1988 MC National AP European History Exam 100 questions in 75 minutes. 1. Salvation by faith alone, the ministry of all believers, and the authority of the Bible are principles basic to (A) the Christian humanism of Erasmus (B) the Church of England (C) Catholicism after the Council of Trent (D) Lutheranism in the early sixteenth century (E) the Society of Jesus (Jesuit order) 2. The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following? (A) Ensured Anglo-French cooperation throughout the seventeenth century. (B) Created a French church separated from papal authority. (C) Ended the War of the Spanish Succession. D) Proclaimed the toleration of Calvinism. (E) Precipitated the French Wars of Religion. [pic] 3. The sketch above, drawn by Galileo in 1610, was used to argue that the Moon (A) has no phases (B) has an irregular surface (C) is one of the planets (D) does not revolve around the Earth (E) is illuminated by Mars 4. “You venerate the saints and delight in touching their relics, but you despise the best one they left behind, the example of a holy life .... If the worship of Christ in the person of His saints pleases you so much, see to it that you imitate Christ in the saints”

The quotation above expresses the views of which of the following? (A) Henry VIII of England (B) Catherine de Medici (C) Erasmus of Rotterdam (D) Leonardo da Vinci (E) Niccolo Machiavelli 5. John Locke based his Two Treatises on Government primarily on which of the following views of human nature? (A) People are basically rational and learn from practical experience. (B) People are weak and sinful and need the guidance of organized religion. (C) People are fallible and need guidance from the cumulative wisdom of tradition. (D) People are inherently quarrelsome and should never be encouraged to revolt against state authority. E) People are born with all knowledge, and learning is the process of remembering that innate knowledge [pic] 6. The map above of eighteenth-century Russia suggests which of the following about Russian territory between 1689 and 1796? (A) The Ottoman Empire annexed the Crimea (B) Peter the Great added more territory to Russia than did Catherine the Great (C) Most Russian expansion took place in the east (D) Russia ceded territory to Poland in the late eighteenth century (E) Russia acquired navigable seaports in both the north and the south 7.

Which of the following best describes the political and economic environment of much of fifteenth century Italy? (A) A few large states dominated by a wealthy landed nobility (B) A strong unified Italian monarchy that patronized the arts (C) Many independent city-states with prosperous merchant oligarchies (D) Control of most of Italy by the pope, who encouraged mercantile development (E) Support of the arts in Italy by the kings of France and the Holy Roman emperors, who were competing for influence 8. The response of the Roman Catholic church to the Protestant Reformation included all of the following EXCEPT A) the abolition of the Index of Prohibited Books (B) the establishment of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit order) (C) the convening of the Council of Trent (D) the founding of women’s orders active in education and care of the sick (E) an increase in the number of parish grammar schools [pic] 9. The Pieter Brueghal painting (circa 1569) shown above depicts the massacre of villagers in A) the Netherlands by Spanish troops B) Russia by Ottoman troops C) Spain by English troops D) France by Swedish troops E) Hungary by Austrian 10. The first political use of the terms “right” and “left” was to describe the A) division of France into predominantly Protestant and predominantly Roman Catholic areas (B) seating arrangements in the French National Assembly chamber during the French Revolution (C) party alliances in the English House of Commons during the debates prior to the American Revolution (D) two wings of the Versailles palace that housed the Roman Catholic and the Huguenot nobility (B) factions in the English Parliament that supported James II or William of Orange 11. Which of the following statements best describes the writers of the Romantic school? (A)They stressed emotion rather than reason. B)They continued the traditions of the Enlightenment. (C)They were advocates of increased political rights for women. (D)They modeled their work on the classics of Greece and Rome. (E)They based their writing on scientific and mathematical models. 12. During the Crimean War (1854-1856), most deaths among the military occurred as a result of (A) trench warfare and poisonous gas (B) guerrilla warfare (C) naval engagements (D) disease and inadequate medical care (E) heavy artillery bombardment 13. In fifteenth-century Europe. Muslim culture exerted the greatest influence on which of the following societies? A) English (B) French (C) German (D) Italian (E) Spanish 14. In 1500 the two most powerful autocracies in Eastern Europe were (A) Muscovy and the Ottoman Empire (B) the Ottoman and the Byzantine empires (C) the Byzantine Empire and Poland-Lithuania (D) Poland-Lithuania and Hungary (E) Hungary and Kievan Russia 15. The principal reason why Louis XIV (1643-1715) built his palace at Versailles was to (A) tighten his control over the nobility (B) strengthen ties with the Huguenots (C) move the king’s residence nearer to the center of the country (D) provide thousands of jobs E) absorb the excess revenue produced by mercantilist tax policies 16. In the second half of the seventeenth century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy? (A) England (B) The Netherlands (C) Russia (D) France (E) Prussia 17. Which of the following best characterizes the Western European economy, as a whole, in the sixteenth century? (A) Widespread unemployment (B) Declining trade and commerce (C) Technological breakthroughs in production (D) Unrestricted trade among nations (E) Spiraling inflation 18.

