Unit 4 Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety 1. Describe the factors to take in account when planning healthy and safe indoor and outdoor environments and services. Regarding EYFS the components of a safe environment include: Safeguarding and promoting children's welfare - All practitioners should have an up-to-date understanding of safeguarding children issues and be able to implement the safeguarding children policy and procedure appropriately.

Staff should be able to respond appropriately to any significant changes in children's behaviour; unexplained bruising, marks or signs of possible abuse; signs of neglect; comments children make which give cause for concern. Suitable premises, environment and equipment - secure (entry phones, safeguarding, children’s and adult’s registration, right person (with prior permission) collecting children, fences, etc. ). Areas where children learn, play and develop must be in appropriate size (enough space - ratio, enough sinks, toilets,... , suitable for appropriate age group, condition (well maintained, warm, bright, clean, hygienic, etc), safe (handles in a higher level, electric sockets higher and covered, not slippery flours, no sharp corners, supervision all day long and etc. ), adequate spaces for the different needs (food, rest, activities, parents, meeting, personal belongings, etc). , must have appropriate fire detection and control equipment (fire alarms, smoke detectors, fire extinguishers and fire blankets) which are in working order.

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Play equipment and care equipment which is fit for purpose, appropriate for the needs (rest, eat, play, exercise, toilet and etc. ) of individual children (appropriate age, disability, culture, etc. ) and meets British and European standards. Buildings must be organized on easy to clean way (walls, flours, etc. ), gardens easy to swipe and have shed for the equipment to lock, toys and equipment easy to clean and sterilize, setting must have a schedule for cleaning, washing and sterilizing them, paper tissue must be used for nose and mouse, for cleaning spills, etc; gloves must be used changing nappies, leaning body waste, etc; different bins must be used for general and body waist; kitchen and cleaning staff must use colour-code based equipment to prevent cross-contamination; food must be kept covered, in appropriate temperature and separate (row and cooked). The people - suitable persons working with children (loving, trained, have appropriate qualification, CRB checked, healthy, understanding their roles and responsibilities and etc. ). Children should be supervised at all times, with staffing arrangements organised to meet the individual needs of all children.

Documentation - policies and procedures and records that support all of the above and clearly set out duties, responsibilities and actions, risk assessments, required data about every child and staff member. Policies and procedures must be individually created for particular setting, should reflect the strategy of the setting, adhere to the principles of a safe environment throughout and must to reflect what actually happens in setting and be updated regularly.

The main policies and procedures that contribute to a safe environment: Health and safety, Policy for Premises and Security, Safeguarding children, Record keeping, Staff, Illnesses and Injuries Policy, Medication and Sickness, Medicines Policy, Lost child Policy, Outing Policy, Equality and inclusion, Partnership with parents and carers, Food and Drink Policy, Non-Smoking Policy and other.

Organisation – settings have to plan and organise their work to ensure that every child receives emotional support, enabling them to grow, develop and reach their full individual potential . 2. Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely. All new workers must have an induction to be completed within the first week of employment. The induction must be carried out by the manager or designed senior staff member.

The induction includes tour of all site facilities (fire exits shown, Fire Evacuation Procedures explained and copy must be given), explanation of all policies and procedures and guidelines (Health and Safety copy must be given), explanation of most common hazards and risks and how to prevent or to be aware of them. Any other helpers or volunteers must be informed about health and safety in a setting. Policies and procedures have to be found in detail at nursery’s office or other known place.

Staff getting more instructions about health and safety having trainings, specialized meetings, introduced to the risk assessments. Risk assessments have to be carried out of all in and out premises on a daily bases and special for an outings and unusual activities. The same children, have to be aware of health and safety, teachers have to teach them to wash hands before eating and after toilet, clean nose with paper tissue, do not use others cups, cutlery; eat healthy food; encourage to cough in an elbow or hands and then wash them .

And explain what and where the dangers, hazards, strangers are, etc. ). All the accidents and incidents and the treatments was given must be recorded. Policies and procedures and incidents have to be reviewed time to time having idea to improve health and safety maintenance. 3. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Children Act 1989 - Came like a result of the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the child and brought earlier legislation about children together.

It includes child’s rights to be protected from discrimination; express their views freely, to be protected from harm and abuse; get education and his best interest is most important and must be worked towards (their sex, age, race, culture, language and experience have to be taken into account making decision about them). It includes how children have to be cared for and protected and that all children have to be treated like individuals and with respect. This act says that parents have responsibilities for their children, rather than rights over them.

Working with children in a setting we have to follow this Act in keeping them safe (children have to be registered and can be taken home with person named by parent; staff trained and CRB checked; premises, equipment and toys appropriate to their age and etc), protected (any suspected abuse are recorded and reported to manager), give opportunity to learn (variety of toys, equipment and activities for different ages and abilities of children to learn creativity, thinking, talking, interacting, pretending, socialising end etc), treat them like ndividuals and while planning activities, meal (some of children do not like milk or fish – their getting something instead of this, one child have an allergy to citrus fruits he getting more apples, etc), equipment and resources have in mind to meet individual needs of all children (chunky crayons for those less able to grasp, brighter colours, etc)..

