According to Robert Sukiyaki, "Our current educational system focuses on preparing today's youth to get good Jobs by developing scholastic skills rather than influencing them to become entrepreneurs and thus generate more jobs. Businesses offer a lot of opportunities aside from the fact that people can make a fortune out of it. It gives people the chance to create Jobs and thus help in the problem on unemployment. It allows anyone to set goals and achieve them in his own pace. These are perks that are very enticing and enough motivation for someone to go into the world of business.
But the current trend is that most, if not all, Business Administration graduates enter into employment with the mindset of earning salary right away. This is not wrong, provided that graduates make this a stepping stone for them to come up with a capital for your future business. As explained In Robert Sycophantically Quadrant, one way to escape the rat race is to become a big business owner. And before one can make it big, he has to start small. Take note that being an employee; one is not making himself rich but his employer.
Graduates have to be smart, the easy days are over. Because employment has been the dominant choice of Business Administration graduates, the study has been conducted to investigate reasons as to why this trend happened and the possible ways to encourage future Business Administration graduates to follow their chosen degree and succeed. For graduating Business Administration students, there is still that decision to make regarding where they will use the knowledge that they have acquired from their degree.
Even at a time when most of us would say that life is hard and the easiest way to get through a day is having a stable Job, the researchers would like to find meaner as to how the graduates can be motivated and persuaded to become entrepreneurs in the future. As most business owners would say, there are always opportunities in times of crisis. With the increasing demand for Jobs and the surplus of Business Administration radiates, one cannot help but think that there must have been something wrong in the process of teaching the students.
Now, the researchers would like to find out why this phenomenon happened and where the system went wrong so that we can correct it and hopefully alleviate one sore of the society which is unemployment. This study was chosen by the researchers, inspired by the current national economic and financial status, to help in determining the factors behind the respondents' attitude towards business and employment and how these factors could be manipulated to produce more graduates that will soon venture into business.
This study also aims to provide suggestions for improvement in the curricula, if any, so that graduates can be guided well in their future endeavors. Theoretical background Entrepreneur or employee - which is better? Perhaps this is one of the decisions to make by the students and the graduates in choosing better career path. The Business Administration program is designed to provide a strong foundation to students on the theories and concepts of marketing, management, finance and entrepreneurship.
The program seeks to produce graduates who are competent, knowledgeable and motivated in identifying business opportunities, preparing equines and starting a business. People are motivated to look for a Job because they expect to get something from their Job, and an output that should be in satisfaction of their most compelling needs or combination of needs. In short, they need to satisfy their human needs. A human need is a compulsive force that exerts the greatest influence over our actions. It is a stimulus that must be addressed. These motivations are practically governed by the hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Masons hierarchy of needs categorizes human needs into physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. ERG theory of Clayton Alder is a modification of Masons hierarchy, where the five needs are collapsed into three categories (existence, relatedness, and growth). Thus, implication of these theories is that graduates must recognize the multiple needs that may be drive them at a given point to understand students' behavior and to motivate them. Hence, the process of choosing a career is greatly influenced by several factors, and involves making a complex and time consuming decision (Unveil 1997; Olsson 2002).
Likewise, choosing a career does not only affect personal factors but also the economic factors are needed to be considered. Career choice is made more complicated by continuous competition, open-mindedness towards suitability for a preferred career, and perseverance in the chosen career (Anion and Sides 2000; Sides 2006). Thus, the process of choosing a career is often a main stumbling block for an individual (Anion and Sides 2000). It is also revealed that attitude is an important determinant of an individual's success in choosing a career.