In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following? (A) Emancipating the peasantry and encouraging agricultural development (B) Allying with the urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development (C) Establishing a national church headed by the Hapsburg emperor and redistributing former church properties (D) Creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring new territories to supply merchants with raw materials (E) Waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation 9. Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty’ Years’ War (1618-1648)? (A) The long-term strengthening of the Holy Roman Emperor’s authority (B) The banning of Calvinism in the German states (C) The establishment of strong Russian influence in the northern German states (D) The loss of as much as one-third of the German-speaking population through war, plague, and starvation (E) The encouragement of rapid economic development in many German-speaking cities 20. After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil War and his execution in 1649, England was governed for a decade by A) a democratic republic with universal suffrage (B) a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell and his son (C) a constitutional monarchy under King James II (D) the king of Scotland (E) a parliamentary council dominated by egalitarians 21. Which of the following most clearly distinguishes the northern Renaissance from the Italian Renaissance? (A) Interest in science and technology (B) Greater concern with religious piety (C) Cultivation of a Latin style (D) Use of national languages in literature (E) Admiration for Scholastic thought 22. Adam Smith maintained that A) workers real wages decrease in the long run (B) population always tends to outstrip food supplies (C) monopolies benefit the state (D) competition is socially beneficial (E) social revolution is inevitable 23. Which of the following early nineteenth-century political figures was most closely identified with the concept of “the concert of Europe”? (A) Castlereagh (B) Napoleon I (C) Talleyrand (D) Alexander I (E) Metternich 24. A factor accelerating the British government’s repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was the (A) South Sea Bubble scandal (B) American Revolution C) Irish potato famine (D) development of relatively inexpensive ocean transport (E) worldwide mechanization of grain farming 25. Which of the following spared Europe a general multinational war during the second half of the nineteenth century? (A) The functioning of an effective balance of power (B) Europe’s preoccupation with industrial development (C) The strength of the German navy (D) Fear of Ottoman expansion into the rest of Europe (E) A policy of free and unrestricted trade 26. The eighteenth-century philosophes believed that society could best achieve progress through A) prayer and contemplation (B) intuition (C) hard work and self-denial (D) scientific empiricism (E) analysis of Greek and Latin texts 27. The model of the universe which resulted from the scientific work of Galileo and Newton embraced (A) Aristotelian philosophy (B) a belief in an ascending “chain of being” (C) a conception of a spiritually animate universe (D) the belief in the fixed, central position of the Earth (E) the science of mechanics 28. The sequence of events that led to the French Revolution of 1789 is best summarized by which of the following? A) Lafayette’s call for democracy, royal suppression of the National Assembly, Robespierre’s leading a peasant revolution (B) Peasant uprisings, royal abdication, election of the National Assembly (C) Franco-Austrian war, urban riots, convening of the Assembly of Notables (D) Widespread famine, repression of riots, guerrilla war (E) Royal financial crisis, convening of the Estates General, storming of the Bastille 29. “In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonism, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all. These words express the ideas of (A) Alexis de Tocqueville (B) John Locke (C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (D) Edmund Burke (E) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 30. Which of the following best describes an important trend in typical family size in Western Europe after 1870? (A) It increased in urban areas due to improvements in public health and housing for workers. (B) It decreased in working-class families due to legislation limiting child labor. (C) It decreased sharply because of chronic food shortages (D) It decreased initially in the middle classes because of the increased costs of rearing children. E) It remained unchanged because of massive emigration overseas 31. English economic expansion was severely