The abacus Is developed In China. It was later adopted by the Japanese and the Russians. ass's ad? Arabic numbers including the zero (represented by a dot) were invented in India. Arabic translations of Indian math texts brought these numbers to the attention of the Europeans. Arabic numbers entered Europe by means of Spain around 1000 ad and first became popular among Italian merchants around 1300. Until then, people used the Roman system In western Europe, and the Greek system in the east. 1488 The movable-type printing press is invented by Johann Gutenberg. 492 Francis Peoples of Nice invents the decimal point. C. 1600 Thomas Harriet invents the symbols used in algebra. He also drew the first maps of the moon and discovered sunspots. 1600 1614 John Napier invents logarithms. 1 622 William Ought invents the slide rule. 1623 Wilhelm Schlock's makes his "Calculating Clock. " 1644-5 Blaine Pascal a young French mathematician develops the Baseline, a simple mechanical device for the addition of numbers. It consists of several toothed wheels arranged side by side, each marked from O to 9 at equal intervals around its perimeter.

The important innovation is an automatic 'tens-carrying' operation: when wheel completes a revolution, It is turned past the 9 to O and automatically pulls the adjacent wheel on Its left, forward one tenth of a revolution, thus adding, or 'carrying'. (Pascal is also a respected philosopher and the Inventor of the bus. ) 1660 Otto von G;rack builds first "electric machine. " 1674 Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz designs his "Stepped Reckoned", a machine similar to Pascal's, with the added features of multiplication and division, which Is constructed by a man named Olivier, of Paris. Leibniz Is also a respected philosopher and the co- inventor of calculus. ) 1752 Ben Franklin captures lightning. 1786 J. H. Mueller, of the Hessian army, conceives the idea of what came to be called a "difference engine". That's a special-purpose calculator for tabulating values of a polynomial. Miller's attempt to raise funds falls and the project Is forgotten. 1790 Alexandra Volta invents the battery. 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard develops the punch card system which programs and thereby automates the weaving of patterns on looms. 1809 Sir Humphrey Dave invents electric arc lamp. 820 Charles Xavier Thomas De Collar of France, makes his "Arithmetic", the first mass-produced calculator. It does multiplication using the same general approach as Leibniz calculator; with assistance from the user it can also do division. It is also the most reliable calculator yet. Machines of this general design, large enough to occupy most of a desktop, continue to be sold for about 90 years. 1822-23 Charles Babbage begins his government-funded project to build the first of his machines, the "Difference Engine", to mechanize solutions to general algebra problems.

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The importance of his work is recognized by Dad Lovelace, Lord Boron's daughter who, gifted in mathematics, devises a form of binary arithmetic which uses only the digits 1 and O. 1825 The first railway is opened for public use. 1826 Photography is invented by Benefit Fourteen. 1830 Thomas Davenport of Vermont invents the electric motor calls it a toy. 1831 Michael Faraday produces electricity with the first generator. 1832-34 Babbage conceives, and begins to design, his "Analytical Engine". Could be considered a programmable calculator, very close to the basic idea of a computer.

The machine could do an addition in 3 seconds and a multiplication or division in 2-4 minutes. 1837 Telegraph, Samuel F. B. Morse. 1868 Christopher Lethal Shoeless (Milwaukee) invents the first commercial typewriter. 872 One of the first large-scale analog computers is developed by Lord Kelvin to predict the height of tides in English harbors. 1876 Telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell. 1877 Gramophone is invented by Thomas Edison. 1881 Charles S. Tainted invents the dedication. 1886 Door E. Felt of Chicago, makes his "Competitor". This is the first calculator with keys. 887 E. J. Marry invents the Motion Picture Camera. Eastman patents the first box camera, moving photography from the hands of professionals to the general public. 1890 Herman Hollering of MIT, designs a punch card tabulating machine which is used effectively in the US census of this year. The cards are read electrically. 1891 develops the Radio Telegraph. 1899 Vale Edema Paulsen develops the Magnetic Recorder. 1900 Rene Graphed develops the Photocopying Machine. 1901 Reginald A. Possessed develops the Radio Telephone. 1906 Henry Babbage, Charlie's son, with the help of the firm of R.

W. Munroe, completes his father's Analytical Engine, Just to show that it would have worked. 1913 Thomas Edison invents Talking Motion Pictures. 1919 W. H. Cycles and F. W. Jordan publish the first flip-flop circuit design. 1924 Computing-Tabulating-Recording becomes International Business Machines. 925 J. P. Maxwell develops the All-electric Phonograph. 1927 Phil T. Farnsworth, inventor of the television, gives first demonstration. 1933 IBM introduces the first commercial electric typewriter. Edwin H. Armstrong develops FM Radio. 1936 Robert A. Watson-Watt develops Radar.