This is because choosing a career is said to be greatly influenced and stimulated by the individual's own attitude (Mood Sale et al. 005). Attitude is a part of personality that is underpinned by belief and is able to evoke emotions that investigate specific behaviors (Oppenheim 2000). Attitude does not appear solitary, but is connected to other aspects of an individual (Oppenheim 2000). According to Oppenheim (2000), an individual has several exceptional characteristics that portray his or her personality. Therefore, a true and positive attitude is needed to assist a person in choosing appropriate career (Mood Sale et al. 005). In this context, attitude towards entrepreneurship and employment can be unmarried as an expression of emotion that is translated into the individual's actions (Meredith et al. 1982). It is clear that attitude plays an important role in motivating students' career choice whether they will engage into entrepreneurship or be fully employed in a firm. In fact, different universities and colleges have been continuously producing a number of graduates of various courses. There is actually an increasing trend of graduates mostly from Business Administration and other related fields.
Every graduate aims to have a good and stable Job within the country and abroad. This is usually the mind set of every Filipino that to graduate with a degree is an assurance to land in a white collar Job. Today, academic qualifications can no longer be a guarantee to immediate employment upon graduation, and instead, graduates are required to show a positive attitude towards the changing Job market (Marshier et al. 2004). In this context, it has been proposed that graduates needs to widen their career scope by investigating other alternatives for a better career choice.
With the growing employment registered in the labor market, perhaps the entrepreneurial character should slowly e inculcated to the students by incorporating it in the students' curriculum. This, in the long run, will not only influence the thinking of the students towards white-collar and blue-collar Jobs, but also empower and prepare them to become self-employed in case the wage employment still cannot accommodate them in the future. (wick. Answers. Com) Many people say that there are two ways to generate income; either enter into employment or engage their own business.
Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged by most entrepreneurial researchers as a solution to the problem of employed graduates (Samarium et al. 2004; Salaam 2006). Entrepreneurship would help these new graduates develop their own career and also ease the current unemployment issue by expanding the Job market (Northman 2004). Whilst a number of people were driven by their desire to control their own destiny, to pursue an idea, to take advantage of an opportunity in the market and to gain the financial rewards that entrepreneurship can bring.
In economies with limited Job opportunities, entrepreneurship is seen as a viable option for new graduates to chart their own future by setting up an own businesses. Entrepreneurship is seen as a solution to the ever-growing problem of unemployment among graduates. In fact it is within the Filipino system to be entrepreneurial creative. Many of them are entrepreneurs in their own ways. Many Filipinos would prefer to find a second Job or to set up a business of their own especially when their material necessities are not met by their first Jobs.
However, it has been found that this career choice is not favored by younger people, especially graduates, who see entrepreneurship as only a second or even a last choice. Some people are motivated to be self-employed because the total utility they're expecting to derive (via income, independence, risk bearing, work effort) is greater than the expected utility from the best employment option. Some people consider these attitudes which one might expect to differ between those intending to be self- employed and those intending to be employees.
According to Schnauzer's (1995) economic model of decision that to be an entrepreneur was based on the expected utility gained, not simply from the prospective income streams, but also dependent on utility derived from the "working conditions" of the employment versus self- employment alternatives. This is crucial to the economy of every country and it can have a positive effect not Just on the individuals, but also on the overall economy by redirecting cash flow to more profitable activities and supporting economic growth.
The researchers observed that a proportion of students are willing to create their own businesses yet students also imagine themselves working in an existing organization. Therefore, students are responsible in shaping the kind of career that they want. This responsibility per SE,is inevitable since they need to know exactly what they want from their careers that will satisfy their needs and expectations. They need to know the kind of career that will suit their competence. This meaner that individuals should identify their needs, motives, and goals, so they can work out and align them in choosing career path.
There's no problem with being an employee or an entrepreneur, either of the two is better. The only thing is to balance things up to make sure that our community will not be having scarcity in the supply of entrepreneurs or employers, while having excessive supply of employee applicants - that's too bad for the economy. (http:// businesses. PH) The period between graduation and employment dates has continued to lengthen ND this has become a source of frustration for graduates.
Therefore, with more at stake, students themselves have to take personal responsibility to optimize the opportunities and there are lots of opportunities in hand and the best way to success is to gasp every thread. Related Literature and Studies In contrast, the Philippines is facing economic problem on unemployment in which people cannot find Jobs at the same time cannot support their basic needs that can lead them to poverty. The issue of unemployment among graduates needs to be Judiciously addressed such that this skilled workforce is not wasted.
