One of the newer automated systems that have been implemented is BASIS (integrated automated fingerprint identification system). This system is maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) criminal Justice information service (ISIS) division. This system provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic storage, and the exchange of fingerprints and responses 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. When agencies submit fingerprints electronically, they will receive ten-print conformation within two hours, and within 24 hours civil fingerprint submission (N.
A. Police One. Com 2009). AFFIX systems revolutionized sate identification bureaus by removing paper file and digitizing the fingerprint card that was previously a paper file. State agencies could Justify purchasing AFFIX systems by showing cost-benefit analyses to automation by reducing clerical personnel that previously had to maintain and hard file fingerprint cards (Moses, 20011). County and local Jurisdictions were not able to benefit economically as well as the state systems.
Pre-AFFIX personnel levels were lower and were controlled more of the demands of the booking process. AFFIX generally increased staffing demands on the latent and crime-scene processing side due to more accuracy and productivity. This cost could be Justified to local governments by showing the potential of the system in solving crimes (Moses, 2011). The AFFIX system is composed of two independent subsystems. The tenpin criminal identification subsystem, and the latent criminal investigation subsystem.
Both systems operate with considerable amount of autonomy and are both an asset to public safety. The tenpin subsystem is used to identify sets of inked or lifespan engineering due to an arrest or citation or as part of an application to determine criminal history (Moses, 2011). The automated tenpin inquiry normally requires a minutiae search of only index finger or thumb. Most submitted fingerprints have sufficient clarity and detail to make searching of more than two fingers unnecessary. AFFIX system can often search millions of records in under a minute (Moses, 2001).
Latent prints or criminal identification subsystem identifies latent prints developed at a crime scene that is usually physical evidence. Terminals identified for this use are often specialized to accommodate the capture and digital enhancement of individuals latent prints. The process in identifying latent prints is more tedious and time consuming then the tenpin search. Most of the time the latent print is fragmentary or a poor image quality (Moses, 2011). Modern technology has developed a new process of identifying individuals called iris recognition.
This process is relatively young and the existing in patent only since 1994. With the entire biometric devices available today iris recognition is considered the most accurate (N. A. Whom. Mediocrities. Com). To better understand the way this process works one must identify what the iris is. The iris is a muscle within the eye that regulates the size of the pupil, controlling the amount of light that enters the eye. This part is the that is colored in portion of the eye. Coloring is genetically linked the detail patterns are not.
The iris will develop during prenatal growth through a process of tight forming and folding of the tissues membrane. Prior to ones birth, degeneration occurs, resulting in the pupil opening and the random, unique patterns of the iris. Although genetically identical, and individuals rides are unique and structurally distinct, which allows for it to be used for recognition purposes (N. A. Wry. Belletristic. Com). The iris recognition process is rarely impede by glasses or contact lenses and can be scanned form Com to few meters away.
The iris remains stable over time as long as there are no injuries and single enrolment scan can last a lifetime. Some might think that medical and surgical procedures would affect the overall shape and color of the iris, this is true, but the fine texture will remain the name over many decades. This technology is pattern dependent and sight does not affect the outcome of the scan, the technology can even be used on blind individuals (N. A. Wry. Bioinformatics. Com). The federal government has awarded grants through the U. S.
Justice department to fund National Sheriffs Association to award 45 agencies across the county to create a national database that better identifies and tracks inmates. Iris scan has proven to be effect and efficient for this purpose. This process will be able to identify offenders during the intake process and store it in a database, so when an offender is released information can return to the releasing agency within 15 seconds. This process will eliminate Jails from releasing the wrong inmate (N. A Associated Press 2010).
Some of the disadvantages of the iris scan is creating is privacy concerns. Individuals can be identified at a distance and without knowledge and you would be able to track that individual anywhere there' camera and access to the internet. Several correctional facilities are using this technology for testing purposes to develop new technology for the use in the public. The process of iris scanning is quick and the iris contains about six times more features than a fingerprint (N. A Associated Press 2010).
The overall negative affect that new technology brings to the criminal Justice system is the rights of individuals and are they being violated. Everyone is protected by the constitution and new technology brings a test to the laws that are in place. Privacy is the main concern that organizations such as the UCLA has against modern technology that they feel evades an individual right. In comparison of the two new databases that have been mentions this author feels that AFFIX is more compatible and accessible.
AFFIX is been in use longer then iris recognition and more agency have the information databases in place and equipment to use. AFFIX is easier to utilize then the traditional ink fingerprint cards. AFFIX system eliminates the need for storage and filing of hard copies. Iris recognition since new will eventually be used as technology develops Just as much as the AFFIX system. With time, the cost for this technology will also decrease and be more cost efficient for law enforcement agencies. References (2008, March 1).