Add-on
Software that is added on to an existing application to provide additional features to that program. Also called plug-in.

Address bar
Feature in all browsers that displays the URL to let you know where you are on the Web. You can also enter the URL of the Web page you want to go to into the address bar.

Aggregate site
Web sites that specialize in collecting and organizing data from other consumer Web sites.

Animation
The appearance of movement or motion added to an object or text by displaying a sequence of still images, each with small changes from the previous image.

Application service provider (ASP)
An organization that provides software-based services over the Internet, whereas Internet service providers, or ISPs, provide access to the Internet.

App Tab
Browser feature that lets you pin a Web site's icon to a tab so the Web site is always available. The App Tab displays a blue highlight when the corresponding site changes.

Banner ad
An advertisement that appears in a separate window when you access a Web page, typically near the top or at the side or bottom margins.

Barcode
A printed code that looks like a series of stacked bars; used in stores and supermarkets to code items for pricing and inventory. Each bar has a number value.

Bitmap graphic
An image that consists of pixels, which lose quality when enlarged.

Blog
Short for Web log, a Web page listing journal entries that provide commentary and information, usually about a particular interest.

Bookmark
A saved shortcut to a Web page in a browser. Also called favorite.

Boolean operator
A word or symbol, such as AND, OR, +, or NOT, that identifies the relationship between keywords to create search criteria. Also called search operator.

Browser
An application that helps you access the Web and communicate and share information on it.

Business-to-business (B2B)
E-commerce model in which businesses provide goods, information and services to other businesses, examples include advertising, credit, recruiting, sales and marketing, technical support, and training.

Business-to-consumer (B2C)
E-commerce model in which businesses provide goods and services to consumers; the most widespread example is online shopping.

Click-through rate
The number of times Web site visitors click an ad to connect to an advertiser's site; determines fees charged to advertisers.

Client-side script
A type of script that runs on a local computer.

Cloud storage
A way of storing data remotely over the Internet. See also online storage.

Command-line user interface
A way that a computer presents information to users so that the users must type lines of commands to accomplish tasks. Also called command-line interface. See also Graphical user interface (GUI).

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
E-commerce model in which consumers provide goods and services to other consumers; the most widespread example of this is online auctions.

Content aggregator
Web site that gathers, organizes, and then distributes Web content. Subscribers choose the type of content they want, and updates are downloaded to them automatically.

Cookie
A text file that contains personal data such as your username, viewing preferences, and browsing history; used by a Web site to track your spending and browsing patterns, which can be a privacy concern.

Data type
In a database, used to defined fields, such as text, date, or number.

Database
A type of application software used to create and manage data, such as customer names and addresses. Also, a collection of data, often organized and stored electronically.

Digital certificate
A type of security measure used by secure Web sites to verify the identity of a person or an organization.

Digital coupon
A code that you enter to reduce the price of goods or services purchase when you check out and pay for the online purchases.

Digital gift certificate
A code that you enter or page that you can print that represents money you can use to make purchases. Also called digital gift card.

Digital wallet
Software that stores the payment information you enter when you finalize an online purchase. Also called electronic wallet.

Domain name
A character-based name for a Web site's Internet Protocol (IP) address, which you can enter in the Address bar of your browser to display the Web site; in an email address, the name of the email provider.

Domain name server
A computer or server that stores domain names on the Internet.

Domain Name System (DNS)
A worldwide database for all Internet domain names stored in many Internet locations on domain name servers, or DNS servers, typically associated with Internet service providers (ISPs).

Dynamic Web page
A Web page that uses a server-side script written in languages such as Perl, PHP, C, C++, C#, and Java to perform functions such as accepting data from fill-in forms, and then processing the data to generate a custom HTML document for the browser to display.

Dynamic Web publishing
A way to display data from a Web database by creating Web pages on demand, retrieving the most current data at the moment it is requested.

E-commerce
Refers to the purchase of physical products such as clothing and computers, intangible products such as music, and services such as education, over the Internet.

Electronic wallet
Software that stores and securely processes the financial information you enter when you finalize an online purchase. Also called digital wallet.

Encryption
A security method that scrambles or codes data as it is transmitted over a network or that makes digital content unreadable unless viewed with a valid encryption key or authorized hardware device.