In fact, there are times when due to economic change, the skills of new graduates do not match those needed by employers. Job mismatch is one of the factors that make the unemployment problem constant. As a result, years of studies and the concomitant cost of college education are wasted. Labor statistics show that roughly half a million graduate are unable to get work in their chosen field each year. Despite numerous vacancies, local and overseas employers often complain about the lack of employable college graduates. Phil- job. Et, the official Job search site of the Department of Labor and Employment DOLE), shows that some 125,000 local and overseas Job vacancies are still open and have yet to be filled by qualified applicants. Historically, from 1995 until 2012 Philippines Unemployment Rate averaged 9. 0 percent reaching an all-time high of 13. 9 percent in April of 2002 and a record low of 6. 3 percent in October of 2007. As a result, the unemployment of graduates has become a national issue in the Philippines. A recent study by the Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics (BLESS) of DOLE shows that 1. 52 million, or 39. 1 percent of the unemployed, are college graduates and undergraduates. "The large proportions (50. percent) of the recorded 2. 6 million unemployed Filipinos are young workers aged 1 5 to 24 and are educated with a college diploma or are undergraduates," the study says. Moreover unemployable graduates in the nursing profession, for example, there are 80,000 nursing board passers each year, but there are only a handful of Job openings, according to the Philippine Nurses Association (PAN) and the Alliance of Young Nurse Leaders and Advocates.
Statistics on the total of unemployed nurses are estimated to number upwards of 150,000. Many of them have become call center agents due to the difficulty of finding nursing Jobs at home and abroad. Graduates of business administration, hotel and restaurant management, and information technology are in the same boat. Statistics show that only three out of every 100 new college graduates are hired yearly because of their failure to pass competitive qualifying exams.
Thus many of the graduates - or at least those with a workable grasp of the English language - end up as call center agents or bank tellers. "Even if they're graduates, they might not have the qualifications, competency and experience that the Job requires," says Carlisle Sys, Director of BLESS. "A major concern s that we're not educationally at par with the standards of the industry. " The moratorium is the government's response to the proliferation of specific programs, which if left unabated would further lead to the worsening of the quality of our graduates.
The mushrooming of certain courses, according to one study, has resulted in the weakening of the Business Administration and Teacher Education programs, as well as the decline in the passing rate in the Licenser Examination for nurses. However DOLE recommends that there needs to be an intensified focus on information dissemination regarding hard-to-fill and in-demand occupations, including college degree courses with an oversupply of skills, so that students are able to make informed decisions about their career choices. The business community should alert the educational sector about its labor requirements, and figure out how to attract enrollees in those areas," says Sys. "That's where career guidance and orientation come in. A student should be aware of what is going on in the labor market and make an informed career decision, so that after graduation, they will know where they should go. " (http://philanthropies. Mom) Furthermore, global economic crisis has brought different effects on different people, some choose to be negative about it and wallow in the pool of pessimism and self-pity, while others saw it as an opportunity to strive harder and get something going. Hence, graduates find alternatives to earn income though there are many problems as they continue to look and land for what it is best for them. Fortunately, for the Filipino women, the second option seems to be the popular choice. It was observed that more Filipino are becoming entrepreneurs due to global crisis.
