E&K chp 5
Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
social cognitive theory
nonoccurrence of expected consequences, reciprocal causation, and vicarious learning
modeling (direct, symbolic, or synthesized)
Lemov chp 6
Setting and Maintaining High Behavioral Expectations
What to do
Strong Voice
Do it Again
Sweat the Details
No Warnings
E&K chp 10
Classroom Management: Developing Self-Regulated Learners
promote student self-regulation
communities of caring and trust and students feel safe to share
time available for learning is maximized
middle school- influenced by peers, needs for social acceptance, independence increases (treat students positively, firm hand and caring, set clear limits)
high school- communicate at adult level, respond well to clear rationales
parents- early communication and maintain links
homeschool- increases achievement, willingness to do hw, improves attitudes and behaviors, increases attendance and grad rates
cognitive learning theory-experiences make sense
praising desired behavior
E&K chp 6
Motivation and Learning
behaviorism-increase in behavior=learning and motivation
cognitive theories-learner's beliefs, expectations, desire to make sense of experiences
sociocultural-indiv participating in learning communities
humanistic-ppl are motivated to fulfill their total potential as human beings
self determination theory-competence, autonomy, and self esteem
self worth theory- protect sense of self worth
fixed vs growth mindset and high vs low efficacy
use concrete and personalized examples, emphasize real world applications, promote high levels of student involvement in activities
capitalize on emotions
clarify and specify expectations about learning and assessment, promote understanding, provide students with opportunities to receive outside help
Dweck "Even Geniuses Work Hard"
fixed mindset and growth mindset
emphasize challenge not success
give a sense of progress
grade for growth
meaningful work-praise learning process and highlight progress and effort
Dweck "The Perils and Promise of Praise"
praising intelligence builds confidence and motivation
inherent intelligence is major cause of achievement
fixed and growth mindset
praise for intelligence puts students in fixed mindset
praise for effort puts them in growth mindset
brain is like a muscle and always forms new connections
keep focused on process of achievement
E&K chp 7
A Classroom Model for Promoting Student Motivation
mastery focused classrooms- emphasize effort and increased understanding (increase motivation)
modeling courtesy and respect
communicating genuine interest and enthusiasm
personal time and respect
high standards
safe, secure, orderly environments that focus on learning
meeting challenges increases motivation
understand what they're expected to learn and why
begin lessons with examples, activities or questions that attract attention and provide frameworks
make content personally relevant and keep involved
provide feedback about learning progress
Dembo and Eaton "School Learning and Motivation"
skill, will, and self-regulation
social and cultural contextual factors
classroom contextual factors
internal factors
socially negotiated (what's appropriate)
socially distributed (human interaction)
context specific (learning and motivation are social activities understood within a given cultural setting)
TARGET (task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, time)
mediator of learning
provoke curiosity
get attention
increase involvement in learning
cooperative learning
Lemov chp 4
Engaging Students in Your Lessons
Cold Call
Call and Response
Wait Time
Everybody Writes
Dawson "Lazy-or Not?"
executive skills-processes required to plan and organize activities
adjust classroom environment
response to intervention (RTI model)
establish routines, make rules, fun activities (Tier 1)
weekly progress reports, work with parents, coaching (Tier 2)
individual support plan (Tier 3)
Lemov chp 10-11
How all Teachers can (and Must) be Reading Teachers
decoding, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension
control the game
keep durations unpredictable
keep identity of next reader unpredictable
keep durations short
The Fundamentals
DeCapua and Marshall "SLIFE in US Classrooms"
close, ongoing monitoring, coordination, cooperation and planning, development of close ties, ample professional development opportunities
cultural content not factors
Low context vs high context
items derive meaning by how they relate to or contextualize one another
cultural dissonance
culture is instrumental in shaping how one views and interprets the world
learning has immediate relevance for SLIFE
learning is part of one's relationship to others
learning is accomplished through sharing among SLIFE
learning is an oral process
learning is experiential
Lewis-Moreno "Shared Responsibility..."
assets not liabilities
take initiative to learn how to address needs of diverse learners
place in AP courses in native language (grade level literacy and critical thinking to apply to English)
summer enrichment programs
reading partner program
scaffolding instruction
focused, supportive feedback
explicit mediation
collab b/w teachers
determine what students know
Lemov chp 12
focal points
during reading
lower the level
evidence based questioning
post reading
text to text
text to world
text to self
figuring out and inferring
Dong "Learning to Think in English"
background knowledge, scaffolding, and providing opportunities
higher order thinking skills
integrate literacy and critical thinking
broadened questions to connect with world around them
encourage curiosity and created a safe environment
make learners responsible for forming questions
more willing to admit confusion
question-seeking routine
place student voice at center of discussion
provide context
Berg, Petron and Greybeck "Setting the Foundation for Working with ELL"
stages-silent, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency
understand academic background
make instruction meaningful
make instruction culturally responsive
foster peer interaction
language use
make written materials comprehensible
focus on content, not form
Kieffer, Lesaux "Active Word Learning for ELL"
word structure
academic language
explicit instruction
Jacobson, Lapp and Flood "7 step plan for teaching ELL"
homophones, homonyms, homographs
introduction of words and word families
foundation of knowledge and set of procedures
read or listen to story
define and visualize words through illustrations
identify grammatical structure of each word
categorize words grammatically
analyze word meanings to complete sentences through completion of a cloze activity
produce a skit, pantomime or visual for individual sentences
determine word meaning
Pascopella "Successful Strategies for ELL"
dual language
sheltered english
structured english immersion