threatened in the eighteenth century by a rapidly diminishing supply of (A) peat (B) wood (C) coal (D) oil (E) water power [pic] Left side of graph should read “Population (in millions)”, the first number is 1700 not 700 32. All of the following statements about Europe’s population in the eighteenth century can be inferred from the graph above EXCEPT: (A) For most of the century, France had the largest population of any European power. (B) The population of Eastern Europe outstripped that of Western Europe in size. C) Russia experienced the largest increase in rate of population growth. (D) The population of the British Isles grew throughout the century. (E) Rates of population growth increased after 1750. 33. “The salon was a weekly gathering held in the home of one of the dominant ladies of the society, at which dinner was usually served, cards usually played, but conversation led by the hostess predominated. A few salons were known as having the ideal mixture of leading intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever, elegant women. ” The passage above describes an important aspect of social life in which of the following? A) Geneva during the Reformation (B) Florence during the Renaissance (C) London during the Glorious Revolution (D) Paris during the Enlightenment (E) Berlin during the Kulturkampf 34. Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth century supported all of the following EXCEPT (A) religious tolerance (B) increased economic productivity (C) pacifist foreign policy (D) administrative reform (E) secular and technical education 35. Which of the following characterized European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)? (A) Standing armies pursuing limited strategic goals B) Citizen armies fighting for their native lands (C) Feudal armies fighting for their lords (D) Mass armies pursuing global strategies (E) Highly mobile armies unhampered by traditional defenses 36. Under the Napoleonic system, peasants in territories conquered by French armies were generally given (A) the right to vote for representatives to serve in newly created parliaments (B) control over the appointment of village priests (C) freedom from manorial obligations (D) free lessons in the French language (E) sets of laws designed specifically to fit local conditions 37. The greatest happiness for the greatest number” was the explicit goal of which of the following movements? (A) Romanticism (B) Utilitarianism (C) Pietism (D) Anarchism (E) Jansenism 38. “In the presence of my guests I reduced the telegram by deleting words, without adding or altering a single word . . . which made the announcement appear decisive. [My guest] said: ‘Now it has quite a different ring. In its original form it sounded like a parley. Now it is like a flourish of trumpets in answer to a challenger. ’ I went on to explain: ‘ . . . it will have the effect of a red flag on the Gallic bull’”

The individual recounting the story above was (A) Napoleon III (B) Cavour (C) Disraeli (D) Bismarck (E) Alexander II 39. The disease most common in industrialized areas of nineteenth-century Europe was (A) bubonic plague (B) tuberculosis (C) smallpox (D) malaria (E) leprosy 40. In 1917 the Bolsheviks sought to rally support from the Russian people with which of the following slogans? (A) “Peace, land, bread” (B) “Socialism in one country” (C) “Blood and iron” (D) “Family, work, fatherland” (E) “Liberty, equality, fraternity” 41. French leaders decided to occupy Germany’s Ruhr Valley in January 1923 in order to A) counterbalance Soviet influence in Germany (B) incorporate German territory permanently into France (C) halt the rise of the Nazi party among workers in the region (D) use the region’s industrial production to accelerate France’s rearmament (E) seize goods as payment for Germany’s reparations debt 42. By 1948 Soviet-dependent regimes existed in all of the following countries EXCEPT (A) Bulgaria (B) Hungary (C) Poland (D) Rumania (E) Yugoslavia 43. The French monarchy in the seventeenth century sought to expand France’s borders to its “natural frontiers” by gaining control of (A) Schleswig-Holstein B) Milan (C) Alsace (D) Spain (E) Tuscany 44. Which of the following caused the deepest and most persistent internal opposition to the French Revolution? (A) The Great Fear (B) The storming of the Bastille (C) The publication of Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (D) The advent of the Thermidorean reaction (E) The enactment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy 45. Architecture produced in the Napoleonic Empire was influenced most by (A) ancient Egyptian pyramids (B) classical models (C) Romanesque churches (D) Islamic structures (E) Gothic churches [pic] 46.

