in Marxist theory, the group of workers who would overthrow the czar and come to rule Russia
(1) autocratic government
government with nearly total control under the hands of ONE person (czar)
a group of revolutionary russian Marxists who took control of russia's government in november 1917.
(1) Bloody Sunday
when protesters outside the Winter Palace (Jan 22) are ordered to be shot by Czar Nicholas II that starts a wave of rebellion across Russia
Follower of Karl Marx; Leader of the Bolsheviks and Bolshevik Revolution in Russia; First leader of the Soviet Union; "Peace, Bread, and Land"
Russian holy man with tremendous influence over Czarina Alexandra; gained significant political power before the Bolshevik Revolution; killed by a group of angry nobleman afraid of Rasputin's growing power
(1) Provisional government
a temporary government.
one of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar Nicholas II
(1) Communist Party
a political party practicing the ideas of karl marx and V.I. Lenin; originally the Russian Bolshevik Party
(1) Joseph Stalin
Communist leader who took power after Lenin; ruled the USSR with harshness and terror
(1) How did World War I help bring about the Russian Revolution?
Russia was entrenched in the long and slow fighting of World War I. Things like troops low morale, fuel and food shortages, and massive fatalities made the Russian people unhappy and ready for change.
(1) Why did the Bolsheviks rename their party the Communist Party?
Communism was Karl Marx's name for a classless society--the party changed its name to honor Karl Marx.
(1) How did the czar's autocratic policies toward the people lead to social unrest?
The czar repeatedly ignored the people's needs, ruled oppressively, and failed to share power despite promises to do so.
government control over every aspect of public and private life.
(2) Great Purge
a campaign of terror in the soviet Union during the 1930s, in which Joseph stalin sought to eliminate all Communist Party members and other citizens who threatened his power
(2) Command economy
an economic system in which the government makes all economic decisions
(2) Five-Year Plan
plans outlined by Joseph stalin in 1928 for the development of the soviet Union's economy.
(2) Collective farms
a large government-controlled farm formed by combining many small farms.
(2) What are some ways totalitarian rulers keep their power?
Rulers keep their power by using police terror, education in order to indoctrinate the people, propaganda and censorship, and persecution of anyone who stands in their way
(2) How did the Soviet economy change under the direction of Stalin?
Industry increased by more than 25% and the production of wheat doubled. Despite increased production in some areas there were often shortages of consumer goods.
(2) Summarize Joseph Stalin's rise to power and how his control expanded.
Stalin first became the general secretary of the Communist Party. He then used his power to eliminate his competitors. Once he had total control he kept tight control of society and worked to revamp the economy.
Nationalist Party in China
(3) Sun Yixian
Leader of the Nationalist Party in China; "Three Principles of the People": nationalism, democracy, people's livelihood
(3) Yuan Shikai
Powerful military leader who takes control b/c Sun is a weak leader, but revolts against democratic ideas, when he dies, China returns to a feudal period.
(3) May Fourth Movement
a national protest in China in 1919, in which people demonstrated against the Treaty of Versailles (didn't get wanted land) and foreign interference.
(3) Mao Zedong
Leader of the Communist Party in China
(3) Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-Shek)
Second leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party after Sun Yixian dies; Mao's competition; becomes President of Nationalist Republic of China
(3) Long March
a 6,000-mile journey made in 1934-1935 by Chinese Communists fleeing from Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist forces
(3) How did the Treaty of Versailles trigger the May Fourth Movement?
When Japan received land that China thought it deserved, a wave of protests occurred.
(3) How was Mao's vision of communism different from that of Lenin?
Mao's idea of communism was that peasants were the basis of the revolution.
Lenin's idea of communism was that urban workers were the base of the revolution.
(3) What influence did foreign nations have on China from 1912-1938?
The Treaty of Versailles led to the May Fourth Movement. The Soviet Union supported Sun's government. Britain and the United States recognized China's nationalist government. Japan's invasion of China united Jiang's and Mao's forces, and halted civil war.
(4) Rowlatt Acts
laws passed in 1919 that allowed the British government in India to jail anti-British protesters without trial for as long as two years
(4) Amritsar Massacre
killing by British troops of nearly 400 Indians gathered at Amritsar to protest the Rowlatt Acts (like Bloody Sunday)
(4) Mohandas K. Gandhi
leader of the peaceful Indian independence movement
(4) Civil disobedience
a deliberate and public refusal to obey a law considered unjust
(4) Salt March
a peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in 1930 in India in which Mohandas Gandhi led his followers on a 240-mile walk to the sea, where they made their own salt from evaporated seawater.
(4) Mustafa Kemal
Turkish military leader who defeated the invading Greek forces; first president of the Republic of Turkey; unified the nation with a strong national identity
(4) How did Gandhi's tactics of civil disobedience affect the British?
Gandhi's tactics reduced cloth sales, slowed transportation and production, and filled jails to capacity.
(4) How did Southwest Asia change as a result of nationalism/Describe the rise of independence movements in Southwest Asia.
