Assignment 026Understand Child and Young Persons Development Task A Report Section 1 The main current legalisations, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding children Policies and procedures for safeguarding and child protection in England and Wales are the result of the Children Act 1989 and in Northern Ireland of the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995. The Children Act 2004 introduced further changes to the way the child protection system is structured and organised in England and Wales. Main current legalisations: Children Act 1989 (England and Wales)/(Northern Ireland) Order 1995 * Children Act 2004 * Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 * The Vetting and Barring Scheme Children Act 1989 (England and Wales)/(Northern Ireland) Order 1995 These Acts aimed to simplify the laws and protected children and young people in the respective UK countries. They were seen as a serious shake up of children’s rights and protection and made it clear to all who worked with children what their duties were and how they should work together in the event of allegations of child abuse.

England and Wales produced separate documents – Working Together to Safeguard Children (1999)-which emphasised the responsibilities of professionals towards children who are at risk of harm. Children Act 2004 By 2003 it was clear that services for children were still not working together to identify and protect vulnerable children in our society. This was highlighted by the tragic death of Victoria Climbie at the hands of her carers, resulting in an independent inquiry into her death.

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The Laming Report in 2003, in common with other inquiries into child deaths over the years, criticised the approach to protecting children in our society. The Laming Report resulted in a green paper, Every Child Matters, Which is turn led to the Children Act 2004 in England and similar bills and Acts in all four countries in the UK. The main features of the Act included: * The integration of children’s services and the introduction of children’s directors with responsibility for local authority education and children’s social services. * Lead councillors for children’s services with political responsibility for local child welfare. The establishment of Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards (LSCB) with statutory powers to ensure that social services, the NHS, education services, the police and other services work together to protect vulnerable children * A new Common Assessment Framework to assist agencies in identifying welfare needs * Revised arrangements for sharing information Working together to safeguard Children 2006 The 2006 revised version of this document provided an update on safeguarding and a national framework to help agencies work individually and together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.

It also reflects changes to safeguard practice in recent years, especially in the light of the Laming and Bichard Inquiries. The Vetting & Barring Scheme The scheme was introduced in October 20009 with the aim of preventing insulting people from working with children and vulnerable adults. From July 2010 and phased in over a five-year period, anyone working or volunteering with children or vulnerable adults will be required to register with the ndependent Safeguarding Authority (ISA), The ISA will make decisions to prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults, using a range of information from different sources, including the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB). The CRB will process applications for IAS-registration and continuously monitor individuals against any new information, while continuing to provide employers with access to an individual’s full criminal record and other information to help them make informed recruitment decisions. Section 2 Child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people

Safeguarding is about much more than just protecting children from direct abuse. Any service that works with children and young people has a wider rote than simply protecting them from neglect and abuse. The Staying Safe action plan recognises a number of important aspects in the wider view of safeguarding including: * Keeping children safe from accidents * Crime and bulling * Forced marriages * Missing children * Actively promoting their welfare in a healthy and safe environment Section 3 How national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day-to-day work with children and young people

It is very important that anyone working with children should be able to recognise if a child is at risk of harm or in need because of their vulnerably. The earlier this is recognised, the better the outcome for the child involved. Clear lines of responsibility exist to ensure children are protected. Department for Education – overall responsibility for safeguarding and child protection in England Issue statutory and non-statutory guidance to local authorities Local authorities – use guidance to produce procedures for services and practitioners Services and as basis for their policies and procedures

The lines of responsibility to ensure children are protected A similar system exists in Northern Ireland, where it is the responsibility of the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety to issue guidance to the four local health and social services boards. The National Assembly for Wales has recently started producing some guidance of its own for local authorities within Wales. All the guidelines are intended to make sure that all the services and agencies involved with children and young people work together to improve safeguarding.