Benjamin Barack builds the first electric logic machine. In his thesis, Claude Shannon demonstrates the relationship between electrical circuitry and symbolic logic. 1937 Alan M. Turing, of Cambridge University, England, publishes a paper on "computable numbers" which introduces the theoretical simplified computer known today as a Turing machine. 1938 Claude E. Shannon publishes a paper on the implementation of symbolic logic using relays. 1939 John V. TANSTAAFL and graduate student Clifford Berry, of Iowa State College complete a prototype 16-bit adder. This is the first machine to calculate using vacuum tubes. SASS First electronic computers in US, I-J, and Germany 1941 Working with limited backing from the German Aeronautical Research Institute, Use completes the "IV", the first operational programmable calculator. Use is a friend of Werner von Braun 1943 Howard H. Keen and his team at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Funded by MM, complete the "SACS Mark l" ("Automatic Sequence-controlled Calculator Mark l"). The machine is 51 feet long, 8 feet high, weighs 5 tons, and incorporates 750,000 parts. It is the first binary computer built in the U. S. That is operated by electricity.

Max Newman, Wynn-Williams, and their team at the secret English Government Code and Cipher School, complete the "Heath Robinson". This is a specialized machine for cipher-breaking. (Heath Robinson was a British cartoonist known for his Rube- John von Neumann drafts a report describing a stored-program computer, and gives rise to the term "von Neumann computer". 945 John W. Macaulay and J. Prosper Cracker and their team at the University of Pennsylvania, complete a secret project for the US Army's Ballistics Research Lab: The MANIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).

It weighs 30 tons, is 18 feet high and 80 feet long, covers about 1000 square feet of floor, and consumes 130 or 140 kilowatts of electricity. Containing 17,468 vacuum tubes and over 500,000 soldered connections, it costs \$487,000. While it could perform five thousand additions in one second, the circuitry in MANIAC could now be contained on a panel the size of a playing card. Today's desktop stores millions times more info and is 50,000 times faster. The Maniac's clock speed is 100 kHz. Two days before Christmas the transistor is perfected. 946 Use invents Plantlike, the first programming language, while hiding out in Bavaria. The MANIAC is revealed to the public. A panel of lights is added to help show reporters how fast the machine is and what it is doing; and apparently Hollywood takes note. 1947 The magnetic drum memory is independently invented by several people, and the first examples are constructed. 1948 Newman, Freddie C. Williams, and their team at Manchester University, complete a retype machine, the "Manchester Mark l". This is the first machine that everyone would call a computer, because it's the first with a true stored-program capability.

First tape recorder is sold 1949 A quote from Popular Mechanics: "Where a computer like the MANIAC is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and weigh only 1 1/2 tons. " Jay W. Forrester and his team at MIT construct the "Whirlwind" for the US Navy's Office of Research and Inventions. The Whirlwind is the first computer designed for real-time work; it can do 500,000 additions or 50,000 altercations per second. This allows the machine to be used for air traffic control.

Forrester conceives the idea of magnetic core memory as it is to become commonly used, with a grid of wires used to address the cores. 1950 Alan Turing "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" 1951 U. S. Census Bureau takes delivery of the first UNIVAC originally developed by Cracker and Macaulay. An Wang establishes Wang Laboratories Efferent Ltd. Completes the first commercial computer. It has 256 40-bit words of main memory and ASK words of drum. An eventual total of 8 of these machines are sold. Grace Murray Hopper, of Remington Rand, invents the modern concept of the compiler. 952 The ADVANCE is finally completed. It has 4000 tubes, 10,000 crystal diodes, and 1024 44- bit words of ultrasonic memory. Its clock speed is 1 Mesh. 1953 Minsk and McCarthy get summer Jobs at Bell Labs An Wang is issued Patent Number 2,708,722, including 34 claims for the magnetic memory core. Shockley Semiconductor is founded in Palo Alto. John Bearded, Walter Britain, and William Shockley share the Nobel Prize in physics for the transistor. 1956 Rockefeller funds Minsk and McCarthy AH conference at Dartmouth CIA funds GATE aching-translation project.

Newell, Shaw, and Simon develop Logic Theorist. 1957 USSR launches Sputnik, the first earth satellite. Newell, Shaw, and Simon develop General Problem Solver. Fortran, the first popular programming language, hits the streets. 1958 McCarthy creates first LISP. 1959 Minsk and McCarthy establish MIT AH Lab. Frank Reasonable introduces Perceptions. COBOL, a programming language for business use, and LISP, the first string processing language, come out. Sass Edward Djakarta suggests that software and data should be created in standard, structured forms, so that people could build on each others' work.

