More specifically, Gardner (1993) explains that it involves sensitivity to the meaning of words, to the order among words, to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of words, and sensitivity to the different functions of language such as its ability to convince, stimulate, or convey Information to accomplish specific goals (p. 77). We use linguistic intelligence every day to convince others of a particular course action, or to convey information, to implement rules, to provide directions, Instructions, and procedures.
We use it In explanation and teaching, and for expression through literature and the written word. Poets, lawyers, politicians, and speakers are examples of those who have high linguistic Intelligence. Poets have a keen sensitivity to the subtle meanings of words. This Includes semantics, phonology (the sounds of words and their musical interaction with one another), and syntax (the rules governing the order of words and their inflections). Lawyers, politicians, and speakers have a keen sensitivity to the rhetorical aspect of language and Its ability to convince others of a particular course f action.
Gardner (1993) does not term linguistic intelligence as an auditory-oral form of Intelligence because deaf individuals can devise or master gestures systems, and because of the ability people have to discern meaning and Importance In sets of pitches rhythmically arranged as a means of communicating with others (musical abilities) (p. 98). Music and language may have shared a common medium. Gardner (1993) suggests that over many thousands of years, they each have evolved into different purposes. And therefore, Gardner categorizes musical intelligence as one of the seven autonomous intellectual competencies.
Musical Intelligence Musical intelligence requires skill in the composition, performance, and appreciation of musical patterns. We use musical Intelligence for recognizing and composing musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. Most Individuals appreciate something about the structure of music, such as expectations about what a well-structured phrase or section or piece should be and be able to discern what makes musical sense. According to Gardner (1993), pitch (melody) and rhythm are the central components of musical intelligence (p. 104). He argues that rhythmic organization exists apart from any auditory realization.
Deaf individuals make their entry point into music 'OFF how certain aspects of music are accessible to those who cannot appreciate its auditory aspects (p. 105). Not only are the physical terms such as pitch and rhythm central to musical intelligence, but the emotional implications of music have a profound effect on individuals. If music in itself does not convey emotions or affects, it certainly captures the forms of such feelings. Composers and individuals with challenges such as autism or deafness often have high musical intelligences.
Individuals gifted with high musical intelligence usually how this giftedness at an early age. Gardner (1993) compares the similarities between musical and linguistic intelligences in that they both have no relation to physical objects; and, they both rely on the oral- auditory system although they do so in neurologically distinct ways. Gardner also argues that in order to appreciate the operations of rhythms in musical work, or to appreciate the basic musical structures and how they are repeated, transformed, and embedded; an individual will encounter mathematical thought.
For the mathematician, music is Just another pattern. For the musician, the patterned elements must appear in sounds, making musical intelligence autonomous from logical-mathematical intelligence. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Logical-mathematical intelligence is having the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. An individual demonstrates logical-mathematical intelligence when detecting patterns, reasoning deductively, and thinking logically.
This intelligence does not originate in the auditory-oral sphere like the linguistic and musical intelligences do, but instead its origins are in the world of objects. It is in the process of ordering and reordering objects and in assessing their quantity that we gain our initial and most fundamental knowledge about the logical-mathematical capacity. Gardner (1993) concurs with Piglet's view that all knowledge, including the logical- mathematical understanding derives in the first instance from one's actions upon the world (p. 129), and begins with the exploration of objects.
Gardner explains how Piglet's concrete operations has to do with the manipulation of objects in the physical world (basic mathematical operations), and formal operations, which involves operating not only upon objects, but also upon words, symbols, or strings of symbols (like equations) that stand for objects, and for actions upon objects. These mental operations are higher branches of mathematics, with the symbols standing for objects, relations, functions, or other operations (p. 132). And objects in the physical world, and then will move towards increasingly abstract formal systems that operate on logic.
Gardner (1993) asserts that for Pigged, logical- mathematical thought is the glue that holds together all cognition (p. 134). A mathematician loves to deal with the abstract, and has the ability to skillfully Andre long chains of reasoning. Many work in the field of science because of the ability they have to build models and theories that can describe, and eventually prove their theories based on universally accepted principles. Spatial Intelligence Spatial intelligence involves the capacities to perceive the visual world accurately, and the ability to recognize and use the patterns of both wide and confined areas.
