Bio Biology 105 Final Study Guide QUIZ 1: SCIENCE 1. What is science? a. A way of knowing about the natural world using a process designed to reduce the chance of being misled 2. List the 8 steps for the process of science: b. Observation: c. Question: d. Literature review: e. Multiple hypotheses: f. Deductions: g. Tests: h. Tentative conclusions: i. Peer review: 3. 3 rules of science: j. maximize sample size k. representative sample l. controlled studies QUIZ 2: SOCIAL TRAPS 4. LL 5. LL 6. LL 7. LL 8. LL 9. LL QUIZ 3: PLATE TECHTONICS 10. Theory of plate tectonics: m. explains earths topography and more 1. What is the underlying mechanism for plate techtonics? n. Convection cells in mantle 12. 5 Plate Boundaries: o. Divergent: rifts, ridges, new oceanic crust p. Ocean-Continent: volcanic mountain chains, trenches q. Ocean-Ocean: volcanic island arcs, trenches r. Continent-Continent: upfolded mountains s. Transform: strike-slip faults 13. What is a hotspot? t. Where a plume of magma comes up and breaks the surface, spewing out lava u. Example: Hawaiian islands 14. Explosive vs. blooping volcanoes: v. Explosive: w. Blooping: 15. how do oceans and continents form? x. Oceans: y. Continents: 16.

Where do most earthquakes and volcanoes occur? z. G QUIZ 4: CLIMATE 17. The two main components that affect climate {. Temperature & precipitation 18. Rising air vs. Descending air: |. Rising air: cools, holds less water vapor, relative humidity increases, rain increase }. Descending air: heats, holds more water vapor, relative humidity decreases, less rain 19. What is the dew point? ~. The temperature at which relative humidity (water vapor increase) becomes 100% 20. What are 3 causes of precipitation? . Convection – when air is heated and rises . Orographic – when air rises as it is blown up the side of a mountain .

Frontal – when air rises as it is pushed up the leading edge of a cold front 21. What 3 major factors affect temperature? . Elevation, latitude, and green house gas concentration in atmosphere 22. What causes the seasons? . 23. 5 degree tilt and the revolution around sun, the angles it hits earth 23. What causes is to be cooler in the SW in winter and warmer in summer? . We are tilted more perpendicular to the sun in the summer 24. List the 4 major causes of deserts: . descending air in Hadley cells . rainshadow effect . cold ocean offshore . being far away from a water source 25.

Name and define the levels of organization of the living world from organism through biome: . Organism (individual living things) . Population (group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time) . Community (all populations occupying a given place) . Ecosystem (community plus the physical environment in a given place and their interactions) . Biome (major type of ecosystem) 26. Name and define the five parts of ecosystem structure . Energy Source (usually sunlight) . Physical Environment (non-living materials) . Producers (organisms that make their own food) Consumers (organisms that eat other living things) . Decomposers (organisms that eat waste matter and dead organisms) 27. What are the advantages and disadvantages of internalizing external costs? . Advantages: redirect economic growth in ways that consider long-term, societal impacts; paying real price lets market regulate. . Disadvantages: difficult to determine external costs; higher prices will allow competitors that don't internalize external costs to outcompete 28. Differentiate between product and service economy . Product economy focuses on putting out a product that is consumed. A service economy focuses on the service required by the consumer rather than the product (e. g. , leasing rather than selling). 29. Soil profile * surface litter: fresh and partly decomposed organic matter. * topsoil: where most living things and nutrients are. * zone of leaching: where dissolved materials from above move down. * subsoil: accumulated materials from above. * parent material: partially broken down rock, source of minerals and inorganic material in soil. i. bedrock: underlying, unweathered rock. 30. Why are tropical soils not productive for growing crops/cattle in the long run? When vegetation is removed, the thin topsoil decomposes, leaches, and erodes quickly, leaving the hard, red, iron-rich soil that is unproductive (and this only takes a few years) 31. DEFINE: 0 unsaturated zone: upper soil layer that holds both air and water 1 saturation zone: usually lower soil layer where all available pores between soil particles are filled with water 2 water table: the top of the zone of saturation 3 aquifer: groundwater that is economically retrievable 4 recharge area: where water is added to an aquifer 5 discharge area: where water is removed from an aquifer (e. g. , wells, springs, rivers, etc. 6 ground water mining: removing water from an aquifer faster than it is replenished (discharge rate greater than recharge rate). watershed: the land area around a body of water over which water could flow and potentially enter that body of water. 32. Problems with overpumping ground water: . higher costs associated with digging deeper wells and pumping farther up . lower water quality . loss of habitat . subsidence: as water is removed from ground, the soil compacts and the surface sinks which leads to permeneant loss of water holding capacity for aquifer . saltwater intrusion 33. 34. 35.