Favorite
A saved shortcut to a Web page in a browser. Also called bookmark.

File-sharing site
A site such as YouTube or Flickr that lets you post and share photos, music, and other media.

Gesture
A motion made to enter a command.

Graphical user interface (GUI)
A presentation of computer data that you interact with by selecting icons, buttons, and other objects with a pointing device or your fingertip. See also Command-line interface.

Hacked
The state of a computer that has been taken over by an unauthorized user.

Helper application
Software added to a browser to extend its capabilities, such as working with additional file formats. Also called add-on, plug-in, or player.

History list
A saved list of the Web pages you visited during a period of time.

Hit
In a Web search, an item in the list of results returned by a search engine.

Home page
The first page displayed when a person visits a Web site. Also called start page.

HTML script
A series of program instructions that can be embedded directly into HTML code for a Web page or in a file referenced in HTML code that make Web pages interactive. Also called script.

HTML tag
Code that defines and determine how text and graphics will appear on Web pages.

Hyperlink
One or more words or graphics you can select to move from one Web page to another or from one part of a Web page to another. Also called link.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
A programming language used to create Web pages.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
A communications protocol that transports data over the Web.

Indexing utility
A part of search engine technology that receives data from a Web crawler and then compiles the collected data into an organized list of key words and URLs.

Internet
A collection of personal, local, regional, national, and international computer networks linked together to share data, graphics, audio, and video.

Internet of Things (IoT)
A network of smart home appliances that use embedded computers to reduce energy consumption and enhance daily living. Derives from a school of thought developed in 2009 with the basic premise that all objects can be tagged, tracked, and monitored through a local network, or across the Internet.

IP Address
A unique numeric address in the form 192.168.5.0 for IP4 addresses allocated to each network and device on the Internet; no two computers have same IP address. IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons.

Keyword
A word or phrase used to conduct a Web search.

Keyword stuffing
An unethical practice sometimes used by Web site operators to move their sites to the top of result lists by manipulating meta keywords.

Link
Words or graphics you can select to move from one Web page to another or from one part of a Web page to another. Also called hyperlink.

Meta keyword
A word or phrase entered into the header section of the Web page to help identify the page during a search.

Microbrowser
A browser specially designed for small screens; makes it possible to access Web pages on a mobile computing device.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
An asynchronous messaging service that lets you send pictures and short video clips along with text messages, which can be longer than the messages sent by SMS. See also Short Message Service (SMS).

Navigation bar
A feature in a browser window used to move from Web page to Web page, typically has Back, Forward, Refresh, and Stop buttons.

Near field communications (NFC)
A short-range wireless technology that works with smartphones and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. See also Radio frequency identification (RFID) tag.

Online game
A game played with others around the world through the Internet or Web sites; many gaming sites offer multiplayer gaming, which is another aspect of social networking.

Online storage
A place to save data and program files on servers accessed through the Internet. See also cloud storage.

Pharming
A Web site scam to obtain personal information in which a server is hacked and used to re-route traffic from what looks like a legitimate Web site to a fake Web site.

Phishing
A scam that uses email or social media try to trick a computer user into revealing personal information on the pretense of being the user's bank or other legitimate institution.

Pinch-to-zoom
A hardware feature that capitalizes on mobile device touch screens; lets you use two fingers to adjust the screen size by pinching your fingers together to shrink a page.

Plug-in
A component, such as Adobe Flash Player, added to a Web browser or other software to provide additional features. Also called add-on.

Podcast
A collection of audio files distributed on the Web.

Pop-up ad
An advertisement that appears when you access a Web page.

Pop-up blocking
A browser feature that prevents pop-up ads, or advertisements that appear when you access a Web page.

Privacy pane
In a browser, an area that displays information such as tracking data left by Web sites you visit so you can remove the data and protect your privacy.

Private browsing
A browser feature that lets you surf the Web without leaving history, temporary Internet files, or cookies that Web pages store on your computer's hard drive to identify you when you visit their site.

QR code
A unique graphic scanned to open a browser to view a URL, save a contact to the address book, or compose text messages; a QR code is a collection of rectangles arranged in a square. It can be found in magazines, on billboards, in packaging, on tags for products, and in digital form on Web sites.

