The news provides a refracted version of reality because it
A. emphasizes dramatic and compelling news stories.

In comparison with today's newspapers, early American newspapers
C. could not have survived without political party support.

The technological change that brought about the decline of the partisan press was the
B. invention of the high-speed rotary press.

The yellow journalism of the late nineteenth century was characterized by
B. the emphasis on sensationalism as a way of selling newspapers.

Objective journalism is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to
A. report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate.

The Communications Act
A. imposed on broadcasters an "equal time" restriction that prevented preference for some political candidates over others.

Which of the following is true of age differences in news consumption?
D. Age differences in news consumption shrink for Internet-based news but do not disappear.

The federal government's licensing of broadcasting is based primarily on
B. the scarcity of broadcasting frequencies.

Most successful Internet blogs
E. have a liberal bias.

What is the "Rose Garden strategy"?
E. the presidential strategy of controlling communications by making nearly all pronouncements from the same location

The FCC's equal time requirement
B. prohibits broadcasters from selling or giving time to political candidates and denying it to their opponents.

What development brought about a dramatic reduction in television's capacity to generate an interest in news?
C. the rapid spread of cable

One of the reasons the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is that
C. a small number of news organizations and news services generate most of the news.

At which of the following times did the American media step back from their watchdog role?
C. after the September 11th terrorist attacks

How has the Internet affected the watchdog role of the media?
B. It has expanded the watchdog capacity of the media.

In contrast with European news media, American news media are more likely to
C. act primarily as neutral transmitters of information.

The media perform the signaling role by
A. informing the public of breaking events and new developments.

In terms of news consumption, since the 1980s young adults
B. have been less informed than older ones.

The news media's common-carrier role is based on the idea that
D. the press should provide a channel through which political leaders can communicate their views to the public.

Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
A. the presidency

The Watergate scandal illustrates the
C. power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuses of power.

Agenda-setting is an action that falls under which of the major roles played by the press?
B. signaling

Which of the following is one of the two major advantages of journalists in covering the political game and strategic aspects of news instead of the policy frame?
D. The political game is a constant source of fresh material.

The reason the news product is designed to fascinate as well as to inform is because
A. news organizations are fundamentally businesses and must obtain revenue to survive.

On both radio and television, most successful partisan talk shows
C. have been hosted by conservatives.

CNN and MSNBC have responded to Fox's ratings success by
E. installing talk-show hosts with partisan or hard-edged appeals.

Which of the following statements is true?
A. Objective journalism is based on communication of facts and fairness.

The Gazette of the United States was founded to promote the policies of President
E. George Washington.

One special contribution of Internet-based news is that it
A. provides the ordinary citizen with an opportunity to be part of the news system.

Which newspaper was the first to reduce the price of a daily copy to a penny?
C. New York Sun

Yellow journalism contributed to public support for the
A. Spanish-American War

________ once said, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."
C. William Randolph Hearst

The traditional media have "softened" their news by
B. infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like.

The Internet has
C. not been shown to strengthen the news-reading habits of Americans.

In the 1960s, presidential candidates
D. had longer sound bites, on average, in broadcast television newscasts.

Which of the following characteristics does the Internet have that traditional media lack?
B. the ability to allow readers to interact with news reporting

Which of the following statements has been shown by scholarly research to be true?
E. Network journalists tend to be negative.

On-the-scene coverage of a natural disaster is an example of the press's role of
B. signaler.

During what decade did the American news audience change from a growing to a shrinking one?
B. the 1980s

Among the following, the news media are usually guided by events that
A. are timely.

Historically, the American press has shifted from
A. a political to a journalistic orientation.

During the era of objective journalism, the commitment of newspapers to two-sided news reporting
A. did not extend to their editorializing.

Which of the following does NPR serve as an example of?
C. the one true success story of public broadcasting

The "long tail" is a phenomenon related to
C. the rate of Internet news readership.

Protest activity is a reversal of the pattern of voting in that it
C. is more likely to involve younger citizens rather than older ones.

African American men technically gained suffrage with the passage of the _____ Amendment.
A. Fifteenth

Literacy Test were used to
A. disenfranchise African Americans in the South.

Organizationally, the U.S. major parties are
decentralized and fragmented.

Early in the 2012 Republican presidential nominating race, some Super PAC televised ads were so untruthful that they were
C. Criticized even by the candidates they were intended to help.

The largest number of PACs are those associated with
C. Business

What technology led editors to substitute news reports for opinion commentary?
B. Telegraph

Which of the following broadcast news sources has seen its audience grow?

_____ once said, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."
C. William Randolph Hearst

The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has regulatory oversight over which of the following?
A. Radio

The term "framing" is used to describe
B. the process of selecting certain aspects of reality and making them the most salient part of the communication, thereby conveying a particular interpretation of a situation.

How has the Internet affected the watchdog capacity of the media?
It has expanded the watchdog capacity of the media.

The yellow journalism of the late nineteenth century was characterized by
the emphasis on sensationalism as a way of selling newspapers.

Agenda setting is an action that falls under which of the major roles played by the press?

The Federal Communications Commission
regulates the ownership of radio and television stations.
ensures that television news is unbiased.
develops the technology used by radio, television, and the Internet.
All the answers are correct.

Which of the following best describes the function of media as a watchdog?
exposing officials who violate accepted legal, ethical, or performance standards

Which of the following best describes a system in which people's media exposure is largely within their control?
high choice media

What is a consequence of the elimination of the Fairness Doctrine?
Numerous radio stations switched from playing music to airing partisan talk shows.

Assume that the traditional broadcast television network in the United States introduces a prime-time show that broadcasts programs primarily focusing on investigative journalism. The program aims to expose corrupt government personnel involved in scandalous activities and seeks to uncover hidden evidence. Based on these activities, the television channel is most likely performing the media function of a _____ in this fictitious scenario.

The information gap, which is a result of the high-choice media system in the United States, is widening because
today's news system makes it possible for people to avoid the news with ease.

Which category of smartphone access contains the most states?
No significant difference from average

Income and wealth affect individuals' access to high-speed Internet service

During the enactment of an important law concerning climate-change mitigation in the United States, the country's newspapers and the television networks focused on the consequences of implementing the law. They gave media coverage to some of the eminent environmentalists of the country through the broadcast of several debates and discussions on this issue during prime time. This fictitious scenario exemplifies the role of the media primarily in
agenda setting

What is a more likely outcome of party polarization?
It would tend to push people toward more extreme opinions.

The media are a variety of tools used to store and broadcast what?

Sociological stimuli are typically used in what media process?