This is based on the study conducted by the non-government organization (NAG) Women Entrepreneurship (WE) Program. In their studies, WE reports that sorority or 55 percent of women entrepreneurs are 30 to 39 years old; 52 percent are single; 42 percent belong to the abroad middle class; and a majority or 64 percent were employed prior to starting their own businesses. It is said that the employment opportunities have failed to keep up with growing number of Filipinos Joining the labor force. Therefore according toolbar Secretary Roseland Balboa. As an alternative to wage employment, young Filipinos need to embrace and embark on entrepreneurship at an early age". It only shows that entrepreneurship has transcend age, social class, financial capability, education background and other factors that were used to be considered as limiting for them to succeed. Although this is between an entrepreneur and an employee, this isn't intended to give a bias description of an employee. Moreover, companies and enterprises cannot operate without employees. (http://penuriousness. Erg) Studies associated with attitudes of the students towards employment and entrepreneurship are also been discussed and serve as a references of the researchers for this study. One of these is, "Entrepreneurship Education and Attitude of Undergraduate Students to Self Employment in Numb, Dammar State, Nigeria" inducted by the Journal of Education and Practice and can be access at this website wry. Site. Org. And the other one is, "The Determinants of Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions among High School Students in 'align City, Southern Philippines".
The two studies are similar in the aspect of the students' attitude as a whole but differ in the nature and scope of the study. These assessments will help the researchers deliver and provide more ideas that would help in improving the study. Flow of the Research Process The research flow covers the steps undertaken by the researchers in conducting he study. As shown in figure 1, it includes the input, process, and output. The input covers the students' profile including the attitude and perception of students that lead them to engage in business and employment.
It identifies factors that hinders and pushes the students in pursuing employment and business. It also evaluates the effectiveness of business administration curriculum, and find out what possible revisions in the curriculum. The process shows the method undertaken by the researchers in conducting the study. The study uses the descriptive method of research using the questionnaires. Questions will be formulated, modified, finalize and distributed to the respondents or to the selected Business Administration students.
After which, the questionnaires were retrieved, and the collected data were tabulated, presented and interpreted. The output shows the expected outcome of the study, regarding how the students evaluate, identifies and rate the attitudes towards employment and entrepreneurship. The output of the study will be the references based on the findings. OUTPUT INPUT PROCESS For Future Reference Figure 1: The Research Flow Chart THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study is to investigate the attitude of the students towards employment and entrepreneurship. Specifically, the study seeks to: 1.
Know the respondent's family background regarding business and previous business experiences, if any. 2. Know the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Degree program b. Age c. Reason for choosing the program 3. Know the attitude and perception of students that lead them to pursue a business or go into employment in the future. 4. Identify factors that discourage students from engaging in business. 5. Identify factors that push students to pursue employment. 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the Business Administration Curriculum in bringing out the entrepreneurial spirit in students. . Provide recommendations for revisions in the curriculum of Business Administration, (if any). Significance of the Study The study of Business Administration students' attitude towards employment and entrepreneurship can be a material to determine the percentage of the student who will pursue on getting employed or being an entrepreneur. This is to show the students idea and approach on what they want to become. But again the choice is theirs, and this research will help provide more information in order to make their est. choice.
This study would give benefits to these groups, namely: The students, researchers, academe, and government and to the future researchers. To the Students/Respondents This study will help the students in assessing different attitudes on how to deal and set their future career between employment and entrepreneurship. This study would also help them decide what career path they need to undergo to fully succeed in their lives as a complete human being. To the Researchers This study will help broaden the researchers' viewpoints and objectives in life as hey conduct this research, especially in the actual research settings.
Through this study it develops confidence and teamwork of the researchers in interacting among people especially with the respondents in creating research output. To the Academe This study will assist the academe/faculty of the school to determine if their methods of teachings are enough for the students to apply their learning's in the actual practice of their degree or program. In determining if their concepts and theories taught are sufficient and helpful for the students to be successful in the laity of business and work especially in choosing careers.
To the Government This study is useful for the government officials to initiate and provide more programs that can cater many graduates produced yearly. Accommodate more investors in the country to create more opportunities for the graduates to venture in different avenues that enables the graduates generate better income. To the Future Researcher This study will serve as a reference and guide for the future researchers that will drive them to work effectively and efficiently in providing better information to the benefactors of these research.
Scope and Limitation of the Study The study is about the attitude of the Business Administration students towards Employment and Entrepreneurship. This identifies the factors that hinder students from engaging in business or pursuing employment. This also seeks to evaluate the Business Administration curriculum's effectiveness in bringing out the Entrepreneurial spirits in students. For the purpose of clarity, the researchers set boundaries on the subject, place and time of the study.
