1) Packet switching does not require a dedicated circuit.
TRUE
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

2) DNS is the protocol that provides the Internet addressing scheme.

FALSE
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

3) IPv6 provides for 128-bit IP addresses.

TRUE
Page Ref: 121
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

4) The term public cloud refers to Internet access that is accessible by the general public.

FALSE
Page Ref: 125-126
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

5) Amazon Web Services is an example of cloud computing.

TRUE
Page Ref: 125
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

6) HTTP is the Internet protocol used to transfer Web pages.

TRUE
Page Ref: 127
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

7) The major hubs in the United States where the Internet backbone intersects with regional and local networks are now commonly referred to as Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).

TRUE
Page Ref: 132
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

8) T1 and T3 refer to international telephone standards for digital communication.

TRUE
Page Ref: 135
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology
9) Internet2 provides a nationwide 100 gigabit-per-second network.
TRUE
Page Ref: 142
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

10) WLAN-based Internet access derives from the same technological foundations as telephone-based wireless Internet access.

FALSE
Page Ref: 145
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

11) The Internet of Things is based on sensors that can collect data and connect to the Internet.

TRUE
Page Ref: 150
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

12) XML is used to format the structure and style of a Web page.

FALSE
Page Ref: 156
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

13) FTP is a protocol used to transfer files to and from a server.

TRUE
Page Ref: 128
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

14) FiOS is an advanced form of DSL.

TRUE
Page Ref: 135
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

15) IANA is the organization currently in charge of assigning IP addresses.

TRUE
Page Ref: 136
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

16) During which period of time did the Institutionalization phase of Internet development take place?
A) 1950-1960
B) 1961-1974
C) 1975-1995
D) 1995-through the present

C
Page Ref: 114
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge
17) Which of the following occurred during the Commercialization phase of Internet development?
A) The fundamental building blocks of the Internet were realized in actual hardware and software.
B) Mosaic was invented.
C) The Domain Name System was introduced.
D) NSF privatized the operation of the Internet's backbone.
D
Page Ref: 117-118
Difficulty: Difficult

Application of knowledge

18) During which phase of the development of the Internet was the personal computer invented?
A) Commercialization phase
B) Institutional phase
C) Innovation phase
D) Consolidation phase

B
Page Ref: 116
Difficulty: Difficult

Application of knowledge

19) Which of the following is not one of the basic technological foundations of the Internet?
A) client/server computing
B) FTP
C) TCP/IP
D) packet switching

B
Page Ref: 115
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

20) The process of slicing digital messages into parcels, sending them along different communication paths as they become available, and reassembling them at the destination point is called:
A) routing.
B) the Transmission Control Protocol.
C) packet switching.
D) the File Transfer Protocol.

C
Page Ref: 115-116
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

21) Which of the following is the core communications protocol for the Internet?
A) Telnet
B) FTP
C) TCP/IP
D) TLS

C
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
22) The Transport Layer of TCP/IP is responsible for which of the following?
A) placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium
B) addressing, packaging, and routing messages
C) providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and from the application
D) providing a variety of applications with the ability to access the services of the lower layers
C
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology

23) The Internet Layer of TCP/IP is responsible for which of the following?
A) placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium
B) addressing, packaging, and routing messages
C) providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and from the application
D) providing a variety of applications with the ability to access the services of the lower layers

B
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology

24) Which of the following is not a concern about IoT?
A) the high cost of sensors
B) interoperability
C) security
D) privacy

A
Page Ref: 150-151
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

25) An IPv4 address is expressed as a:
A) 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers separated by semicolons.
B) 64-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers separated by semicolons.
C) 64-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers separated by periods.
D) 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers separated by periods.

D
Page Ref: 121
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
26) The ________ allows a natural language expression, such as Google.com to represent a numeric IP address.
A) uniform resource locator system
B) Internet protocol addressing schema
C) domain name system
D) assigned numbers and names (ANN) system
C
Page Ref: 122
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

27) The address used by a browser to identify the location of content on the Web is called:
A) a domain name.
B) a uniform resource locator.
C) an IP address.
D) a file path.

