There are many theories about the way children learn, many practitioners believe that children learn in a variety of ways. Some key theories have shaped and continue to shape work with children. Am going to look at development psychology such as cognitive language and emotional development etc. Cognitive Cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.
Pigged Theory lean Pigged began to develop his theory in the sass thought the way in which children's thoughts can be different from adults. He concluded that children's logic stemmed from their direct experiences. Pigged grouped cognitive development into 4 stages: a) Sensory-motor 0-2 year's development of object permanence begins to use symbols (language). B) Pre-operational 2-7 years uses symbols in play and thought, egocentrics, generation, animism, inability to conserve. C) Concrete operational 7-11 years ability to conserve, children begin to solve mental problems using practical supports such as counters and objects. ) Formal operational 11-15 years can think bout situations that they have not experienced, can juggle with ideas in their minds. We put Piglet's theory in to practice today in the classroom, such as with sensory- motor development we use pictures such as a picture of USDA to go to USDA and symbols as a form of communication. We use pre-operational development such as use of symbols or language to develop problem solving memory and Imagination possibly threw games. Such as a pairs We use concrete operational such as the use of objects to help students develop 1 OFF size and weights.
For formal operational we use this to help promote higher problem solving flexibility f thought such as students making there own timeline or work schedule. Psychoanalytic Fraud's structure of personality Freud believed that there are three parts that make up our personality. 1) The id. This is the interactive part of the personality. It is governed by the drives and needs of the body. The id does not consider how meeting desires and wants will affect others and so is often thought of as the selfish and passionate component. 2) The ego. The ego has a planning role.
It works out how to meet the ids needs and desires in the best way. The ego is often thought of as being the common sense part of our personalities. ) The super ego. The super ego develops in later childhood; it tries to control the ego. It comprises of two elements the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience will punish the ego if it misbehaves. This is the source of guilt. The ego-ideal will reward the ego if it shows good behavior. This is the source of pride and confidence. Fraud's theory gives an insight into how a person's personality can develop.
Humanist Mascots Hierarchy of Need Moscow believed we all have a hierarchy of needs, he suggested that children need this to continue to progress and reach their potential. Mascots Hierarchy of needs as often been represented in a hierarchical pyramid with five levels. The levels are as follows- A) Physiological - includes air, food water, sleep, etc B) Safety - includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property, etc C) Belongingness - includes love, friendship, family, etc D) Esteem - includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect, etc.
E) Self-actualization - morality, creativity, problem solving with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival its self. For today's standards we make sure each child's basic needs are met. In our classroom child's safety is paramount. Belongingness is met through friendship with peers. Esteem is built through working and celebrating achievements. Self - actualization is achieved by promoting creativity and problem solving through both physical and more academic lessons. Social learning Bandeau This is a behaviorism approach; the key figure being Albert Bandeau.
Bandeau believed that children can learn by watching other people, this is a simple way in which they learn, yet it is very powerful. This theory was first put forward in the sass's. Bandeau showed with a series of experiments that children would copy behavior that they had previously seen. Bandeau concluded that children have a tendency to model by copying actions of adults. To put this into a school environment if the teach worked in a calm and relaxed manner the students will follow that example.
Also it could in turn help students learn skills such as if I read a picture book on my own a student would Join me and enjoy looking at the book. Operant conditioning Skinner Theory B. F. Skinner looked at conditioning, he developed a theory know as 'operant conditioning' Skinner suggested that most humans and animals learn through exploring the environment and then drawing conclusions based on consequences of heir behavior. This nearness that people tend to be active in the learning process- unlike in the theory of classical conditioning.
He divided the consequences in to three groups. A) Positive reinforces. Are likely to make people repeat behavior when they get something they desire b) Negative reinforces are likely to make people repeat behavior as well but the difference is that the behavior is repeated to stop something happening. C) Punisher. Are likely to stop people from repeating behavior work on a task to achieve his target I would give the student positive feed back for the detent to repeat that behavior.
Behaviorism Watson Theory Watson claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead psychology would be concerned only with behavior. Behaviorism focuses on one particular view of learning: a change in external behavior achieved through a large amount of repetition of desired actions, the reward of good habits and the discouragement of bad habits. In the classroom this view of learning led to a great deal of repetitive actions. To conclude the theories that I have looked at have shaped and continued to shape work with children today.