It was thoroughly conducted at selected Business Administration students' attitude towards Employment and Entrepreneurship in University of San Jose- Recollects. The total respondents are one hundred sixty-five (165), limited to the students of University of San Jose- Recollects. The Respondents were asked to read and answer the questionnaires by checking any of the two point scales that corresponds to the answer. Questionnaires were handed to the some Business Administration students who are taking the program of Bachelor of Science in Business Administration during their free time in school.
Brief interviews were conducted among some of the respondents wonder answering the questionnaire. RESEARCH DESIGN Research Methodology This study utilized the descriptive survey method research. The primary instrument used in data collection is a research made; however, interviews were also used for verifying some data that is collected from questionnaire. Research Environment The study was conducted at University San Jose Recollects, Magellan Cube City. The researchers choose the location where they can reach and approach the respondents or student easily.
University of San Jose- Recollects, The College of Commerce aims to provide the youth with Quality Christian Community - Oriented Education, and thus has designed n enriched general education, which blends the arts, sciences, and varied fields of specialization. This curricular scheme is geared towards the attainment of professional excellence in business and management both local and global environment. The Marketing Management program prepares the students to be responsive to the total environment by providing technical skills and competencies in the areas of marketing.
Theory is blended with practicum activities to give the students a broad and enriched base for career in marketing. The Business Administration program covers the integrated approach and interrelationship among the functional areas of business as well as sensitivity to the economic, social, technological, legal and international environment in which business must operate. Students are equipped to the general theories and concepts of management and other business related course.
The objective of the program is not simply to impart basic business knowledge, but to instill and nurture important qualities and skills in our students that are essential for future business leadership and organizational success. The Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurship is a program that prepares and ears the individual to start and manage their own business. It aims to develop entrepreneurs who are motivated and knowledgeable in identifying opportunities, developing and preparing business plans, and actually starting and managing a business.
Hence, the researchers selected and focus the study of colleges in Business Administration in General, Marketing and in Entrepreneurship field. Research Respondents The subjects of this study were the students of the selected Business Administration program in ISIS-R. A total of 165 respondents were being polled, wherein 41 respondents will come from Marketing, 12 from Entrepreneurship aerogram and 112 respondents will come from General program. Research Instrument The study is primarily using questionnaires for data collection and interview for verification purposes.
The questionnaire has seven questions. The first and questionnaires composed of the respondents' background regarding on business experiences and the profile of the students which consists of the name, degree program, age, and the reason for choosing the program. The third to fifth consequentialness about the attitudes and the factors that would possibly identify whether the students pursue business or employment. The respondents ere asked to put a check mark on the box provided for their appropriate Answers to the question.
On the third part rating of the evaluation consists of two (2) point scale; agree and disagree. The following meanings correspond to the scales are: Agree This meaner that the respondent perceives the statement as correct and appropriate. Disagree- This meaner that the respondent perceives the statement as incorrect and inappropriate. The fifth question contains the evaluation of the effectiveness of the BAA curriculum. The respondents were asked to put a check mark on the answer that fits their choice from the question.
On the last part, the respondents are given the freedom to write their suggestions/comments as to how the researchers and future researchers will improve the study. This part aims to allow the respondents to express their ideas and give them the chance to write their comments which may not be found in the questionnaire. This will then be of great use especially to the future researchers since with the comments and suggestions from the respondents, new questions may be added to the questionnaire later on. Data Gathering Process The researchers collected data to selected Business Administration students in
University of San Jose-Recollects, Cube City. The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents in the school campus during their free time. In distribution, the researchers make themselves available for the questions, verifications and clarifications of the respondents. The retrieval of the questionnaire was done right after they have answered the questionnaires. Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment After the data has been gathered, will be tallied, the researchers obtain methods to tabulate the data. The method to be applied is the Slovene's Formula. Slovene's