRISH" portrayed a superohero, who can be considered a glocalized version of Batman or Superman.In Germany, Ayurveda style of medication as been glocalized and has been successfully implemented by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Group.
He has softened the harsh Indian purgation therapy and concentrated on nutrition advices, on massages and oil applications (Stollberg, 2005). Cultural differences affect efficient working of digital networking environments and several localized communities are formed. These communities are being managed with the help of glocalized strategies to facilitate the working of the digital environment (Boyd, 2006).The concept of glocalization is particularly important to the food and agribusiness ndustry because of the seamless challenges this industry faces due to the typical differeces that exist in the food habits of people belonging to various regions/ religions/cultures across the globe. There are numerous examples of companies doing extremely well in their local markets, but when go global, these fail completely. Glocalization is seen in the communication aspect of marketing strategy as well, like Coca-Cola airing i d fferent advertisements in India with actor Amir Khan in different characters, i.
. Hyderabad', Punjabi, Lucknowi, Bombay-Bhai and as a Gorkha as well. Glocalization is indeed the most important concept that is being taken up by the MNFEs. In fact, the success of any food firm, to a large extent, is determined by the trust that it is able to gain from the residents of a region. Brand Building Models Kapferer (1997) mentions that before the 1980's there was a different approach towards brands. Branding and brand building focused on developing brand value.
Kapferer's view of brand value is monetary, and includes intangible assets.Four factors combine in the mind of the consumer to determine the perceived value of the rand: brand awareness; the level of perceived quality compared to competitors; the level of confidence, of significance, of empathy, of liking; and the richness and attractiveness of the images conjured up by the brand. Urde (1999) presents Brand Orientation as another brand building model that focuses on brands as strategic resources. Brand orientation focuses on developing brands in a more active and deliberate manner, starting with the brand identity as a strategic platform.