B
Page Ref: 122
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

28) Which of the following organizations coordinates the Internet's systems of unique identifiers, such as IP addresses and top-level domain systems?
A) IETF
B) IAB
C) W3C
D) ICANN

D
Page Ref: 136
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

29) Which of the following is not an advantage of client/server computing over centralized mainframe computing?
A) It is easy to expand capacity by adding servers and clients.
B) Each client added to the network increases the network's overall capacity and transmission speeds.
C) Client/server networks are less vulnerable, in part because the processing load is balanced over many powerful smaller computers rather than concentrated in a single huge computer.
D) There is less risk that a system will completely malfunction because backup or mirror servers can pick up the slack if one server goes down.

B
Page Ref: 124
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology
30) ________ is a model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power and software applications over the Internet, rather than purchasing and installing it on their own computers.
A) Client/server computing
B) P2P computing
C) Mobile computing
D) Cloud computing
D
Page Ref: 125-127
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology

31) Which of the following protocols is used to send mail to a server?
A) IMAP
B) FTP
C) HTTP
D) SSL

A
Page Ref: 127
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

32) Where does TLS operate within TCP/IP?
A) between the Internet Layer and the Transport Layer
B) between the Transport Layer and the Application Layer
C) between the Network Interface Layer and the Transport Layer
D) between the Internet Layer and the Application Layer

B
Page Ref: 128
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology

33) Which of the following statements about cloud computing is not true?
A) A private cloud typically has multiple tenants.
B) Public clouds are the most well-known type of cloud computing model.
C) Hybrid clouds offer both public and private cloud options.
D) A private cloud may be located either on a customer's premises or off the premises.

A
Page Ref: 125-126
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

34) ________ is one of the original Internet services and is used to transfer files from a server computer to a client computer and vice versa.
A) SMTP
B) FTP
C) HTTP
D) SSL

B
Page Ref: 128
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

35) ________ is a utility program that allows you to check the connection between your client and a TCP/IP network.
A) Ping
B) Telnet
C) Tracert
D) Finger

A
Page Ref: 128
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

36) How long does it take for 300,000 X-rays to be transmitted on a 100-gbps network?
A) 10 seconds
B) 1 minute
C) 10 minutes
D) 1 hour

B
Page Ref: 142
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

37) TCP/IP operates in which layer of Internet architecture?
A) Network Technology Substrate layer
B) Middleware Services layer
C) Transport Services and Representation Standards layer
D) Applications layer

C
Page Ref: 130
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

38) The Web runs in which layer of Internet architecture?
A) Network Technology Substrate layer
B) Middleware Services layer
C) Transport Services and Representation Standards layer
D) Applications layer

D
Page Ref: 130
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

39) The layer of Internet architecture that ties the applications to the communications network and includes such services as security and authentication is called the:
A) Network Technology Substrate layer.
B) Middleware Services layer.
C) Transport Services and Representation Standards layer.
D) Applications layer.

B
Page Ref: 130-131
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
40) The backbone of the Internet is formed by:
A) Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).
B) Network Service Providers (NSPs).
C) Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
D) Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs).
B
Page Ref: 131
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

41) When talking about the physical elements of the Internet, the term redundancy refers to:
A) transmitting multiple copies of a single packet to safeguard against data loss.
B) the use of tiered high-speed switching computers to connect the backbone to regional and local networks.
C) delays in messages caused by the uneven flow of information through the network.
D) multiple duplicate devices and paths in a network built so that data can be rerouted if a breakdown occurs.

D
Page Ref: 132
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

42) Which source of e-commerce revenues has grown from nearly zero prior to 2007 to an estimated $84 billion in 2014?
A) B2G e-commerce
B) mobile B2C e-commerce
C) B2B e-commerce
D) social e-commerce

B
Page Ref: 171
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

43) What type of Internet access technology are Google and Facebook hoping to use to provide Internet access to remote parts of the world?
A) Bluetooth
B) drones
C) WLANs
D) DSL

B
Page Ref: 148
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
44) The ________ is a consortium of corporations, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations that monitors Internet policies and practices.
A) Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
B) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
C) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
D) Internet Society (ISOC)
D
Page Ref: 137
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

45) The ________ helps define the overall structure of the Internet.
A) IAB
B) IESG
C) W3C
D) ITU

A
Page Ref: 137
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

46) Which of the following is not a limitation of the current Internet?
A) the continued reliance on cables and wires for connectivity
B) limited bandwidth, which causes congestion and cannot adequately handle video and voice traffic
C) architectural restrictions, which stipulate that numerous requests for the same file must each be answered individually, slowing network performance
D) the difficulty in expanding capacity by adding servers and clients

D
Page Ref: 138-139
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology

47) Which of the following is not true about the mobile platform?
A) Most smartphones use Intel chips.
B) The number of cell phones worldwide exceeds the number of PCs.
C) Over a third of the world's cell phones are smartphones.
D) Unlike PCs, smartphones do not need fans.