The graph above depicts the lengths, from longest to shortest, of the railway systems of (A) the United Kingdom, the Italian states, France (B) the United Kingdom, the German states, France (C) The German states, the United Kingdom, the Italian states (D) France, the German states, the Italian states (E) France, the United Kingdom, the German states 47. Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill both wrote (A) critiques of the French Revolution (B) tracts on liberty and the rights of women (C) Utopian novels (D) polemics against alcohol consumption (E) satires of George III of England 48.

All of the following cities experienced major uprisings in 1848 EXCEPT A) Paris B) Berlin C) London D) Rome E) Vienna [pic] 49. The image shown above is an example of a new technique for examining the human body which was discovered by (A) Faraday (B) Pasteur (C) Lister (D) Roentgen (E) Planck Questions 50-51 are based on the passage below. Where liberal parties, now liberal only in name, remained in power, they embraced protectionism and imperialism, undertook social regulation, and retained from the old liberal creed only Opposition to the extension of the franchise and to the church. 50.

In what era did the developments described in the passage most probably take place? (A) 1715-1788 (B) 1789-1800 (C) 1815-1830 (D) 1880-1905 (E) 1945-1970 51. Which of the following factors best explains the transformation and decline of liberalism described in the passage? (A) The continued deference of peasants to aristocratic influence (B) The rise of industrial society and of mass political movements (C) The general decline in literacy rates (D) The inability of laissez-faire economics to uproot traditional communal agriculture and guilds (E) A strong popular reaction against liberal anti-clericalism 2. Which of the following ideas did Darwin draw on in developing his theories of evolution? (A) The Romantics’ ideas about the importance of heroic individuals (B) The scientific view that species are eternal and unchanging (C) The Biblical account of creation in Genesis (D) Nineteenth-century theories of manifest destiny (E) The population theories of Thomas Malthus [pic] 53. The nineteenth-century English cartoon above depicts (A) the weakening of Great Britain caused by emigration (B) Thomas Mann’s Death in Venice (C) the pollution resulting from industrialization D) British naval losses (E) criminals lurking around British waterways 54. The immediate cause of the 1905 Russian Revolution was social strain resulting from (A) the agitation of the Russian Social Democratic party (B) the mass emigration of skilled workers to the New World (C) attempts by the government to reform the Russian Orthodox church (D) the demands of ethnic groups for political autonomy (E) Russian losses in the Russo-Japanese War [pic] 55. According to the graph above, which class in sixteenth-century England benefited most from the trends shown? (A) Landowners B) Landless laborers (C) Household servants (D) Merchants (E) Small-scale artisans 56. Which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688? (A) The establishment of universal male suffrage (B) The restoration of Roman Catholicism to both England and Scotland (C) The limitation of monarchical power (D) The execution of Charles I (E) The triumph of Puritanism 57. Important prerequisites for Great Britain’s industrialization in the mid-eighteenth century included which of the following? (A) Innovations in agricultural techniques and increases in food production B) Dramatic improvements in workers’ housing in the cities (C) A rapid increase in the amount of gold imported from New World colonies (D) Rapid growth of a national system of rail transport (E) Strong monarchical leadership and a centralized government bureaucracy [pic] 58. The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following? (A) Dynastic lands of the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century (B) Participants in the Thirty Years’ War in the seventeenth century (C) Protestant regions in the eighteenth century (D) Members of the Holy Alliance in the nineteenth century E) Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the twentieth century 59. Which of the following European countries experienced the greatest degree of political instability in the nineteenth century? (A) Austria (B) France (C) The Netherlands (D) Prussia (E) Russia 60. When Sigmund Freud remarked that “in mental life nothing which has once been formed can perish,” he meant that (A) human beings are rational creatures (B) human beings can remember and recall all experiences at will (C) all mental acts are conscious mental acts D) the unconscious preserves unpleasant as well as pleasant thoughts (E) the unconscious obliterates excess thoughts [pic] 61. The chronologically arranged maps above illustrate the (A) concluding phases of the Franco-Prussian War (B) Schlieffen Plan (C) concluding phases of the First World War (D) settlement of the Treaty of Versailles. 