Iran/Persia is united by Pahlavi and rises against British; he also modernizes
Saudi Arabia is unified under Islamic Law by Ibn Saud
Turkey rises against Greek conquerors and British led by Mustafa Kemal, who becomes the president of the Republic of Turkey
(4) How did newly found petroleum supplies change the new nations in Southwest Asia?
The discovery of petroleum led to dramatic economic changes for Southwest Asia. It also increased the attempts of Western nations to dominate the region.
(1) Describe the autocratic methods of Alexander III and economic changes under Nicholas II.
--Alexander ensures no reforms, censors, monitors students so no one opposes govn't, has political prisoners, and uniforms into one Russian culture (Russian language and govn't sponsored persecution)
--Nicholas II keeps his policies, but rules into WWI and industrializes Russia
(1) Explain the crises that paved the way for the March Revolution and the end of czarist rule.
--Rapid industrialization and poor working conditions sparks communist ideas
--Russo-Japanese War exposes Russian weakness
--WWI and Rasputin
(1) Summarize the Bolshevik Revolution
Kerensky (leader of provisional govn't) is overthrown by the Red Guards and Bolsheviks take charge. Bolsheviks sign a Treaty to take Russia out of WWI, but Russia loses land with Treaty. Losing land makes people angry, and civil war. Red Guards versus diverse White Army. White Army is defeated, and Bolsheviks prove power.
(1) Explain Lenin's reforms. (NRCC)
--"New Economic Policy" --> peasants can sell surplus, government keeps control of major industries, encouraged foreign investment; economy slowly rises
--Reorganization --> Russia made into small districts with central govn'ts (think like Suleyman and Ottomans), and renamed USSR
--Communist Party --> new Bolshevik group name to honor Karl Marx's ideas
--Constitution --> Lenin actually uses this to support his power and central government; its more like a dictatorship
(2) Describe Stalin's transforming of the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. (PIPP)
--Police Terror --> secret police monitor communication and kill any political enemies (Great Purge)
--Indoctrination --> no toleration in schools for individuality, communist ideas "virtues of communist party" taught/pushed on, children encouraged to report disloyal, state supported Soviet Union members lecturing the uneducated on communism, stressed sacrifice and hardwork for the state
--Propaganda/Censorship --> all artists types censored and no individuality accepted; print and radio controlled by govn't and glorifies Stalin, communism, and economic programs; arts used for propaganda; anything published against state forced to retract or be jailed/killed
--Persecution --> main goal is to replace religion with communism, Stalin sponsored group of atheists with propaganda against religion "Muslims of Atheism", religious buildings destroyed and leaders killed or sent to labor camps, Russian Orthodox Church is a common target
(2) Summarize Stalin's state-controlled economic programs.
5 Year Plans under command economy (govn't has total economic control)
--Russian industries (oil/steel) have high quotas, while consumer goods that have a shortage due to low quotas
--collective farms made from private owned farms, farms with difficult land work like factories, by 1938 90% collective farms; Kulaks resist change by destroying crops/cattle, but secret police murder them
(2) Describe Soviet daily life.
Fear of being killed by secret police, shortages on important needs, hard labor, communism pushed on (although education rates increase), fear of having a religion
(3) List the problems the new Republic of China faced.
--modernization, WWI, Communism, then civil war and Japan
(3) Trace the rise of communism in China.
Treaty of Versailles upsets students and begins the spread of communist ideas. After Sun's death, Chiang Kai-Shek is a corrupt leader, so many turn away from Nationalist Party and to communism. Communism also gains peasant followers due to redistribution of land idea.
(3) Describe the civil war between Communists and Nationalists.
Nationalists is a much larger group, consisting of warlords, and is called the Nationalist Republic of China. Mao leads an army of Communist (mostly peasants), but it is small. The Red Army (communists) are commonly attacked, but are never defeated. Until Chiang Kia-Shek unites a huge army to kill communist leaders then attack Mao and his army. They retreat and start the Long March, and communist survivors live in Northwestern China in caves. The civil war is then halted due to Japanese invasion.
(4) Trace nationalist activity in India
WWI Britian promises self rule, not given, nationalist ideas spread. As protesting increases, Rowlatt Acts pass allowing protesters to be jailed for 2 years without trial. Indians angered more and nationalist gather in public area, where British open fire (Armistar Massacre). Protests spark throughout India, and Gandhi rises as nationalist leader. Indian nationalists boycott and peacefully protest through civil disobedience.
(4) Summarize Gandhi's nonviolent tactics
The main goal is to weaken British economy: Refusal of British goods, Indians would homemake stuff (like the Salt March). Refusal to attend British schools. Do not pay British taxes. British Cloth not worn, Indians weave own. Huge demonstrations make jail overcrowded.
(4) Explain how Indian self-rule heightened conflicts between Muslims and Hindus
Indians would have to decide which power they wanted in control, Muslims or Hindus.
State differences between Stalin, Mao, and Gandhi.
Stalin targets the working class, and was more aggressive/commanding. He stated that if certain things weren't done, you would die.
Mao targets rural areas/peasants and calls for a "rural revolution". He seems to overexaggerate to get the peasants rallied.
Gandhi preaches to all Indians, and promotes passive resistance/civil disobedience. He has an overall calm demeanor, but a drive for independence.