Childcare practice Any Childcare setting should have clear policies and procedures that cover all aspects of safeguarding. This should include policies and procedures for: * Health and Safety * Child Protection * Contact with children and performing personal care * Outings * Visitors to the setting Risk assessment Risk assessment should be carried out to make sure that there are no safeguarding threats to the children in a setting. The basic risk assessment requirements for settings to keep children safe consist of: A policy for the protection of children under age 18 that is reviewed annually * Arrangements to liaise with the Local Safeguarding Children Board * A duty to inform the Independent Safeguarding Authority of any individual (paid employee, volunteer or other) who poses a threat to children * Appropriate training on safeguarding for all staff, governors and volunteers, which is regularly updated * Training for all staff, governors and volunteers working with children under age 18 to recognise signs of abuse, and how to respond to disclosers from children * A named senior member of staff in charge of safeguarding arrangements who has been trained to the appropriate level * Effective risk assessment of the provision to check that the safeguarding policy and plans work * Arrangements for checks (including CRB) on all staff who have regular, unsupervised access to children up to the age of 18, and where appropriate for governors and volunteers * A single, central record of all checks on provider staff (governors and volunteers require clearance if they have frequent or intensive contact with the children) * Contact details for a parent carer for all children under 18 Section 4 When and why Inquiries and serious case reviews processes are required, issues of how to share findings and implications for the workers practice All too often children die or are seriously injured because of abuse or avoidable accidents.

Society has a duty to protect children and young people; we have a network of professional organisations supported by legislation, policies and procedures to do this. When the policies and procedures do not work, society fails this duty and it is vital that the cases of failure are known and dealt with. Serious case reviews are called but the Local Safeguarding Children’s Board when a child dies and abuse or neglect are known or suspected to be a factor in the death. They involve the local authority children’s service and the police, as well as health, education and other agencies as needed. Each service involved conducts an individual management review of its practices to identify any changes that should be made.

The LSCB also commissions an overview report from an independent person, which analyses the findings of the individual management reports and makes recommendations. Local authorities are required to notify Ofsted of all incidents involving children that are grave enough that they may lead to a serious case review, including where a child has died or suffered farm as a result of abuse or neglect, or where concerns are raised about professional practice or have attracted national media attention. Lessons learned from serious case reviews usually include the importance of: * Sharing information and communication * Keeping an accurate timeline of events * Clear planning and roles * Overcoming the problems of hard-to-reach families * Good assessment of the child’s situation Early recognition of children in need or protection by mainstream services such as schools or health services * Partnership working with agencies that parents may be receiving services from – for example metal health services A public inquiry is sometimes held after a serious incident. Members of the public and different organisations may give evidence and also listen to oral evidence given by others. The findings of the inquiry are produced as a written report, given first to the government and soon after published to the public. The report usually makes recommendations to improve the management of public organisations in future. Laming Inquiry

Lord Laming produced a landmark report in 2003 following a public inquiry into the death of Victoria died in February 2000 of malnutrition and hyperthermia, having suffering horrific abuse at the hands of her great-aunt and the aunt’s boyfriend. Lord Laming’s public inquiry found a series of missed chances for the authorities to save her life. A lack of communication between school workers, nurses, doctors and police officers allowed her great-auntie and her boyfriend to torture the little girl to death. Many professionals involved in the case admitted that their workloads were too big while pay and morale were too low, and that they did not communicate with one another. The inquiry made a number of key recommendations for improvements to services that led to the Children Act 2004.

A further inquiry into the death of ‘Baby P’ resulted in the 2009 report which identified that child protection has not been given the priority it deserved. The report made 58 recommendations for how to bring a ‘step change’ in protecting children from harm. Bichard Inquiry This inquiry resulted from the murders of two young girls in Suffolk by a school caretaker, who was known as a danger to children by one police authority. The information had not been identified when he had a CRB check in Suffolk, It led, among other things, to the formation of the Independent Safeguarding Authority. Section 5 Processes used by own work setting or service that must comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing.

The Data Protection Act 1998 covers personal information about individuals which is held by organisations. Any business holds a huge amount of information about its staff, the people it does business with and possible customers. They have to keep information in a safe way that ensures other people do not get hold of it. Settings that work with children and young people have the same responsibilities, except that the information they hold is about young people and children who are vulnerable because of their age. The Data Protection Act places responsibilities on organisations holding personal information to: * Use it only as needed * Keep it secure * Make sure its accurate Keep it up to date On behalf of children, adults and parents have the right under the Data Protection Act to have information corrected if it is wrong. They also have the right to claim compensation through the courts if an organisation breaches the Act and causes them damage and distress. The Data Protection Act and the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations also give people the right to stop personal information being used for any sort of direct marketing, such as unwanted junk mail, sales calls or emails and text messages. This means that in most cases organisations should ask before they use personal information to send marketing messages.