1919 (E) invasion of France in 1940 62. Which of the following ideas is common to the works of both Karl Marx and the classical economists? (A) The overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the revolutionary proletariat is inevitable. B) Class struggle is the mechanism of historical progress. (C) The free exchange of wages for labor ensures social harmony. (D) The value of a product is largely determined by the value of the labor used to produce it. (E) The triumph of the proletariat will bring about a classless society. 63. During the last third of the nineteenth century, new industries, such as those producing electric power and chemicals, advanced most rapidly in which of the following European countries? (A) France (B) Italy (C) Germany (D) Belgium (E) Spain 64. What the breechloader, the machine gun, the steamboat, the steamship, quinine, and other innovations did was to lower the cost in both financial and human terms of penetrating, conquering, and exploiting new territories. So cost-effective did they make imperialism that not only national governments but even individuals like Henry Stanley’ and Cecil Rhodes could precipitate events and stake out claims to vast territories which later became parts of empires. ” The historian quoted above would most likely use which of the following statements to explain imperialism in Africa after 1870? A) Europe’s major corporations used ruthless force in their search for overseas trade and profits. (B) The power of European technology provided the mechanism that made imperialism cheap and easy. (C) European politicians were willing and eager to risk war for the sake of national prestige. (D) Individuals like Stanley and Rhodes were more important than economic forces in the conquest of Africa by Europeans. (E) The European officer class was eager to use Africa as a testing ground for new weapons. 65. All of the following were invented in Western Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT A) firearms (B) movable printing type (C) the compound microscope (D) the compass (E) the flying shuttle 66. “It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with its own laws, diplomats, and flags. Its membership of merchants earned large profits shipping fish, timber, and other resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity declined, however, when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500. ” The description above refers to the (A) Confederation of the Rhine (B) Hanseatic League C) Merchants of the Staple (D) Holy Roman Empire (E) Schmalkaldic League 67. In the sixteenth century, all of the following had religious civil wars or political insurrections EXCEPT (A) Muscovite Russia (B) England (C) the Low Countries (D) France (E) the German states 68. The teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland? (A) Ignatius of Loyola (B) John Calvin (C) Martin Luther (D) Desiderius Erasmus (E) Ulrich Zwingli 69. Mercantilism was principally characterized by (A) government efforts to build a strong. elf-sufficient economy (B) the efforts of the merchant class to influence policy by subsidizing the government (C) efforts by bankers and exporters to establish free trade (D) the theory that gold and silver were not real wealth (E) the view that labor ought to be able to seek its own market 70. In the late seventeenth century, which of the following countries led continental Europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking? (A) France (B) Russia (C) The Netherlands (D) Denmark (E) Spain 71. In eighteenth-century Europe, the most important imperial rivalries existed among which three of the following? A) Russia, France, and Great Britain (B) The German states, the Italian states, and Great Britain (C) The German states, the Italian states, and France (D) The German states, the Italian states, and Spain (E) Spain, France, and Great Britain 72. All of the following occurred as a result of the settlements reached at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) EXCEPT: (A) A balance of power was reestablished. (B) Belgium was united with the Netherlands under the House of Orange. (C) The neutrality of Switzerland was recognized. (D) Italy was unified under Sardinian leadership. E) A personal union between Sweden and Norway was created. 