Relatively * Validity of a measurement instrument is the extent to which the instrument measures what is supposed to measure. * There are several types of validity. A. Face validity: does the instrument measure what it is supposed to measure and is the sample representative of the thing being measured? B. Criterion validity: of two measures of validity, is one an acceptable criterion to compare with the other? C.

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Content validity: how accurately does the instrument measure the factors or situations being studied? D. Construct validity: to what degree is any construct (any concept such as honesty) actually measured? E. Internal validity: how free from bias are any conclusions drawn in view of the data? F. External validity: can the conclusions drawn be generalized to other cases? * Reliability is the consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured hasn't changed. In other words, Reliability meaner checking how accurate is the measurement instrument? 4.

Statistics are typically more useful in some academic disciplines than in others. * Statistics, a tool of research, allow a person to view the data from as many different points as possible. * Statistical answers are never the end of the research. Behind the stats lie the facts. * Final question in research is, "What do the data indicate? " * Statistics give us information about data, but a conscientious researcher is not satisfied until the meaning of the information is revealed. * The lure of statistics: * Do not be tempted by statistics--they imply something else. The world of data, not that of statistics, will ultimately yield the evidence that will solve the problem. * Primary function of statistics: * Descriptive statistics: summarize the general nature of the data obtained, and in the case of two or more groups of data, their relationship. * Inferential statistics: Inferential statistics help researcher make decisions about the data. * Statistics creates that having no counterpart in reality. * Though statistical answers are never the final answers they all serve to advance the research toward the final answers *

Statistics help to take unconnected data and tie them together meaningfully. 5. LANGUAGE AS A TOOL OF RESEARCH: * The report of all conducted research must be reported. * This requires of the researcher "the ability to use language in a clear, coherent * It also requires of the researcher "a vocabulary that is adequate for manner. " the common exigencies of exposition. " * Writing as thinking. * Many think "clear thinking precedes clear writing. " * The concept that words represent enhance our thinking in several ways: a. Words reduce the world's complexity. . Words allow abstraction of the environment. C. Words enhance the power of thought. D. Words facilitate generalization and interference drawing in new situations. * Actually "writing is a good way to discover exactly what one is thinking. " * Therefore, you snouts Deign writing a proposal as soon as possible. No one writes perfectly, so the earlier one begins the more time one has to improve. * There is a significant use of knowing two or more languages, because of the reason that Research is and always has been a worldwide endeavor. 6.

* The human mind is undoubtedly the most important tool in the researcher's tool box. The research tools like Library, computer technology, measurement, statistics and language are effective only to the extent when this most important tool comes into play as well. * The key strategies with which a human being can more effectively reason about and better understand worldly phenomena are: a. Critical Thinking b. Deductive Logic c. Inductive Reasoning d. The scientific Methods e. Theory Building f. Collaboration with other minds. A.

Critical Thinking : * Before beginning a research project, effective researchers typically look at research studies and theoretical perspectives related to their topic of interest. But they don't Just accept research findings and theories at face; instead, they scrutinize them for :- * Faulty assumptions * Questionable logic * Weaknesses in methodology * Inappropriate statistical analyses * Unwarranted conclusions * Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth. May involve:- * Verbal reasoning : understand and evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral and written language.

Argument analysis : administrating between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion * Decision making : identifying and Judging several alternatives and selective the best alternative. * Critical analysis of prior research : evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions. * Ex: * Was an appropriate method used to measure a particular outcome? Are the data and results derived from relatively large # people, objects, or events? Have other possible explanations or conclusions been eliminated? * Can the results obtained in one situation be reasonably generalized to other situation? B. Deductive logic: It begins with one or more premises (statements or assumptions that are self- evident and widely accepted "truth"). Reasoning then proceeds logically from these premises toward conclusions that must also be true. * Deductive Logic provides the basis for mathematical proofs in mathematics, physics, and related disciplines. * It Is also extremely valuable Tort generating research nepotisms Ana testing tonsures. C.

Inductive reasoning: * Inductive Reasoning begins with an observation but not with a practicalities truth or assumption. * It use specific instances or occurrences to draw conclusions bout entire classes of object or events. D. Scientific Method: * Scientific method is a meaner whereby insight into the unknown is sought by: * Identify a problem that defines the goal of one's quest * Positing a hypothesis that, if confirmed, resolves the problem * Gathering data relevant to the hypothesis * Analyzing and interpreting the data to see whether they support the hypothesis and resolve the question that initiated the research. . Theory Building : * A Theory is an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon. * What distinguishes the theory building of a good searcher is that it is supported by well-documented findings- rather than by naive beliefs and subjective impressions of the world- and by logically defensible * The theory- building process involves thinking actively and reasoning. Intentionally about a phenomenon under investigation. Abduction: Beginning with the facts known about the phenomenon , the researcher brainstorms ideas about plausible and ideally , best explanation . F. Collaboration with other minds: * By Collaborating with other people, the researchers can fill the gaps in their knowledge about the subject which limit how they approaches a project. Any single researcher is apt to have certain perspectives, assumptions, and their theoretical bias's . By bringing one or more professional colleagues onto the scene - ideally , colleagues who have perspectives, backgrounds, and areas of expertise somewhat different from the researcher's own -the researcher can bring many more cognitive resources and ideas to bear on how to tackle the research problem and how to find meaning in the data obtained. * Using nowadays technology , people can easily interact with each other by meaner of e-mail, through which colleagues can share their work through attachments.