A
Page Ref: 125
Difficulty: Difficult

Application of knowledge

48) Which of the following statements about fiber-optic cable is not true?
A) It transmit more data at faster speeds than coaxial or twisted pair cable.
B) It is thinner and lighter than coaxial or twisted pair cable.
C) It enables better data security than coaxial cable.
D) Telecommunications firms have made substantial investments in cross-country fiber optic systems in the last decade.

C
Page Ref: 144
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
49) Which of the following organizations involved with Internet governance has the United States recently announced it would transition control of?
A) ICANN
B) IGF
C) NTIA
D) IANA
D
Page Ref: 137
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

50) Which of the following technologies has enabled the Internet to grow exponentially to support millions of users, without overloading the network architecture?
A) fiber optics
B) Wi-Fi
C) IPv6
D) client/server networking

D
Page Ref: 122-124
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

51) The major technologies used with wireless local area networks are:
A) Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
B) Wi-Fi and WiMax.
C) Bluetooth and 3G.
D) WiMax and 3G.

A
Page Ref: 145-148
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

52) Internet traffic is predicted to do which of the following over the next 5 years?
A) decrease
B) double
C) triple
D) quadruple

C
Page Ref: 175
Difficulty: Moderate

Application of knowledge

53) Which of the following is a high-speed, medium-range, broadband wireless metropolitan area network?
A) Wi-Fi
B) WiMAX
C) Bluetooth
D) ZigBee

B
Page Ref: 147
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology
54) Siri is a type of:
A) intelligent personal assistant.
B) widget.
C) gadget.
D) social network.
A
Page Ref: 170-171
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

55) The first Web browser to make it possible to view documents on the Web with colored background, images, and animations was:
A) Netscape Navigator.
B) Mosaic.
C) Mozilla.
D) Internet Explorer.

B
Page Ref: 152
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

56) In the address http://www.company.com/clients.html, which of the following is the top-level domain?
A) .com
B) company.com
C) www
D) http

A
Page Ref: 153
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

57) You could expect to find all of the following services in a Web server software package except:
A) security services.
B) FTP.
C) search engine.
D) an RSS aggregator.

D
Page Ref: 160
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

58) Which of the following is currently the most popular Web browser?
A) Internet Explorer
B) Safari
C) Chrome
D) Firefox

A
Page Ref: 161
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

59) The concept behind document formatting had its roots in which of the following?
A) XML
B) SGML
C) HTML
D) GML

D
Page Ref: 155
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

60) Which of the following is a Web application that enables Internet users to communicate with each other, although not in real time?
A) mobile messaging
B) online forum
C) SMS messaging
D) VoIP

B
Page Ref: 165
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

61) Which of the following is not a mobile messaging application?
A) Facebook Messenger
B) WhatsApp
C) Viber
D) Cortana

D
Page Ref: 162
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

62) A(n) ________ is a Web application that allows users to easily add and edit content on a Web page.
A) wiki
B) podcast
C) blog
D) RSS feed

A
Page Ref: 168
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

63) The protocol that enables the transmission of voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet is called:
A) VoIP.
B) IPTP.
C) VTP.
D) IP.

A
Page Ref: 169
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
64) All of the following are characteristics of HTML5 except:
A) a video element that replaces plug-ins such as Flash, QuickTime, and RealPlayer.
B) use of CSS3.
C) ability to access built-in functionality of mobile devices, such as GPS and swiping.
D) support for digital rights management.
D
Page Ref: 157-158
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

65) All of the following are true about iPhone apps except:
A) They are distributed through Apple's App Store.
B) They are cross-platform, open-source applications.
C) Over 75 billion have been downloaded.
D) Apple's goal of offering apps is to increase sales of iPhones, iPads, and iPods.

B
Page Ref: 173-174
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

66) Also known as the Industrial Internet, the ________ describes the use of Internet technologies and networking to enable the multitudes of nontraditional devices that are equipped with data-generating sensors to connect to the Internet.