73. In the mid-nineteenth century, industrial growth in Western Europe was significantly stimulated by the (A) abolition of national customs barriers (B) introduction of assembly-line production (C) investment of United States Capital (D) expansion of transportation systems (E) expansion of labor unions 74. Which of the following factors most stimulated the entrance of large numbers of women into the labor force in many European countries during the First World War? (A) The decline in the average size of families (B) The increase in divorce rates C) Woman suffrage (D) The spread of Wilsonian principles (E) The shortage in the labor supply 75. A social historian would be most likely to research which of the following topics? (A) French diplomacy, 1742-1763 (B) Frederick William I and the General Directory of War, Finance, and Domains (C) The philosophical assumptions of Montesquieu’s Persian Letters (D) Napoleon’s Freudian relationship with Madame de Stael (E) Family life in a French village 76. In late nineteenth-century Great Britain, women were in the majority in which of the following categories of employment? (A) Transportation B) Mining (C) Factory work (D) Domestic service (E) Construction work 77. Which of the following scientific theories of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was used to support notions of racial superiority? (A)James’s theory of pragmatism (B)Freud’s psychoanalytic theory (C)Darwin’s theory of natural selection (D)Planck’s quantum theory (E)Pavlov’s theory of conditioned response [pic] 78. The painting above, Musical Forms (1931 ) by Georges Braque, is an example of which of the following schools of painting? (A) Romantic (B)Impressionist (C) Cubist (D) Expressionist (E) Realist 79.

Albert Einstein is well known for theorizing that (A) atoms are stable, basic building blocks of nature (B) time and space are unconnected concepts (C) light contains energy only when it is visible (D) mass and energy are interconvertible (E) the speed of an aircraft cannot exceed the speed of sound 80. Most historians would agree with which of the following descriptions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919? (A) A treaty that spelled out the Soviet Union’s reparation obligations (B) A triumph of farsighted political and economic planning (C) A treaty that dismantled the British Empire D) A destructive peace dictated by the United States (E) A treaty that the defeated thought too harsh and the victors thought too lenient 81. The political and social values of the Vichy government in France during the Second World War are best described as (A) democratic, socialistic, peaceful (B) radically fascistic, antichurch, antielitist (C) conservative-authoritarian, corporatist, Catholic (D) monarchist, nationalistic, antimilitary (E) republican, liberal, expansionist [pic] 82. The map above represents the British Empire in (A) 1776 (B) 1850 (C) 1919 (D) 1950 (E) 1961 83. Man, being the servant and interpreter of Nature, can do and understand so much . . . as he has observed.. . . Beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do anything. ” The passage above was written by (A) Francis Bacon (B) Martin Luther (C) Rene Descartes (D) Georg Hegel (E) Friedrich Nietzsche 84. Which of the following European states was the last to eliminate legal discrimination against Jews? (A) Austria-Hungary (B) France (C) Great Britain (D) Italy (E) Russia 85. All of the following were among President Wilson’s Fourteen Points EXCEPT (A) an independent Poland (B) absolute freedom of navigation C) the limitation of armaments (D) the autonomous development of the peoples of Austria-Hungary (E) the autonomous development of the peoples of the Russian Empire 86. The major objective of the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) was to (A) end the use of war for solving international controversies (B) end the Russo-Polish border conflict (C) end tensions between France and Great Britain over the export of French farm surpluses to Great Britain (D) end the French occupation of the Ruhr (E) replace the Dawes and Young plans [pic] 87. The illustration above from a 1940 German magazine suggests that women should A) bear as many children as possible (B) not be discouraged by shortages of food and consumer goods (C) not work outside the house (D) support the war effort by doing their sons’ and husbands’ jobs (E) enlist in the