Algal 60, a European programming language and ancestor of many others, including Pascal, is released. 1962 First industrial robots. 1963-64 Doug Manageable invents the computer mouse, first called the X-Y Position Indicator. 1964 Borrows "Student" solves math word-problems. John Kenny and Thomas Kurt of Dartmouth College develop the first BASIC programming language. FLIP comes out out the same year. Wang introduces the LOCI (logarithmic calculating instrument), a desktop calculator at the bargain price of \$6700, much less than the cost of a mainframe. In six months, Wang sells about twenty units. Saber database system, brought online.

It solves the American Airlines' problem of coordinating information about hundreds of flight reservations across the continent every day. Philips makes public the compact cassette. 1966 Whizz-bang and Colby create ELISE. Hewlett-Packard enters the computer market with the HAPPENS real-time computer. It is designed to crunch data acquired from electronic test and measurement instruments. It has K of memory and costs \$30,000. Hewlett-Packard announces their HP 9100 series calculator with CRT displays selling for about \$5000 each. Intel is founded and begins marketing a semiconductor chip that holds 2,000 bits of Emory.

Wang is the first to buy this chip, using it in their business oriented calculators called the 600 series. Late Sass IBM sells over 30,000 mainframe computers based on the 360 family which uses core memory. 1967 IBM builds the first floppy disk 1969 Kickback's "2001 " introduces AH to mass audience. Intel announces a 1 KGB RAM chip, which has a significantly larger capacity than any previously produced memory chip Unix operating system, characterized by multitasking (also called time-sharing), virtual memory, multi-user design and security, designed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell

Laboratories, USA ARPANET (future Internet) links first two computers at UCLA and Stanford Research Institute. DRP. Leonard Clocking, a UCLA-based pioneer of Internet technology, and his assistant Charley Kline manage to send successfully, after solving an initial problem with an inadequate memory buffer, a command "login" to a Stanford machine set-up and tuned by Bill Devalue. First email! (UCLA, CUBS, University of Utah and SIR are the four original members of Arpanet. ) sass Commodore, a Canadian electronics company, moves from Toronto to Silicon Valley and begins selling calculators assembled around a Texas Instruments chip. 70 Doug Manageable patents his X-Y Position Indicator mouse. Nicolas Worth comes out with Pascal. 1971 The price of the Wang Model 300 series calculator drops to \$600. Wang introduces the 1200 Word Processing System. Stephen Woozier and Bill Fernando build their "Cream Soda computer. " Bowman Instruments Corporation introduces the LSI-based (large scale integration) four function (+, *, I) pocket calculator with LED at an initial price of \$250. Intel markets the first microprocessor. Its speed is 60,000 'additions' per second. 1972 Ray Tomlinson, author of first email software, chooses @ sign for email addresses.

Dennis Ritchie invents C. Bill Gates and Paul Allen form Tara-O-Data (which eventually becomes Microsoft). Stephen Woozier and Steven Jobs begin selling blue boxes. Electronic mail! 1973 Stephen Woozier Joins Hewlett-Packard. Radio Electronics publishes an article by Don Lancaster describing a "TV Typewriter. " IBM develops the first true sealed hard disk drive. The drive was called the "Winchester" after the rifle of the same name. It used two 30 MBA platters. 1975 MITTS introduces the first personal computer - Altair in form of a kit, initially to be assembled by a buyer.

It was based on Intel's 8-bit 8080 processor and included 256 Yates of memory (expandable to a 12 KGB), a set of toggle switches and an LED panel. Keyboard, screen or storage device could be added using extension cards. 1976 Greenbelts creates first LISP machine. Queen Elizabeth is first head of state to send email. Sugary introduces 5. 25" floppy. IBM introduces a total information processing system. The system includes diskette storage, magnetic card reader/recorder, and CRT. The print station contains an ink Jet printer, automatic paper and envelope feeder, and optional electronic the Apple II.

It is the first personal computer with color graphics. It has a 6502 CUP], KGB RAM, KGB ROOM, keyboard, 8-slot motherboard, game paddles, and built-in BASIC. Commodore introduces the PET computer. Dandy/Radio Shack announces its first TRY-80 microcomputer. Ink-Jet printing announced by MM. C.V. introduces the VS. format to the videocassette. 1977 The first digital audio disc prototypes are shown by Mediumistic,Sony, and Hitachi at the Tokyo Audio fair. 1978 Apple introduces and begins shipping disk drives for the Apple II and initiates the LISA research and development project.