Internet of Things, IoT
Page Ref: 150
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

67) Specialized computers that interconnect the thousands of computers that make up the Internet in order to transmit message parcels along available communication paths and on to their destinations are called ________.

routers
Page Ref: 119
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

68) A set of rules for transferring data is called a(n) ________.

protocol
Page Ref: 120
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

69) ________ was the first Google Glass app.

Glassware
Page Ref: 110
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

70) ________ are central directories that list all domain names currently in use for specific domains.

Root servers
Page Ref: 123
Difficulty: Difficult

Information technology
71) A small application that you embed in a Web page in order to include content and functionality from a different Web site is called a(n) ________.
widget
Page Ref: 170
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

72) ________ is a utility program that allows you to track the path of a message you send from your client to a remote computer on the Internet.

Tracert
Page Ref: 128
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

73) A TCP/IP network located within a single organization for the purposes of communication and information processing is called a(n) ________.

intranet
Page Ref: 135-136
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

74) ________ refers to delays in messages caused by the uneven flow of information packets through the network.

Latency
Page Ref: 138
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

75) ________ is a way of formatting pages with embedded links that connect documents to one another and that also link pages to other objects.

Hypertext
Page Ref: 153
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

76) An iPad is an example of a(n) ________ computer.

tablet
Page Ref: 125
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

77) ________ software refers to the software that enables a computer to deliver Web pages written in HTML to client computers on a network that requests this service by sending an HTTP request.

Web server
Page Ref: 160
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology
78) A device attached to the Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages is referred to as a(n) ________.
Web client
Page Ref: 161
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

79) A(n) ________ identifies Web pages that appear to match keywords (queries) and then provides a list of the best matches.

search engine
Page Ref: 162
Difficulty: Moderate

Information technology

80) A(n) ________ is a tool used by a Web site to store information about a user.

cookie
Page Ref: 166
Difficulty: Easy

Information technology

81) Explain each of the three important concepts behind the Federal Networking Council's definition of the term Internet. Explain how each of these technologies contributes to the functioning of the Internet today.

The three important concepts in the Federal Networking Council's definition of the Internet are packet switching, the TCP/IP communications protocol, and client/server computing.

Packet switching is a method of slicing digital messages up into parcels that are sent along different communications paths as they become available. The packets travel from router computer to router computer and are then reassembled at their destination point. These routers are special purpose computers that interconnect the thousands of computer networks that make up the Internet. Since this method does not require a dedicated circuit, it makes use of any available spare capacity on any one of several hundred circuits enabling nearly full use of available communication lines and capacity.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the universally agreed upon method for breaking the messages up, routing them to their destination, and reassembling them. The TCP protocol, or set of rules, specifies how messages should be formatted, ordered, compressed, and error-checked. It also stipulates which method the network will use to indicate that they have stopped sending and/or receiving messages and sometimes specifies the transmission speed as well. The IP protocol provides the addressing scheme for the Internet. Each computer connected to the Internet must be assigned an Internet Protocol address so that it can send and receive TCP packets. At present, each time home users sign on to the Internet they are temporarily assigned an IP address by their ISP.

Client/server computing involves very powerful personal computers that are connected together in a network along with one or more server computers. These client computers can display rich graphics, store large files, and process graphic and sound files. The server computers are specifically allocated to common functions that all of the client computers need such as storing files and supplying software applications, and utility programs.
Page Ref: 115, 118-124
Difficulty: Difficult

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication
82) Identify and describe the types of ISP service, along with the Internet connection methods, in use today.
There are two types of ISP service: narrowband and broadband. Narrowband service is the traditional telephone modem connection now operating at 56.6 Kbps (although the actual throughput hovers around 30 Kbps due to line noise that causes extensive resending of packets). This used to be the most common form of connection worldwide but has been replaced by broadband connections in most of the United States, Europe, and Asia.

Broadband service is based on DSL, cable modem, telephone (T1 and T3 lines), and satellite technologies. Broadband — in the context of Internet service — refers to any communication technology that permits clients to play streaming audio and video files at acceptable speeds — generally anything above .5 Mbps.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service is a telephone technology for delivering high-speed access to the Internet through ordinary telephone lines found in a home or business. Cable Internet refers to a cable television technology that piggybacks digital access to the Internet using the same analog or digital video cable providing television signals to a home. T1 and T3 are international telephone standards for digital communication. These are leased, dedicated, guaranteed lines suitable for corporations, government agencies, and businesses such as ISPs requiring high-speed guaranteed service levels. Additionally, some satellite companies offer high-speed broadband Internet access primarily to homes and offices located in rural areas where DSL or cable Internet access is not available. Access speeds and monthly costs are comparable to DSL and cable.
Page Ref: 134-135
Difficulty: Easy

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication

83) What are some of the issues related to the Internet of Things?.

