The Code of Hammurabi
1. Name: The Code of Hammurabi
2. Who Wrote: Hammurabi
3. When/Where: 1792-1750BCE; Society of Mesopotamia
4. Summary: The Code of Hammurabi is not the earliest Mesopotamian law code, but it is the most complete one. It emphasizes on the principle of Retribution ("an eye for an eye") and punishments that vary depending on social status.
EX: If a free man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye.
IF he has destroyed the eye of a commoner or broke the bone of a commoner, he shall pay one mina of silver
Social Classes in Ancient India
1. Name: The Law of Manu
2. Who Wrote: India's mythical founding ruler Manu
3. When/Where: first or second BCE; Ancient India
4. Summary: The Creator of the Universe assigns separate duties to the classes that sprung from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. He gave teaching, studying, performing sacrificial rites to the Brahmins. He gave protection of the people, giving away of wealth, study, and non attachment to sensual pleasures to the kshatriya. He game the tending of cattle, trade and commerce, and agriculture to the vaisya. The Lord only gives one occupation to the sudra which is karma. Out of all the beings, the Brahmins are declared the best. Dharma is the best (twice born).
A Debate Over Good and Evil: Book of Mencius & Book of Xunzi
1. Name: The Book of Mencius & the Book of Xuni
2. Who Wrote: Mencius & Xunzi
3. When/Where: During the Later part of the Zhou Dynasty
4. Summary: The Book of Mencius, the great humanitarian Mencius, states that human nature was essentially good. The Book of Xunzi, states the opposite that evil is inherent in human nature and could be eradicated only by rigorous training at the hands of an instructor. His views later adopted by Legalist philosophers.
Women in Athens and Sparta
1. Name: Women in Athens and Sparta
2. Who Wrote: Xenophon, Aristotle, Plutarch
3. When/Where: Classical Athens
4. Summary:
- Xenophon, Oeconomicus- believes male and female in perfect partnership, joined in wedlock to produce children, Children support them in old age, and need shelter. Mans body made to handle more than a womans body to stay inside.
- Xenophon, Constitution of the Spartans- Girls having children are brought up well nourished and not allowed wine, only if well diluted. Physical training for the woman is no different than the mans'. Both parents strong=children more robust.
- Aristotle, Politics- 2/5 of country in woman hands while Spartan men away fighting.
- Plutarch, Lycurgus- Exercised the girls bodies with racing and wresting so that the embryos formed would have a strong start and develop better. Cope well with childbirth. Nudity was also not looked bad upon women.
Cincinnatus Saves Rome: A Roman Morality Tale
1. Name: Livy, The Early History of Rome
2. Who Wrote: Livy
3. When/Where: 457 BCE; Rome
4. Summary: Rome put all of her hope in Cincinnatus, he was not of high status, he worked on a little three-acre farm west of the Tiber. A mission from the city found him working on his land. He was asked with a prayer for divine blessing on himself and the country- to put his toga on and listen to his instructions. He told his wife Racilla, was met by his 3 boys and friends, family, senators to see him off as the new Dictator. Raised an army, marched out and defeated Aequi. He resigned after holding office for 15 days even though he signed for 6 months. (Asking someone to be dictator was a temporary expedient used only in emergencies!)
The Destruction of Carthage: Appian: Roman History
1. Name: Appian, Roman History
2. Who Wrote: Appian of Alexandria
3. When/Where: 149-146 BCE; Carthage
4. Summary: Soldiers pulled buildings down all together. The living and the dead were swept into holes with the rest of the destruction and some crushed skulls by horses ---neither done on purpose but in the press of war and confusion. This went on for 6 days and nights. Scipio is said to have shed tears while looking at the once great city.
The Achievements of Augustus: Augustus: Res Gestae
1. Name: Augustus, Res Gestae
2. Who Wrote: Augustus
3. When/Where:
4. Summary: It summarizes his accomplishments in three major areas: his offices, his private expenditures on behalf of the state, and his exploits in war and peace, although factual-highly subjective.
-EX: dictatorship was offered to him by the people and senate and refused to accept. He added Egypt to the empire of the Roman people. He brought peace to the sea by suppressing pirates.