Associate Level Material Appendix E Strategies for Gathering and Evaluating Sources |Source |What makes the source credible or what does not make it |Explain in at least two to four sentences | | |credible? Consider the following when addressing the |what information you can gather from this | | |source: |source? | | | | | |What is the author’s affiliation to any organization | | | |related to the subject of the article? Does he or she have| | | |an ulterior motive? | | | | | | |What is the author’s experience with the subject, | | | |including academic or professional credentials related to | | | |the subject of the source article?

Does she or he have | | | |what it takes to understand the complexities of the | | | |subject? | | | | | | |Does this article report on information that the author | | | |experienced personally, or is it a summary or retelling of| | | |information from other sources? How close is the author to| | | |the actual information? | | | | | | |Is the information current? When was the information | | | |published or last updated? Might there be resources with | | | |more current information? | | | | | | |In general, does the information in the source article | | | |match the information found in other sources? Or is the | | | |information different or unique?

Can this information be | | | |confirmed by more sources than just this one? | | | | | | | |Does the source make any claims without having evidence to| | | |support them? | | |Source name |I do believe this is a credible source.

The author Erich |This article explores the significance of | | |Goode has provided an ample amount of evidence to support |the self-control, and the relationship | |Authors: Goode, Erich |his claim. One source of evidence is through the Youth |between drug use, crime and the effect on | | |Behavior Risk Surveillance study, a nationally |our society. It states that individuals who| |Source: DRUG abuse & crime. Out of|representative survey. The author has also used sources, |use drugs are more likely to commit crimes. | |Control: Assessing the

General |such as Jo Anne Grunbaum from the Centers for Disease |People who engage in criminal or delinquent| |Theory of Crime; 2008, p185-199, |Control and Prevention for |behavior are statistically more likely to | |15p |assisting in obtaining the raw data for this study. This |use drugs, drink alcohol, and smoke | | |source provides Gottfredson and Hirschi’s views on this |cigarette. More than individuals who do not| | |matter, who are criminologists and drug use specialists. engage in criminal or delinquent behavior. | | |So the information provided by this source is confirmed by|The more frequently individuals use drugs | | |specialist and experts in the field. The content is up to |for recreational purposes, the | | |date, for example, the collection of position papers and |greater the likelihood that they engage in | | |their references in Toward a Drugs and Crime Research |criminal behavior. | |Agenda for the 21st Century. | | |Source name |I do believe this source is credible with up to date | | | |information. The author has the proper credentials related|This article examines the process of | |Authors: |to this subject through the Boise State University, Boise,|becoming addicted to drugs via epigenetic | |Walsh, Anthony |ID, USA. Also the source comes from an academic journal. processes. Frequent drug usage leads to an | |Johnson, Hailey |The information provided by the author is not claims, but |allosteric (the changing of a physiological| |Bolen, Jonathan D. |is the actual process the brain goes through when a person|system by the calibration its set points) | | |uses drugs. |brain changes in its pleasure centers. This| |Source: Journal of Contemporary | |is the evidence needed to explain why | |Criminal Justice; Aug2012, Vol. 8| |people addicted to drugs, engage in | |Issue 3, p314-328, 15p | |criminal behavior. | | | | | |Source name |I have found this source to be credible. Both authors have| | | |the proper credentials related to this topic.

Julie M. |This article examines whether drug use and | |Authors: |Ford, Ph. D. , is an Assistant Professor in the Department |the presence of visible drug sales lead to | |Ford, Julie |of Sociology at SUNY-Brockport. Her research includes |elevated levels of three types of crime: | |Beveridge, Andrew |urban and disadvantaged communities |assault; burglary and theft. For crime | | |and substance use. Andrew A. Beveridge, Ph. D. is a |victimization rates by neighborhood, it is | |Source: Neighborhood Crime |Professor in the Department of Sociology at Queens College|found that for burglary, neighborhood | |Victimization, Drug Use and Drug |and the Graduate Center of CUNY. His research includes |disadvantage, the presence of visible drug | |Sales. Conference Papers/American |historical population change and the analysis of |sales and drug use are related to | |Sociological Association; 2006 |neighborhoods and other geographic factors. This paper |victimization.

For assault, only | |Annual Meeting, Montreal, p1, 37p |provides evidence through data from the Fighting Back |neighborhood disadvantage and visible drug | | |evaluation to examine the empirical relation between drug |sales are statistically significant; and | | |use and the neighborhood-level presence of drug |for theft, only visible drug sales | | |dealing, and burglary, theft and assault rates and |influence the rate of criminal activity. | |victimization. | | |Source name |I cannot find that this source to be completely credible. | | | |Although the authors do have some credentials through |The purpose of the proposed article is to | |Authors: |University of Delaware, Emeritus. This source has done |improve the understanding of the | |Anderson, Tammy L. research to back their theory, but have yet to provide the|relationship between drug use and violence | |Harrison, Lana |evidence or results in this paper. The information is |among youth in the early 21st century. This| |Freeman, Charles |unique and does differ from other sources, but does not |paper takes an unique conceptual approach | | |have the resources to confirm it. by integrating ideas from Agnew’s general | |Source: General Strain Theory and | |strain theory (GST) with Goldstein’s | |the Drugs/Violence Nexus. | |tripartite model to advance scholarship on | |Conference Papers -- American | |the relationship between drugs and | |Sociological Association; 2003 | |violence.

This article specifically, | |Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, | |explains the types of strain-induced | |p1-29, 29p, 4 Diagrams | |emotional states that are motivated by | | | |drugs leading to violence and crime. | |Source name |I found this article on the web, and was not able to find | | | |the authors name.

I do believe it is credible, because the|The consequences of drug use or abuse in | | |article provides a large amount of evidence to confirm the|society take a profound toll on families, | |DRUG USE AND RELATED ADVERSE |facts they have provided. The evidence provided are from a|schools, and other community institutions | |BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES|number of different studies on the adverse social and |and burden the criminal justice, health | | |behavioral consequences of drug use |care, and social welfare systems.

Evidence | |National Institute on Drug Abuse |or abuse need to integrate both community and individual |has shown that not only does drug abuse has| | |level factors. The facts provided are also very similar to|detrimental effects on youth lives but also| | |what I have found from other credible sources. The |has adverse ramifications for their | | |research provided is also update throughout the article. transition into adulthood. Such as | | | |marriage, continuity of employment, | | | |criminal activities, parenting behavior. | | | |. | | | | |Source name |I have found this source to be credible. All the authors |The psychological factors that contribute | | |have the proper credentials related to this subject. They |to and characterize | |Authors: |have proven they have experience in this field and are |criminality are numerous. They include: | |David Deitch, Ph.

D. |able understand and explain the complexities of the |manipulation, | |Igor Koutsenok M. D. Amanda Ruiz, |subject. They have also provided the proper references, |impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration,| |M. D. |which can be affiliated with this field. They have |the propensity and | | |researched areas of the information in the article, but |the need for danger or thrill seeking, poor| |Source: The Relationship Between |have yet to provide the results.

I do think it is a |consequential | |Crime and Drugs: What We Have |credible source because of all the other reasons, and they|thinking, poor option generation, poor use | |Learned in Recent Decades |are not throwing out any ridiculous information about the |of leisure time, affiliation in terms of | | |subject. |social identity with the criminal class, | | |easy dissatisfaction or boredom with | | | |conventional activity alienation from | | | |general socialization, identifying with | | | |whole groups of people who have been | | | |socialized into gang behavior. |