network
links things together

communication network
links devices so that data and information can be shared among them

PAN
Personal Area Network - connects smart devices or consumer electronics within a range of about 30 feet

LAN
Local Area Network - data communication networks that connect personal computers within a very limited geographical area

WAN
Wide Area Network - covers a large geographical area and usually consist of several smaller networks that connect different computers on a variety of platforms.

communication channel
the medium used to transport information from one network device to another

wired channels
transport data through wires and cables

wireless channels
transport data from one device to another without the use of cables or wires

RF signals
Radio waves - typically used for bluetooth devices

microwaves
another option for transporting data wirelessly, but can be aimed in a single direction

bandwidth
is the transmission capacity of a communication channel

topology
refers to the structure and layout of network components such as computers, connecting cables, and wireless signal paths Example: Point to Point, Star, Mesh, and Bus

node
any device on a network

DTE
Data Terminal Equipment - any device on a network

router
a device that controls the flow of data within a network

modem
contains circuitry that converts the data-carrying signals from a digital device to signals that can travel over other communication channels

communication protocol
a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another

handshaking
2 devices on a network negotiating their communication protocols

protocol stack
networks that use more one set protocols

ARPANET
created in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of Utah and the University of California at Santa Barbara

internet governance
a set of shared protocols, procedures, and technologies that evolve through common agreement among network providers

ICANN
the organization that supervises Internet addressing

Internet infrastructure
the way networks fit together

Tier 1 Networks
Such as At&t, CenturyLink, and Verizon who own and maintain millions of dollars data communication equipment

Tier 2 Networks
Such as Comcast and Merit, pay a fee to connect to Tier 1 networks

Tier 3 Networks
Such as Midwest Cellular, Business Networks, Home Networks, and Education Institutions - end user who pays fees for connection services

packet
is a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network

circuit switching
establishes a dedicated private link between one telephone and another for the duration of the call

packet switching
divides a message into several packets that can be routed independently to their destination.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4 - uses 32 bit addresses

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6 - uses 128 bits for each addresses

IP Address
is an identifiable name for a specific computer on a network often pronounced TCPIP

static IP Address
Devices who have a permanently assigned IP address

dynamic IP addresses
are temporarily assigned IP address, for when the device is turned "on".

domain name
easy to remember name for the IP address like nike.com

domain name system
the mechanism for tracking domain names

domain name servers
servers that are scattered around the world that maintain lists of all domain names

connection speed
the amount of data that can be transmitted in a specified time

latency
is the elapsed time for data to make a round-trip from point A to point B

ping
is a utility software designed to measure responsiveness

ping rate
indicates how quickly data can reach a server and bounce back to you.

ethernet
is a wired network technology deployed in 1976

Wi-Fi
a set of wireless networking technologies (designs consist of a mesh design or star configuration)

wireless encryption
scrambles the data transmitted between wireless devices and then unscrambles the data on devices that have the encryption key

Guest network
essentially a second network that you can configure on your LAN's router

file sharing
allows files to be accessed from computer other than the one on which they are stored

network discovery
is a setting that affects whether your computer can see other devices

permissions
specify how shared files can be used

FTP
file transfer protocol

BitTorrent
is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of a file serve across a collection of dispersed computers

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