Query processor
A part of the search engine that looks for search criteria in an indexed database and then displays the list of results as URLs with corresponding descriptive information.

Radio frequency identification (RFID)
A wireless technology used for tagging and tracking objects. A tag contains an antenna for transmitting data and a memory chip that stores data; it is a one-way system and works at distances of many feet and even at high speeds.

RSS feed
A service that delivers text, video, or graphics content you specify to your phone or desktop through the Internet.

Script
A series of program instructions that can be embedded directly into HTML code for a Web page or in a file referenced in HTML code that makes Web pages interactive. Also called HTML script.

Scripting
Writing or using small programs that enhance the Web experience and work across several Web pages in the same way.

Search engine
Software used by search sites to locate relevant Web pages by creating a simple query based on your search criteria and storing the collected data in a search database.

Search engine technology
Enables finding information on the Internet by letting you enter search criteria and then displaying results that match.

Search phrase
Two or more words used to conduct a Web search.

Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
A standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over the Internet; uses both encryption and digital certificates.

Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
A protocol used to make a secure connection to a computer; identified by the "https" prefix in a URL and often used by banks and retail stores.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Technology used to encrypt data that helps protect consumers and businesses from fraud and identity theft when conducting commerce on the Internet.

Server-side script
A small program that runs on a server rather than on your computer; accepts data from fill-in forms, and then processes the data and generates a custom HTML document for the browser to display as a Web page.

S-HTTP
Technology used to encrypt data and help protect consumers and businesses from fraud and identity theft when conducting commerce on the Internet.

Site Identity button
A browser feature whose color tells you how much identity information is available for the site.

Social networking
A form of social media that lets you share ideas, opinions, photos, videos, and Web sites; examples include Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+, and MySpace.

Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software that is purchased as a subscription, rather than purchased once.

Start page
The page that appears when you open a browser. Also called home page.

Static Web publishing
A way to display data from a Web database using the database's report utility to convert a database report into an HTML document that a browser can display; the HTML document is a snapshot of the data—it's fixed and cannot be changed.

Streaming
A method by which a server transmits a small segment of a media file which begins to play while the server sends the next segment. See also Streaming video.

Streaming video
A technology that transfers a segment of a video file from the Web to your computer, letting that segment play while the next segment is being sent.

Sync feature
A software feature that connects your PC and mobile devices so you can access your browsing history, passwords, and bookmarks on all your devices.

Tabbed browsing
A browser feature that allows access to several Web pages in the same browser window by providing distinct tabs.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The letters following the dot in a domain name when you visit a Web site identifying the type of site; examples include .com, .org, or .edu.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Technology used to encrypt data that helps protect consumers and businesses from fraud and identity theft when conducting commerce on the Internet.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
The unique address for each Web page, allowing it to be found by any browser on the Internet.

Vector graphic
An electronic image created by mathematical formulas instead of pixels.

Virtual keyboard
A keyboard that appears onscreen as a touch screen or clickable keyboard to let you enter text without leaving the page you are viewing.

VoiceOver
An Apple product that describes aloud what appears on the screen and reads the text and links of Web sites, making the Web accessible to people with visual impairments.

Web
A huge collection of interconnected documents that is part of the Internet, as are many other data services, including Voice over IP, global positioning systems, and media-delivery services.

Web application (Web app)
A program that resides on a server on the Internet, rather than a user's device, and is run through a Web browser. See also Native app.

Web crawler
An automated program in a search engine that uses hyperlinks to jump between Web pages, collecting data about each page as it goes; Web crawlers can reach millions of Web pages each day. Also called spider program.

Web master
A person who maintains a Web site and can manually submit URLs to a search engine.

Web page
An HTML document on the Web that contains text, graphics, sound, video, and links to other Web pages.

Web site
A group of Web pages organized for a particular business, organization, or interest.

Wiki
A collaborative Web site where groups can modify content on a Web page and then publish it.

Wildcard character
A symbol or character such as the asterisk added to a keyword or phrase to search for derivations of a word.

World Wide Web
The part of the Internet that contains Web pages.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
One of the leading organizations that set guidelines for the Web and that work together to write Web standards.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
A programming language that provides a way to classify the contents of the Web page, making it easier to organize.

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