Policies and Procedures In our setting linked to this Act: Safeguarding Policy, Health and Safety policy, Fire Evacuation Procedure, Policy for Premises and Security, Lost Child Policy, Outing Policy, Inclusion Policy, Special Educational Needs, Food and Drink Policy, Behaviour Management, Illness and Injures Policy. Every Child Matters 2003 (Green paper) - Outlines a program and sets out a framework of services to cover children and young people from birth to nineteen years.

Organisations involved in children’s lives are asked for better information-sharing about affected children. Children’s Trust was developed to bring together health, education and social services. Electronic filling system, for easy information tracking, started. Changes for adult working with children training were made, school programme extended.

This Act requests from us as a practitioners to work in partnership with other organizations and local authorities in information-sharing about children to protect them from abuse (Social Workers will be informed), to meet their economic wellbeing aspects (parents giving information and required document to get compensation for child care), to help them enjoy and achieve (contact New Ham council SENCO to assess and help children with behaviour or learning difficulties).

Linked Policies and Procedures: Safeguarding Policy, Special Educational Needs. Children Bill 2004 - This Act extends the Child Act 1989 and places duty on services to ensure that every child has support needed to meet Every Child Matters (be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution to society, achieve economic well-being). This Act highlighted the need for more effective communication and information-sharing between different agencies concerned about children and their well being.

Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCB) where created and their got legislative power. In fact of disclose that child was abused, we have to report to Child Protection Office, designed in our setting, who have to follow the procedures laid down by the LSCB. Safeguarding Policy it is reflection of this Act. Bichard Enquiry - Bichard, after investigation the events urrounding the Soham Murders 2002 (two girls where killed by primary school care taker, who had criminal record before, but wasn’t recognized while checked), made recommendation to collect information on people who have contact with children in their work. All members of staff working in a childcare have to be checked. All members of our nursery staff are CRB checked, what is declared in our Policies and Procedures part1 “The objectives of our nursery”. Childcare Act 2006 - It is first Act concerned only with early years and childcare services.

The main points are: a new set of duties for local authorities who have to improve Every Child Matters outcomes of all children under 5years old, Early Years Foundation Stage was introduced, regulation and inspection framework was reformed and simplified. The Act has four parts: duties on local authorities in England (Part 1), duties on local authorities in Wales (Part 2), regulation and inspection arrangements for childcare providers in England (Part 3) and general provision (Part 4).

Some key provisions: early childhood services integrated to maximise access and benefits to all background families (Sure Start Children’s Centre) for every community; local authorities have to assess the local childcare and to secure sufficient childcare for working parents; introduction of the Yearly Years Foundation Stage which brings together all standards and frameworks for day care and childminding; all providers caring for children up to 5 are required to register on the Yearly Year register and deliver the Yearly Years Foundation Stage; allowing for the collection of information about young children to inform funding and support the local authority duties. Following this Act we required to use the EYFS to ensure that children will receive a quality experience that supports their development and learning in all six areas and will be treated as individuals with their individual needs and capability. Reflection in the Policies of our nursery: The Foundation Stage/Planning, Self Esteem. Ofsted (EYFS) ‘Welfare Guidelines’ - 1.

Safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare (providers must take required steps to safeguard children and promote their welfare and the good health, protecting them from spread of infection and to know what to do when they are ill), 2. Suitable People (adults looking after children must have appropriate knowledge, qualification, trained, CRB checked, and meet adult/child ratio in a group), 3. Suitable premises, environment and equipment (outdoor and indoor spaces, furniture, equipment and toys must be safe and suitable for their purpose), 4. Organization (providers must plan and organize their systems to ensure that every chid receive an enjoyable and challenging learning and development experience that is tailored to meet their individual needs.

This includes individual observations, assessments and planning covering six areas of EYFS), 5. Documentation (maintaining of records, policies and procedures required for the safe and efficient management of the settings and to meet the needs of children). Following EYFS Standards I must be aware of children’s safety in nursery and at home, of their welfare. In a position of key worker I’m observing and assessing children I’m responsible for and planning next steps for their development, planning activities to cover all six areas. EYFS – Six areas of Learning – The Early Years Foundation Stage (DfES, 2007) provides support for people working with children from birth to 5 years.

The system of EYFS is separated into six Areas of Learning: Personal, Social and Emotional Development; Communication, Language and Literacy; Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy; Knowledge and Understanding of the World; Physical Development; Creative Development. All areas are linked to one another, have same importance and stands by the Principles of the EYFS. Each area of Learning and Development divided into aspects. Following EYFS standards practitioners have to ensure by planning activities and day routine, that children learning and development are supported in all Areas of Learning and do not forgot their individual interests and abilities.

