I would also Like to express my gratefulness to all those students of North South university who were kind enough to fill up my questionnaires used for primary research, and my family and friends who have helped me complete this research. ABSTRACT In my research paper titled "Public surveillance Technology: way to make our city safer or Just to invade our privacy", I was trying to get the general feeling people had toward the issue of surveillance technology and whether it is being adequately used to protect the people from any unfair means or to hamper the privacy of normal people.
I was trying to prove that public surveillance technology is not used for the safety of our society only; It can be used for atrocious reasons also. To test my hypothesis, I used both primary and secondary research methods. For my primary method, I made a questionnaire with 12 questions composed of 4 Multiple Choice Questions, 1 Open Ended Questions, 6 Close Ended Questions and 1 continuum question. I distributed these questionnaires to a sample size of 30 and after collecting and analyzing the data, presented my findings.
For my secondary research, I only browsed the web for information, where It was relatively abundant. I found that both the primary and secondary research fledglings backed up my hypothesis thus * Backgrounds and rationale Personal privacy is the foundation of all freedom. - Paul A. Strongman The topic on which I conducted my research is "Public Surveillance Technology: Way to make our city safer or Just to invade our privacy'. As we all know, public surveillance technology has grown in leaps and bounds in the last few years and it has now transitioned from Just a precaution to a necessity.
Public surveillance technology is vast. Computer surveillance, Telephones, Surveillance cameras, Social outwork analysis, Biometric surveillance, Aerial surveillance etc are part of the technology. In November of 1919, the new Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began a nationwide surveillance and dragnet against suspected communists and anarchists, known as the Palmer Raids. By January 20, 1920, some 4,000 people in 33 cities had been arrested, of whom 600 were eventually deported. The first CATV system was installed in Pendulum, Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets.
The noted German engineer Walter Burch was responsible for the design and installation of the system. The use of CATV later on became very common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. Along with time, it grew up to be a weapon to hamper privacy of general people. Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups oppose surveillance as a violation of people's right to privacy. * Hypothesis My hypothesis is that though public surveillance technology was made with an intention to protecting general people, it is now being used in interfering people's privacy. Significance of study I believe that my research topic is relatively unknown to general people and is selected by most. My research has shed some light on the existing condition of public surveillance technology contributions and its effect on our society. In my survey I tried to show what people think of its use all over our head all the time. My research shows what has been done, how it is being used and what can be done to better understand its position and what steps can be taken to ensure its proper use. * Methodology 1 .
Primary Research: For my primary research I prepared a questionnaire with 12 questions so that they would not only get me relevant information for my research UT also keep the respondents interested enough to finish filling out the questionnaire. The sample size allocated was 30 people, and the sample selected were senior students from North South University who took my survey seriously. I surveyed each sample one at a time and was beside everyone while that person was filling out my questionnaire so that I could explain if anyone had any problem understanding the questions.
After collecting the questionnaire I analyzed them and converted the data into bar graphs and pie charts to illustrate my findings 2. Secondary Research: I focused only on the internet as my secondary research tool as to enough information is present in the form of books, newspapers etc. Even though information on my topic is available widely in web, I focused on whatever I could find that was even slightly relevant. * Review of literature I found online articles that were very much relevant for my research.
I used information from two secondary sources from the internet. These were web articles written by renowned authors regarding the issue of surveillance technology. 'Public and Private Applications of Video Surveillance and Biometric Technologies' Author: Marcus Unite Kimberly Johnston-Odds and Charlene Wear Simmons A secondary source from the internet that helped me in this research is a web article called 'Public and Private Applications of Video Surveillance and Biometric Technologies' by Marcus Unite Kimberly Johnston-Odds and Charlene Wear Simmons.
According to Johnston-Odds and Simmons (2002),"Businesses such as banks were early adopters of CATV for crime detection and prevention purposes. It is found that an increasing number of cities, schools and residential districts were deploying CATV systems. Many educational institutes installed CATV systems in response to violent outbreaks. Now new CATV technological features and an urgent need for enhanced public security are leading to a rapidly expanding use of CATV and a related technology, biometrics. L (p. 7) Most public and business-related CATV video surveillance systems are actively monitored by security personnel in a centralized setting, remotely monitored, monitored over the Internet through video streaming, or passively taped for future viewing if needed (such as in the event of a bank robbery). Law enforcement uses surveillance to gather evidence about suspects. This is facilitated by advances in technologies. But these advances also rate new dilemmas for privacy and its regulation and protection.