According to Gardner (1993), this involves performing transformations and modifications to an individual's initial perceptions of a visual experience. Spatial intelligence is closely related to an individual's observation of the visual world, and in its most basic operation, requires an ability to perceive a form or an object. We use our spatial intelligence for self orientation, recognizing objects and scenes, for visual imagery, and when we work with graphics, maps, diagrams, or geometrical forms.
Other uses of spatial intelligence are more abstract, such as the sensitivity to the feelings of tension, balance, and composition that artists use when composing a piece of work. Artists, painters, sculptors, and scientists use levels of spatial intelligence in their fields. As well as the sensitivity to the lines of force that artists rely on in a visual or spatial display, scientists are sensitive to spatial intelligence as an aid to thinking, a way of capturing information or formulating problems, and in solving problems.
Gardner (1993) uses the game of chess as an example of a single area that illustrates the centrality of spatial intelligence in a chess master's ability to anticipate moves and their consequences, and how this relates to his or her outstanding visual memory or visual imagination (p. 192). Unlike logical-mathematical intelligence that involves increasing abstraction in its placement, spatial intelligence involves the world of objects and their location in the world.
Bodily-kinesthesia intelligence also remains close to an individual in that it requires the use of one's body and actions upon the world. Bodily-Kinesthesia Intelligence Bodily-Kinesthesia intelligence involves the use of one's body in ways that are both expressive and goal-directed such as the gross motor skills of running, climbing, lifting things, and in fine motor skills such as using one's hands or fingers for the more precise and skillful actions required when manipulating or using objects. These examples of gross and fine motor actions are the foundation of bodily intelligence. Example of a mime performance by the great French artist Marcel Marcela, who skillfully creates the appearance of an object, a person, or an action through an exaggeration of his bodily movements and reactions. He is able to create different personalities and actions including animals, natural phenomena such as waves, and even abstract concepts such as ugliness or beauty. Marcela does so simultaneously (P. 206). Gardener's (1993) example of Marcela shows a gifted expression of bodily-kinesthesia intelligence; however, other individuals rely on this intelligence in their own fields of study or work.
For example, those in the performing arts such as dancers and actors, athletes such as swimmers and hockey players, and instrumentalists such as pianists, and inventors who use fine motor skills to create objects all use this capacity regularly. The universal culturally accepted form of bodily-kinesthesia intelligence is dance, which Gardner (1993) defines as a culturally patterned sequence of nonverbal body movements that are purposeful, intentionally rhythmic, and has aesthetic value in the eyes of its audience (p. 22).
A dancer is concerned with the quality of a movement as fine as placement of a finger, or the point of a foot. They are concerned with the expression in their movement, and with the placement of their bodies, as in the direction off leap or twirl. The actor's ability to imitate and define another object or person and their feelings, or the athlete's ability to demonstrate speed, power, and grace in their chosen sport, or the inventor's ability to use his or her hands to develop and transform objects such as tools, are all characteristic examples of how we utilize bodily-kinesthesia intelligence in our daily lives.
Gardner (1993) observes that the body is more than a machine in its relation to objects - it is a vessel of the individual's self - holding our personal feelings and aspirations. Our bodies act out our thoughts and behaviors in response to others around us, bringing into focus another set of two intelligences: the personal intelligences (interpersonal and interpersonal). Personal Intelligences Gardner (1993) looks at the two personal intelligences separately.
He defines them as the interpersonal and the interpersonal intelligences for the purposes of addressing them as both aspects of human nature. Interpersonal intelligence involves the development of the internal aspects of a person. The capacities at work are the access to an individual's range of emotions, the ability to identify feelings, and to label them and enmesh them in symbolic codes as a means of understanding and guiding one's behavior.
At its most basic level, of pain. In its most advanced level, it is having the ability to recognize and symbolize complex and highly differentiated sets of feelings. These capacities are evident in novelists and in therapists, who are sensitive to inner experiences and feelings (Gardner, 1993, p. 39). Interpersonal intelligence involves the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals, especially their temperaments, motivations, moods, and intentions.