Why are Standards Necessary? BY JOE Civil aviation is a powerful force for progress In our modern global society. A healthy and growing alarm transport system creates and supports millions of Jobs worldwide. It forms part of the economic lifeline of many countries. It Is a catalyst for travel and tourism, the world's largest Industry. Beyond economics, alarm transport enriches the social and cultural fabric of society and contributes to the attainment of peace and prosperity throughout the world. Twenty four hours a day, 365 days of the year, an airplane takes off or lands every few seconds somewhere on the face of the earth.

Every one of these flights is handled in the same, uniform manner, whether by air traffic control, airport authorities or pilots at the controls of their aircraft. Behind the scenes are millions of employees involved in manufacturing, maintenance and monitoring of the products and services required in the never-ending cycle of flights. In fact, modern aviation is one of the most complex systems of interaction between human beings and machines ever created. This clock-work precision in procedures and systems Is made possible by the existence of universally accepted standards now as Standards and Recommended Practices, or Carps.

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Carps cover all technical and operational aspects of International call aviation, such as safety, personnel licensing, operation of aircraft, aerodromes, alarm traffic services, accident Investigation and the environment. Without Carps, our aviation system would be at best chaotic and at worst unsafe. 2. 3 Other Relegating Techniques Since its establishment, non-binding standards and recommended practices (CARPS) have been the cornerstone of CIAO relegating. There are currently 18 CARPS, which are Annexes 1-18 of the Chicago Convention.

Essentially, these instruments seek to provide for uniform aviation practices around the world, so as to facilitate safe and efficient aviation services. 27 Important areas where uniformity is necessary Include landing sequences to be followed by pilots; landing equipment for airports; standards of airport design; equipment for radio guidance; and pilot training. 28 In one way or another, most CARPS deal with safety issues. 29 The Chicago Convention does not state what the difference between a 'Standard' and a 'Recommended Practice' is.

Definitions were subsequently supplied by the CIAO Assembly in 1947. 30 A Standard' is: Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, materiel, performance, personnel, or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Member States will conform In accordance with the Convention; In the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council Is compulsory under Article 38 of the Convention.

Likewise, a 'Recommended Practice' is: personnel, or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable n the interest of safety, regularity, or efficiency or international air navigation, and to which Member States will endeavourer to conform in accordance with the Convention. Thus, Standards are 'necessary whereas Recommended Practices are merely 'desirable', and Member States Will conform' with Standards, whereas they will merely 'endeavourer to conform' with Recommended Practices. 1 Following the events of 11 September 2001, CIAO took steps amend the SARA contained in Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention, which deals with airline security, extending its reach to domestic airlines. 39 Further amendments were introduced in 006, requiring airports to screen all baggage, establish security restricted areas, and conduct appropriate evaluation and training of security personnel. 0 CIAO also passed resolutions condemning the use of civilian aircraft as weapons of mass destruction.