Interoperability remains a major concern. As with many technologies in the early stages of development, many organizations are fighting to create the standards that participants in the market will follow. The AllSeen Alliance, formed by Qualcomm in December 2013 with 50 other companies, including Microsoft and Cisco, is one group that hopes to create an open source standard. Another group, the Open Interconnect Consortium, formed by Intel, Broadcom,
Dell, and others apparently not happy with the AllSeen effort, formed in July 2014. A different group, the Industrial Internet Consortium, has been formed by AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM, and Intel to focus on engineering standards for industrial assets. The Wolfram Connected Devices Project is aimed at developing a database of IoT devices, and currently includes more than 2,000. And as with many other types of Internet-related technology, Google with its Android operating system and Apple with AirPlay may be trying to create their own standards. Other concerns include security and privacy. Security experts believe that IoT devices could potentially be a security disaster, with the potential for malware being spread through a connected network, and difficulty in issuing patches to devices, leaving them vulnerable (SANS, 2014). Data from standalone smart devices can reveal much personal detail about a consumer's life, and if those devices are all ultimately interconnected, there will be little that is truly private.
Page Ref: 151
Difficulty: Moderate

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication

84) Briefly describe the development of the World Wide Web including the key players.

The Web was invented between 1989 and 1991 when Dr. Tim Berners-Lee and his associates at CERN Laboratories built on the ideas of several earlier researchers and developed the initial versions of HTML, HTTP, a Web server, and a Web browser, the four essential components of the Web. Information being shared on the Web remained text-based until Marc Andreessen and others at NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) created a Web browser with a graphical user interface. This made it possible to view documents on the Web that included colored backgrounds, images, and primitive animations. In 1994 Andreessen and Jim Clark founded Netscape, which created the first commercial browser. In 1995 Microsoft released the first version of Internet Explorer and the Web began to take off.
Page Ref: 152-153
Difficulty: Moderate

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication

85) You are browsing the Web on your tablet computer. Describe the path that the Web page data takes to get from its storage point on a distant computer to your tablet.

The Web page information starts from where it is hosted on a Web server and travels through the host company's network to the Internet. On the Internet, the data will pass through the ISP's network to regional and national backbones, and finally to the network of the ISP that is serving my personal network, and through an access point or hot spot to be delivered wirelessly to my tablet.
Page Ref: 131-135
Difficulty: Moderate

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication

86) Explain how the Internet and the Web make e-commerce possible. Briefly discuss at least six features or services that support e-commerce.

The Internet and the Web have made commerce possible because they brought about an extraordinary expansion of digital services to millions of amateur computer users. The Web makes nearly all of the elements of rich human expression including color, text, images, photos, animations, sound, and video available, creating a unique environment in which to establish a commercial marketplace. Many of the Web's services and features support e-commerce, including e-mail, search engines, instant messaging (IM), chat, streaming media, and cookies.

E-mail, for example, can be used as a very effective marketing tool. E-commerce sites can buy e-mail lists from various sources and collate them with lists of their current customers to create a targeted advertising message that can be quickly and economically delivered and will produce a creditable response.

Search engines have also become a crucial tool on e-commerce sites, providing a method for customers to quickly locate the product category or a specific product they are looking for.

Instant messaging has been added to some e-commerce Web sites as a method of accessing customer support personnel.

Streaming media enables live Web video, music, video, and other large-bandwidth files to be sent to users in a variety of ways that enable the user to play back the files. Web advertisers increasingly use video to attract viewers. Streaming audio and video segments used in Web ads and news stories are perhaps the most frequently used streaming services.

Finally, cookies are a very important tool used by marketers to collect and store information about a user. These small text files are sent to the user's computer so that information from the site will load more quickly the next time they visit. More importantly from the e-tailer's perspective, cookies can retain information about the customer such as the number of pages visited, products examined, and other detailed information about a customer's behavior. Cookies enable sites to recognize returning visitors and target specific customers with special offers and marketing messages.
Page Ref: 161-166
Difficulty: Difficult

Analytical thinking; Information technology; Written and oral communication

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