BITTEN (Because It's Time Network) protocol for electronic mail, listserv servers, file transfer, is established as a cooperative enterprise by the City University of New York and Yale University. Xerox releases the 8010 Star and 820 computers. IBM announces its Personal Computer. DCE announces a line of personal computers. HP introduces the HP 9000 technical computer with 32-bit "superscript" technology - it is the first "desktop mainframe", as powerful as room-sized computers of the Sass. 1979 Kevin MacKenzie invents the emoticon :-) Usenet news groups. 980 First AAA conference at Stanford. Telnet. Remote log-in and long-distance work (telecommuting) are now possible. 1981 Listserv mailing list software. Online knowledge-groups and virtual seminars are formed. Osborne introduces first portable computer. MS-DOS introduced. 1982 CD disk (12 CM, 74 minis of playing time) and player released by Sony and Philips Europe and Japan. A year later the CD technology is introduced to the USA 1983 IBM announces the APPC. Apple Computer announces Lisa, the first business computer with a graphical user interface launched by Apple Computer Inc. Cupertino, California. The computer has mesh 68000 CUP], KBPS 5. 25" floppy, 12" B&W screen, detached keyboard, and mouse. 1984 Macintosh personal computer, launched by Apple Computer Inc. The first computer has KBPS of memory and a 3. 5" KBPS floppy disk-drive. The SO with astounding graphic interface is bundled with Macerate (workspaces) and Magician (free- hand, B;W drawing) software. Apple introduces 3. 5" floppy. The domain name system is established. 1985 CD-ROOM technology (disk and drive) for computers developed by Sony and Philips File Transfer Protocol. 987 1988 The 386 chip brings PC speeds into competition with LISP machines. 1989 Tim Burners-Lee invents the WWW while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. He won the Finnish Technology Award Foundation's first Millennium Technology Prize in April of 2004. The \$1. 2 million prize was presented by Tara Halogen, president of Finland. 1990 Archie FTP semi-crawler search engine, built by Peter Deutsche of McGill University. 1991 CD-recordable (C)-R) technology is released.

WAIS publisher-fed search engine, invented by Brewster Kale of the Thinking Machines Co. Gopher, created at University of Minnesota Microcomputer, Workstations & Networks Center. WWW server combines URL (addressing) syntax, HTML (markup) language for documents, and HTTP (communications protocol). It also offers integration of earlier Internet tools into a seamless whole. Senator AH Gore introduced the High Performance Computing and Communication Act (known as the Gore Bill) to promote the development and use of the internet. Among other things, it funded the development of Mosaic in 1993.

After a 1999 interview, his political opponents misquoted him as claiming to have invented the internet. 1992 There are about 20 Web servers in existence (Cooler 1998). 1993 "Universal Multiple-octet Coded Character Set" (USC), aka ISO/ICE 10646 is published in 1993 by the International Organization for Standardization (SO). It is the first officially standardized coded character set with the purpose to eventually include all characters used in all the written languages in the world (and, in addition, all mathematical and other symbols). Mosaic graphic WWW browser developed by Marc Andresen (Claudia 1995).

Graphics user interface makes WWW finally a competitor to Gopher. Production of web pages becomes an easy task, even to an amateur. There are 200+ Web servers in existence (Cooler 1998). 1994 Labyrinth graphic 3-D (VRRP) WWW browser is built by Mark Peace. It provides access to the virtual reality of three-dimensional objects (artifacts, buildings, landscapes). Netscape WWW browser, developed by Marc Andresen, Mountain View, California. 1995 Relation nonirritating (Reid 1997:69). Java programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems, Palo Alto, California.

Client-side, on-the-fly supplementary data processing can be performed using safe, downloaded micro-programs (applets). Metacarpals WWW meta-search engine. The content of WWW is actively and automatically catalogued. The first online bookstore, Amazon. Com, is launched in Seattle by Jeffrey P. Bozos. Altavista WWW crawler search engine is built by Digital around the Digital Alpha processor. A very fast search of 30-50% of the WWW is made possible). 1996 Google began as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Bring while they were students at Stanford University There are 100,000 Web servers in existence.

There are 650,000 Web servers in existence. "Deep Blue 2" beats Sparrow, the best chess player in the world. The world as we know it ends. DVD technology (players and movies) is released. A DVD-recordable standard is created (Aliped 1998). Web TV introduced. 1998 Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading in the U. K. , became the first human to host a microchip. The approximately mm-by-mm glass capsule containing several microprocessors stayed in Warwick left arm for nine days.