In our nursery six foundation stages provides the basis for planning. Each year the nursery decides which themes will be covered throughout the year, then themes are broken down to show which activities will be offered to cover each of the six foundation stages. The activities are then broken down again into weekly and daily lesson plans to show which goals are being encouraged from the six foundation stages for all or groups of children depending on their abilities. Reflects in Policies and Procedures – The Foundation Stage/Planning in Parents Information. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 – This Act set a duty to employers to ensure healthy and safe working conditions for their employees.

They are also responsible for any visitors to their premises (parents, carers, volunteers, suppliers, guests, etc). Employers must to provide and maintain safety equipment and safe systems at work; ensure articles and substances stored and used safely; provide information, training, instruction and supervision of staff; provide a safe place and environment to work; provide a written policies and procedures and risk assessments; look after health and safety of all on the premises; provide protective clothing free of charge and first aid facilities should provide. Same employees should take care of their own health and safety and others affected by their actions, should cooperate with employers on health and safety.

Like a part of nursery staff responsible for my own, my colleagues and children’s health and safety I have been instructed with risks and safety requirements in nursery and copy of Health and Safety Policy was given to me. COSHH – Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Act 2002 – covers substances which can cause ill-health. COSHH lays down a step-by-step approach to the carefulness to prevent injury or illness from dangerous substances. Those substances must be labelled and stored with care. Data Protection Act 1998 – This Act came into legislation scene to prevent confidential and personal information from being passed on without a person‘s permition. It applies to all information written end electronic.

In our setting most of information is confidentional on a need to know basis only, any information discussed with parents we treat like confidentional. We are ready to share information with authorities in fact if there are concerns of abuse or danger. Also data can be shared, with the agreement of parent, if child needs support from external organisations or professionals. This time we have Speech and language therapist coming to our nursery and working with some of children. This Act is included in Staff Handbook and in Parent‘s Information. 2. 4. Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed. Nursery practitioners identify and manage risks to children and adults through carrying out risk assessments.

Each room is checked at the beginning of the day for hazards, in accordance with each room’s risk assessment. The garden area is checked for hazards before children go out for outdoor play in accordance with nursery outdoor play risk assessments. These assessments are reviewed once a year or as a result of change to the room or garden. The nursery maintains an accident book that must be completed in the event that a child sustains an injury at nursery. Detail of the nature of the injury, the treatment that was given, when and where the accident happened, must be recorded signed and dated. Parents have to be given a copy of the mentioned details.

In the event that member of staff or parent sustains an injury at nursery, an accident/dangerous occurrences form must be completed and returned to the Safety, Health and Environment office. An accident report form must be completed to reflect serious injury (child bites another child or adult and draws blood, broken bones, dislocations, cuts or bumps that require medical attention). 3. 1. Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management. Children grow in a world full of hazards and danger, and it’s not good way to isolate them from that, our and parents responsibility to teach them to be aware of danger and hazards.

From first moves children have to be shown what it is dangerous for their health and body, when their are one year old, starts to understand that some of things are dangerous (doors can be shout and squeeze hand, their can fell from chair, sofa, hard toys can hurt, etc). And when their are older they learn another hazards and dangers, how to be careful (do not run on slippery surface, hold tight on a climbing leaders, safely use scissors, etc), children in appropriate age have to be encouraged to do some steps for taking some kind of risks and challenges, to learn how to be aware (walking on beam, driving bicycle, crawling under chairs, to roll downhill, to walk through the bushes, etc).

The nursery practitioners have take a part in children’s learning identifying hazards and be a role models for assessing and managing risks (children wants to play active game, their have to understand that first of all they have to tidy up toys from the floor, take out chairs and other dangerous things, child wants to go trough the bushes but afraid of the lower branches – can be shown how to lift them up and crawl, etc). 3. 2. Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements. Children are not born with instinct of health and safety; they have instinct of absorption (exploration). From first days they are bound to mother, to get food, warm, love and to be changed, but with time they grow, they starting to explore the world around them. First days they try to take everything to their outh, then moves everywhere where it’s possible, then climbs with no fear and takes things from as high as can reach, then some of them try to go somewhere far from home or carrier, play with fire or knife, etc. And they don’t want to wash their hands, eat greens and fruits, healthy food, instead of McDonald’s or sweets, follow routine, tidy up, etc. But, we can’t allow them to do everything what they want, we have to keep them safe, teach (explain why we have to wash hands, we have props in the toilet remaining about bacteria and hand washing, specialized activities and conversations to keep them aware of hazard in the room and garden), and be the models of good practice (eating greens and fish by the same table, washing hands together, demonstrate awareness of safety by tiding up toys from the floor before starting active activities, etc).