Computers that function alone without a connect to another computer called a stand-alone. Network is a way of connecting one computer to another computer using the cable and network card, and controlled through a network operating system. The user can exchange data or programs, and to use the data or programs together in the same time. If one computer to crash, its work could be taken over by another computer. Network topology refers to how computers are connected in the mapping. Network topology is divided into two types physical topology and logical topology. Physical topology of a network refers to configuration available on cable, computers and other peripherals. Logical topology is also the method used to transfer information or information on a computer maintained between one other computers in the workstation. Here are there some types of topologies which are Bus network, Star network, Ring network and Tree network.

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??Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements links, nodes, etc.of a computer network.Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology means the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation?? [2]. Bus topology, also known as Ethernet using a line length in which each node in relation to that.?? A bus topology uses a linear segment of cable to connect all network devices. Devices typically connect to the bus the cable through T-connectors?? [4].Data will be sent by each node in the hope that it does not collide with data transmitted from other nodes. If it happens, the node will try again until successful. The weakness of this bus topology in terms of maintenance. It is quite difficult to maintain because the connection is in serial form. If something went wrong on any line at any node, it will cause the entire system will not work. In addition to accurately detect nodal points or damaged. Each node can be connected to the network and can also be removed at any time without affecting the whole system directly.

Furthermore, if one node does not work it would not affect other computer networks. Another advantage is there in this topology is that it uses a single cable and requires no additional hardware for establishing networks. But it does not require a very high cost for maintenance purposes. Excess computer or other devices are easily connected to the main cable. Requires a smaller quantity of cable than the star topology. The disadvantages of this topology are the entire network can not function if there are problems with the main cable. Finish line or device terminators are required on both ends of the cable backbone. It is difficult to detect if the entire network does not work. Not suitable if only the topology is only within a building.

Star topology is a network system in which all the computers or other devices may be connected to a central distribution system known as the Hub or Switch. Hub or Switch is responsible for managing the computer network. All messages or data that is sent to a central control hub for avoid collisions from happening. There are two operations that used by the hub or switch that is operating broadcast and the shift operation switching. The distribution operations, hub or switch will make the transmission of data received from one station to all the routes connecting them. In the transition operation, the hub or switch will store the data received and sent data via the receiving station route. Each node can be connected to the network and can also be removed at any time without affecting the whole system of directly. Furthermore, if one node does not work, it also will not affect other computer networks. Any damage to the connection between the hub nodes will not affect the overall system, but if the damage occurred at the hub, the entire system will also be affected. The main drawback of this topology is that it requires a fairly high cost in view of all systems connected to it computers, scanners, printers, and many more requires a separate cable.

Advantages of star topology are the installation and connection tools. The process of installing or removing any additional devices that are involved will not interfere with the network system. Any damage to the network system can be detected more easily and quickly. The disadvantages of this topology is requires more cable length than a linear bus topology. If the hub is damaged, all the nodes can not function in the network system. Higher costs when compared to linear bus topology

Ring topology or a ring connecting all nodes such as a circular chain ring. Messages or data to be transferred in order according to the same route in the same ring. Each data node will be checked by delivery location. If not equal to the node through which it passes, it will be submitted to the next node and this will continue until the delivery address the same node strike. Since the data is transferred by the same route in the sequence, the possibility for data breaches seem to be similar to the network and can also be removed at any time without affecting the whole system of directly. But one problem is that if one node fails, the whole network system may be similarly affected. The composition of the nodes in this topology is almost the same physically as the star topology, logically is just a ring-shaped. The attachment is required in this topology is called Multi Station Access Unit (MSAU). MSAU is mounted in a ring-shaped network where it is more than one unit. If only one unit only used the physical topology is similar to the star connection. The advantages of this topology are cable fault are easily located making trouble shooting easier. Ring networks are moderately easy to install. The disadvantages are expansion to the network can cause network disruption. A single break in the cable can disrupt three entire networks.

Among all the network topology we can find that the tree topology is a combination of bus and Star Topology. The tree like structure allows you to have multiple servers in the network and you can branch network in many ways. This is especially useful for colleges, universities and schools so that each branch to identify the relevant system within their own network and not connected to a large network in several ways. Tree structure most appropriate when the network is widespread and highly divided into many branches. As with other topologies, tree topologies have advantages and disadvantages. Tree networks may not be suitable to small networks and cable may be a waste to use it for a small network. Tree Topology has some limitations and the limitations of the configuration should be appropriate.

The advantages of this topology are Tree topology is supported by many vendors and even advertising network hardware vendor. Point A to point connections is possible with the Tree Networks. All computers have access to their network larger and more immediate. The best topology for the branch network. Tree Topology Limitations in a long-range network topology depends on the type of cable being used. Tree Network Topology is completely dependent on the stem, which is the main backbone of the network. If that fails then the entire network will fail because the network topology is difficult to provide a large tree and can get complicated after a certain point. This tree topology to follow a hierarchical pattern in which each stage is connected to the next higher level in symmetrical patterns. Each level in the hierarchy to follow a certain pattern in the connecting node. As the top level may be only one node or two nodes below the level of the hierarchy and probably a few more points to work on point to point connectivity, and a third level also has a pattern of asymmetric node to node and each of these levels are associated with root level in the hierarchy . Think of tree branches in various directions and all the branches and trunk of the tree roots need to survive. A tree structured network is very similar to this and that is called the Topology Tree. The signal being sent by the root node is received by all nodes at the same time. This improves the efficiency of all network functions. Network topology tree can be updated easily work and there’s no limit to how much can be renewed. Additional root node can be added and they can be interlinked in a single network.

CONCLUSION

In the field of information technology, network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. Networks can link with other networks and contain subnetworks.The most common topology or general configurations of networks include bus, star, ring, symbolic, and network topologies. It can also be characterized by networks in terms of spatial distance and local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WANs). Network systems and network architecture, by whether it carries voice, data, or both types of signals; that could be that those who use the network public or private, by the nature of the usual links dial-up or switch, or a custom no switched, or virtual connections and the types of physical links for example, fiber optic and coaxial cables, open and twisted pair. Phone networks and large networks using the infrastructure such as the Internet have sharing and exchange arrangements with other companies so as to create larger networks