In the article also Johnston-Odds and Simmons (2002) explained what happens to all the recorded activity? In the case of an arrest based on recorded criminal activity, the answer is relatively clear. The video provides an officer with probable cause to arrest the recorded individual. However, there are many cases in which the recorded evidence is not straightforward and no arrest is made. They also raised questions like should the recording be kept? Who will have access to it? Where will the film be stored? What can it be used for?
Can surveillance cameras be used to follow suspicious persons, as they engage in lawful acts and contacts, compiling a dossier of film on the way? Many of these questions were not addressed prior to the installation of public CATV evolve, these issues are generating public debate and are being considered by the courts and legislative bodies. * Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control Author: Mum-Choc Kim Core University Mum-Choc Kim explained that surveillance technology is no doubt a gift from science for security, well-being, competitiveness, efficiency, management, amusement, Justice, quality of life, etc.
In recent times, many advanced forms of physical surveillance have been available, such as the telescope, camera, telephoto lens, auto recording and directional microphone. The development of surveillance technology has continued. According to Kim "One of the important sociological questions about technology and society is how, and to what extent, technology affects our society.
Despite popular enthusiasm for the recent accomplishments of new information technology (IT), many researchers have expressed skepticism concerning the perfect image of the information society and pointed out the potential dangers that are expected to result from this 'information revolution'2. She explained that advances in surveillance technology have led to ever more pervasive intrusion into our private lives; hidden cameras in bathrooms, the explosion of random urinalysis by companies and schools, and parents and spouses installing surveillance tools at home to monitor family members. Definition of key terms Surveillance: Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting Public surveillance technology: Technology that is used by overspent and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. Closed-circuit television (CATV): Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. Limitation Of study The major constraint that I faced while doing this research had been the time constraint. A span of two months is never adequate to conduct a research on a topic as vast and diverse as this is. As a result I couldn't make the sample size large enough, couldn't go to people whose opinions would have been more valuable and also couldn't compare data in a more substantial manner. People, in many instances, were not willing to answer the open ended question. Survey and Findings Case studies articles written by renowned authors regarding the issue of religious extremism in Bangladesh.
Both the articles provided similar kind of information. The articles state that public surveillance technology is being used for our safety for the last few decades. Its contribution cannot be said in few words. But it is now being used for many other reasons without the knowledge of the person who is associated with it. Questionnaire I made a questionnaire based on my research questions, and I had 30 copies of it filled up by NSA students and few people from other walks of life.
The questions along with graphical representations of the respondents' answers are presented below: Question 1 : Do you think public surveillance technology helps to increase security? Analysis: The figure shows that 100% respondent finds public surveillance technology a tool for protection while 0% thinks the opposite. The results can be interpreted to indicate that most people think it helps to increase security. Question 2: Did public surveillance technology ever hamper your privacy? Analysis: The figure shows that 86. 6% respondents say that they were never faced with a problem where they think their privacy was hampered by the surveillance technology. Question 3: Do you feel secured when you are surrounded by security cameras? Analysis: The figure shows that 76. 66% respondents feels secured and safe if they find security camera around them whereas 16. 66% do not feel safe and 6. 66% do not have specific answer. This suggests that most people find it safe to have security cameras around. Question 4: Will your decision to open an account in a bank affect if it does not have surveillance technology?
Place your importance that most closely reflects your view. Will matter Will not matter Analysis: The graph shows that according to the respondents 70% find it most important to have surveillance technology and to other 30% respondents the importance of it is less. So it can be said that for better protection surveillance technology is important in a bank for those who are willing to open a new account. Question 5: Does public surveillance technology play a role in the internet scandals? Expansible for some internet scandals whereas 16. 6% respondent does not hold surveillance technology responsible for any internet scandal. But 46. 66% respondents think that sometimes it is seen that this technology is used for negative usage. Question 6: Do you think criminals can be arrested with the help of surveillance technology? Analysis: The circle chart shows that 93. 33% respondents find criminals can be easily arrested with the help of surveillance technology. But 6. 66% think other way. According to them it does not ensure that criminals can be arrested with the help of this technology.
