Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer Chaucers epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde, is not a new tale, but one Chaucer merely expanded upon. One of these expansions that Chaucers work has become renowned for is the improvement of the characters. Generally, Chaucers characters have more texture, depth, humanity, and subtlety than those of the previous tales. Of the three main figures in the epic poem, Troilus, Criseyde, and Pandarus, Pandarus is the character that Chaucer took the most liberty with, creating and evolving Pandarus until he had taken on an entirely different role. However, this is not to say that Chaucer did not add his own style to Troilus and Criseyde. Chaucers continual development of the primary characters definitely lend more interest and humor to the epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde. The most interesting character by far is Pandarus. He serves as the protagonist and go between for Troilus and Criseyde.
In fact, one could argue if it were not for him, Troilus may never have attained the brief affections of his lady love, Criseyde. When Pandarus comes across an uneasy Troilus and inquires as to the cause of his trouble, his speech is very eloquent. It is this speech that gives the reader his first glimpse of how subtlety and indirectness will initially characterize Pandarus. Further along the passage, Pandarus torments Troilus into anger, causing him to reveal the source of his woe. (Chaucer 24-5). In regard to the introduction of Pandarus, Kirby concludes: "Chaucer makes us feel that here is a witty, likable chap who does not take life too seriously and who does not hesitate to mingle friendly works with good-natured taunts." (127) Pandarus also reveals that he is fairly well educated with his allusion to Niobe.
In addition to the revelation of his education, this also reveals Pandarus penchant for a pattern of persuasion which he employs throughout his role. "Pandarus thinks the that way to make a man do something that he does not want to do is not to tell him bluntly and baldly what course of action he should pursue, but rather, gradually to lead up to the main point, expanding on the notion in various ways and especially by quoting sufficient authority and testimony to show his plan is the correct one, in fact, the only one possible" (Kirby 133). This demonstrates that not only does Pandarus have a classical education, but that he also maintains some grasp on the concept of psychology. Aside from the intellectual side of Pandarus, Chaucer develops a very human aspect to this character. Chaucer purposefully places Pandarus in the role of the unrequited lover, making him seem less feeble-minded. At the same time however, Pandarus reasserts his illogical reasoning in order to convince Troilus to divulge his heart wrenching secret.
Even after Troilus curt dismissal, Pandarus continues to badger the beleaguered knight, demonstrating yet another strong personality characteristic: tenacity. This is supported by Pandarus physically shaking Troilus. "And with that word he gan hym for to shake,/And seyde, "Thef/ thow shalt hyre name telle,/But tho gan sely Troilus for to quake/As though men sholde han led hym into helle,"(Chaucer 36). Consequentially frightened, Troilus tells Pandarus of his love for Criseyde, Pandarus niece and even goes so far as to agree to enlist Pandarus help in bringing his nieces heart to the beleaguered knight. In his dealings with his niece, issues of Pandarus morality comes into being, especially as his roll of the go-between for Troilus and Criseyde.
"The word pander, where he has bequeathed the English language, illuminates the negative connotations that are put on his actions in modern meaning" (Berkley Research 3). In regard to Pandarus selling of Criseydes honor, one scholar believes that his loose morals would be fitting for someone of younger years, but on an older man, it would be a serious affront to his morality (Rosetti 177). A slightly more favorable view holds that as Pandarus is beholden to aide a friend, Chaucer uses the characters charm to influence readers to view the act as less of crime. Finally, one can take the opinion that Pandarus actions coincide perfectly with the ideas of Courtly love and therefore are less odious (Kirby 181). However grim these opinions maybe, Chaucer, and as a result, Pandarus, takes the bull by the figurative horns and addresses the issue.
Criseyde questions Pandarus after his declaration of Troilus love by saying: "Alas, for wo! Why nere I deed?/For of the world the feyth is al agoon./Allas! what sholden straunge to me doon,/When he, that for my beste frend I wende,/Ret me to love, and sholde it me defende?" (Chaucer 61). Pandarus presents his position on the basis that he is aiding a friend. But with Troilus, Pandarus argues the exact opposite. He claims he is suffering from pangs of guilt. He states that he has behaved like a pimp through true friendship and Troilus exonerates him (Chaucer 125-6). "Thus it seems that Pandarus moral conflict is found not only among scholars, but in the characters themselves.
Both Criseyde and Pandarus realize that he is not fulfilling his duty as an older relative" and that by pleading the case for Troilus, Pandarus is dishonoring Criseyde (Berkeley Research 5). After coaxing Criseyde to pass the night at his house and after hiding Troilus in a cramped closet, Pandarus actions reveal his true busy-body qualities. He is always present during the conversations of the lover and often stays past the time to leave by unobtrusively claiming to read books. It would appear that his curiosity goes beyond his desire to aide, marking him as a voyarist. However, after the momentous night when Criseyde takes Troilus to be her lover, Pandarus role diminished until the time of Criseydes betrayal is made known.
In his indecision over what to do during the awkward revelation of Criseydes betrayal, Kirby argues that "This powerful scene, depicting the great comic figure at a moment of high tragedy, showing his complete helplessness, his utter inability to do anything further to help his friend and yet, with it all, his great generousity and mercy, Is the last in which Pandarus appears" (Kirby 176). This depicts the final development of the character Pandarus. He has come full circle from the amicable, helpful friend, to the original pimp, to the very soul of generosity. It is in the complexity of his character for fully demonstrating true human beings rather than the age-old stereotypes that the true genius of Chaucer is fully realized. Unlike the imaginative character of Pandarus, Troilus follows fairly closely with the previous sources. He is the epitome of the courtly lover.
Paul Baum states that "Troilus has but one religion, that of Love. He is neither pagan nor Christian, but always a devout follower of amour courtois, an embodiment of the best elements of the code. He has not thought, commits no act, which is not in perfect harmony with the tenets of his religion" (152). The tenets of courtly love are outlined by C. S. Lewis. They hold that the lover will always choose to serve the lady he loves, requesting that he would be the only one she allow to serve her. Secondly, he must be faithful to his lady and vice versa once the lady of his heart accepts the lovestruck knight. Furthermore, the knight will continually worship the lady and accomplish whatever tasks he deems will make himself worthy of her.
Lastly, and most importantly, courtly love involves the utmost secrecy. The love shared must be kept secret less the ladys honor (who the knight has sworn to uphold and dutybound to protect) becomes blemished. As seen throughout the entire epic poem, Troilus duly qualifies every last tenet of courtly love. We see him smirk at those in love before he is struck by Cupids arrow. At the very sight of Criseyde, Chaucer writes "And of hire look in hem ther gan to quken/So gret desir and such affeccioun,/That in his hertes botme gan to stiken/Of hir his fixe and depe impressioun" (14). After Troilus has been struck by Cupids arrow, "he continues to mock all lovers in order to maintain secrecy about his love (Berkley Research 8).
Finally upon revealing his secret to Pandarus, Troilus dedicates himself to serve Criseyde and the god of love. "And to the God of Love thus seyde he/With pitous vois, "O lord, now youres be./Yow thanke I, lord, that han me brought to this./But whether goodesse or womman, iwis,/She be, I not, which that ye do me serve;/But as hire man I wol ay lyve and sterve" (Chaucer 19). He proves himself worthy of his ladys love by accomplishing great deeds in the battle against the Greeks. "At the same time, Troilus is very ...