army to help the war effort 88. The primary instrument of economic integration in Western Europe since the Second World War has been the (A) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (B) European Economic Community (EEC) (C) World Bank (D) United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (E) European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 9. The most notable social effect of the 1923 inflation in Germany was the (A) depletion of the savings and income of the middle class (B) encouragement of population shifts from cities to the countryside (C) strengthening of the position of women in the work force (D) acceleration of a trend toward the establishment of cooperative pension plans (E) reduction of social tensions 90. All of the following are policies to which totalitarian states have traditionally adhered EXCEPT (A) encouragement of multiparty political systems (B) promotion of social welfare measures C) expansion of the military (D) economic planning (E) holding of periodic elections 91. Which of the following was a major factor in German military victories in1939-1940? (A) Overwhelming German technological and numerical superiority to the French and the English (B) French insistence on continuing to fight, regardless of the cost (C) Britain’s campaign in Norway, which diverted British troops from Western Europe (D) The German army’s effective use of armor and air power in the Blitzkrieg (E) The German defeat of the Russian army at Tannenberg in August 1939 92.

Which of the following statements about twentieth-century existentialists like Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre is true? (A) They questioned the efficacy of reason and science in understanding the human situation. (B) They counseled an integration of Christian principles into everyday life. (C) They promoted the development of nuclear technology. (D) They advocated a return to the ideals of the Enlightenment. (E) They advocated nationalism and the strengthening of the individual nation-states. 93. In the 1960’s a factor that distinguished Soviet social structure from the societies of advanced industrial nations in Western Europe was the

Soviet Union’s (A) lack of linguistic and ethnic divisions (B) high percentage of workers engaged in agriculture (C) rising number of workers in service-sector jobs (D) integration of women into the political elite (E) system of compulsory education 94. Which of the following was the major reason for the establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867? (A) To satisfy the demands of the Magyars (B) To resist Turkish encroachment into Europe (C) To resist demands made by Napoleon III (D) To balance the power of the North German Confederation (E) To curb the growing strength of a united Italy 5. The immediate aim of the Truman Doctrine of 1947 was to (A) promote the economic recovery of Europe (B) block the spread of communism in France and Italy (C) prevent the overthrow of the Greek and Turkish governments (D) bring about Soviet withdrawal from Czechoslovakia (E) forestall Soviet plans with regard to West Germany 96. Which of the following areas was conceded to Hitler at the Munich Conference of 1938? (A) The Polish Corridor (B) The Rhineland (C) The Saar (D) Silesia (E) Sudetenland 97. The Western Allies and the Soviet Union agreed to all of the following easures to be implemented after the Second World War EXCEPT (A) the division of Berlin into four occupation zones (B) an international trial at Nuremberg of major Nazi leaders (C) a denazification program (D) the placing of Germany under the control of the United Nations (E) the disarmament of the German military 98. Nikita Khrushchev’s program of de-Stalinization involved all of the following EXCEPT (A) curbing the power of the political police (B) attacking Stalin’s cult of personality (C) disbanding agricultural collectives (D) reestablishing the primacy of the Communist party E) loosening controls over culture and society 99. Which of the following characterized Mussolini’s ideal of the fascist corporate state? I. Organization of the population into syndicates of employers, employees, and government arbitrators II. Establishment of semiautonomous regional governments III. Abolition of strikes, lockouts, and the older trade unions (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and II only (D) I and III only (E) I, II, and III 100. Which of the following was a central part of National Socialist ideology? (A) Anticommunism (B) Conservatism (C) Protestantism (D) Utilitarianism (B) Syndicalism