The authors, a working group of architects, product designers, engineers and environmental design researchers, collaborated to establish the following Principles of universal Design to gulled a wide range of design disciplines Including environments, products, and communications. These seven principles may be applied to evaluate existing designs, guide the design process and educate both designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable products and environments.

The Principles of Universal Design are presented here, in the following format: name f the principle, intended to be a concise and easily remembered statement of the key concept embodied in the principle; definition of the principle, a brief description of the principle's primary directive for design; and guidelines, a list of the key elements that should be present in a design which adheres to the principle. (Note: all guidelines may not be relevant to all designs. ) PRINCIPLE ONE: Equitable use The design Is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities.

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Guidelines: la. Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. B. Avoid segregating or systematizing any users. C. Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. Old. Make the design appealing to all users. PRINCIPLE TWO: Flexibility n use The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. AAA. Provide choice In methods of use. B. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. C.

Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. PRINCIPLE THREE: Simple and Intuitive use Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. AAA. Eliminate unnecessary complexity. B. Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. C. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. Ad. Arrange information consistent with its importance. E. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.

PRINCIPLE FOUR: perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. AAA. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. B. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. C. Maximize "legibility" of essential information. Ad. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (I. E. , make it easy to give instructions or directions). E. Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations. PRINCIPLE FIVE: Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. AAA. Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. B. Provide warnings of hazards and errors. C. Provide fail safe features. Ad. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.