There are some other factors associated with it. Question 7: Does public surveillance technology have good legal standing? Analysis: The graph shows that 76. 66% respondents think that public surveillance technology can be a good legal piece of evidence but it depends on the information it is providing. 20% consider it a good legal standing whereas 3. 33% respondent do not find public surveillance technology a good source of evidence. Question 8: Do you think employee's unethical behavior can be detected using the surveillance Analysis: The graph shows that 63. 3% respondent think that employee's unethical behavior can be detected using surveillance technology in the work place. But 36. 66% think that it cannot be caught. The reason they think like that is the employees know where the technologies are used in the office and they are not likely going to get caught in those surveillance technologies. Question 9: As a customer of a clothing store do you feel comfortable with a CATV camera monitoring you? Analysis: The pie chart shows that 86. 6% respondent think that as a customer they are comfortable having a CATV camera monitoring them in a clothing store as long as the cameras are not in the changing room. Some rumors are heard about some famous clothing stores having CATV cameras in their changing room. 10% of the respondents have no problem with it. On the other hand, 3. 33% are not comfortable with a CATV camera monitoring them in a clothing store. Question 10: Is it acceptable for you to be treated equally with bank robbers or shoplifters by means of CATV? Analysis: The pie chart shows that 93. 3% respondent find it unacceptable to be treated equally with bank robbers or shoplifters by means of CATV. 3. 33% find it okay and other 3. 33% feels neither acceptable nor unacceptable. Information on a specific matter, who would you believe? Analysis: The circle graph shows that 90% respondent would believe the surveillance technology and 10% would believe human being if both was giving different information on a specific query. Human beings can lie where surveillance technology cannot but there can be flaw in the technology which can provide wrong information.
So, sometimes we might need to believe a human over the technology. Question 12: According to you, does public surveillance technology ensure safety or it invades privacy? Why? Analysis: This was an open ended question where exponents could write their personal opinions. Some people said that it ensures safety to the fullest and some said that they are hampering privacy of many. But most of the people said that public surveillance technology is used for both. It is us who make sure which should be used it for.
Findings After the primary and secondary data collection I came to the conclusion that Public Surveillance technology is as much curse as it is a gift to modern technology in security. It is also found that behind many internet scandals, surveillance technology is responsible for those. Many private scenes are captured using this technology thou the knowledge of the victim recording that person. Many people have said that they do not feel secured changing dresses in trial rooms of a clothing store as there have been many scandals spread out of females changing clothes in those trial rooms.
As many offices have this technology, the employees working there feel very insulted for that and it reduces the moral motivation of working. Conclusion and Recommendations The question we confront today is what limits there are upon this power of [Surveillance] technology to shrink the realm of guaranteed privacy. --Justice Antonio Scalia Having assessed all the primary and secondary data it is evident that public surveillance technology is bliss in the arena of security of the general people. But at the same time it is a curse.
The Information and footage that is acquired from this technology is being used in a way that violates human freedom. Public surveillance technology is a part of general people's life now. Almost in every business institutions, educational institutions, busy roads we can see public surveillance technology spreading its webs. But it cannot be a way to put people through unwanted or embarrassing situations. Recommendation Some recommendations to prevent invading others privacy using public surveillance technology can be: * Strict laws should exist for those who use others information and footage for misuse. If anyone doubts that there is a camera in private places like bathroom, that person can use his/her cell phone. By calling any number if that her. * One can secure his/her home and work computers. At minimum, he/she should make sure that he/she has a solid firewall. Also counter-surveillance applications can be used to identify and block Trojan and gallopers. * Always look up. Most hidden surveillance equipment is installed overhead to provide axiom field of vision. * Locate any suspiciously placed tinted glass or domes.
Most public surveillance equipment is protected behind tinted glass and installed in out-of-reach places.